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    ABSTRACT: Modern societies have reached a point where everyday life relies heavily on desired operation of critical infrastructures, in spite of accidental failures and/or deliberate attacks. The issue of desired performance operation of CIS at high security level receives considerable attention worldwide. The pioneering generic methodologies and methods are presented in the paper project for designing systems capable of achieving these objectives in the cost effective manner at existing CIS and also in the future. A control systems engineering approach to integrated monitoring, control and security of critical infrastructure systems (CIS) is applied. A multilayer structure for an intelligent autonomous reconfigurable agent operating within a single region of a CIS is derived first. Methods and algorithms for synthesising the layers are proposed so that the agent can autonomously perform required control activities under wide range of operating conditions. The required ability of the system to meet the desired operational objectives under a wide range of the operating conditions is achieved by supervised reconfiguration of the agents. Recently proposed robustly feasible model predictive control technology with soft switching mechanisms between different control strategies is applied to implement the soft and robustly feasible agent reconfiguration, which is adequate to current operational conditions. Next developing the multiagent structures, which are suitable for monitoring, control and security of an overall CIS is discussed. It is based on the distributed structuring the agent layers. The proposals are illustrated by applications to the integrated wastewater treatment case-study system and drinking water distribution system.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Annual Reviews in Control
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    ABSTRACT: Background Malignant brain tumors in children generally have a very poor prognosis when they relapse and improvements are required in their management. It can be difficult to accurately diagnose abnormalities detected during tumor surveillance, and new techniques are required to aid this process. This study investigates how metabolite profiles measured noninvasively by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at relapse reflect those at diagnosis and may be used in this monitoring process.Methods Single-voxel MRS (1.5 T, point-resolved spectroscopy, echo time 30 ms, repetition time 1500 ms was performed on 19 children with grades II-IV brain tumors during routine MRI scans prior to treatment for a suspected brain tumor and at suspected first relapse. MRS was analyzed using TARQUIN software to provide metabolite concentrations. Paired Student's t-tests were performed between metabolite profiles at diagnosis and at first relapse.ResultsThere was no significant difference (P > .05) in the level of any metabolite, lipid, or macromolecule from tumors prior to treatment and at first relapse. This was true for the whole group (n = 19), those with a local relapse (n = 12), and those with a distant relapse (n = 7). Lipids at 1.3 ppm were close to significance when comparing the level at diagnosis with that at distant first relapse (P = .07, 6.5 vs 12.9). In 5 cases the MRS indicative of tumor preceded a formal diagnosis of relapse.Conclusions Tumor metabolite profiles, measured by MRS, do not change greatly from diagnosis to first relapse, and this can aid the confirmation of the presence of tumor.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Neuro-Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The concept of common operational pictures (COPs) is explored through the application of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modelling to a generic search and rescue (SAR) scenario. Comparing the command structure that might arise from standard operating procedures with the sort of structure that might arise from examining information-in-common, using SNA, shows how one structure could be more amenable to 'command' with the other being more amenable to 'control' - which is potentially more suited to complex multi-agency operations. An agent-based model is developed to examine the impact of information sharing with different forms of COPs. It is shown that networks using common relevant operational pictures (which provide subsets of relevant information to groups of agents based on shared function) could result in better sharing of information and a more resilient structure than networks that use a COP. Practitioner summary: SNA and agent-based modelling are used to compare different forms of COPs for maritime SAR operations. Different forms of COP change the communications structures in the socio-technical systems in which they operate, which has implications for future design and development of a COP.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Ergonomics
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