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    ABSTRACT: Many people with Parkinson's disease suffer from disorders of speech. The most frequently reported speech problems are weak, hoarse, nasal or monotonous voice, imprecise articulation, slow or fast speech, difficulty starting speech, impaired stress or rhythm, stuttering and tremor. People with the condition also tend to give fewer non-verbal cues such as using facial expression to convey information. These disabilities tend to increase as the disease progresses and can lead to serious problems with communication. This review compares the benefits of one form of speech and language therapy (SLT) versus another for individuals with Parkinson's disease. Relevant trials were identified by electronic searches of 16 biomedical literature databases, various registers of clinical trials and examination of the reference lists of identified studies and other reviews. Only randomised controlled trials were included in this review. These are studies in which two groups of patients were compared, each group receiving a different form of SLT, with patients assigned to the groups in a random fashion to reduce potential for bias. Six trials were found with a total of 159 patients. Methods varied so much that meta-analysis of the results was not possible. Considering the small number of patients and the methodological flaws in these studies, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of one form of SLT over another for the treatment of speech problems in individuals with Parkinson's disease.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Cohrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Androgens play an important role in regulation of body fat distribution in humans. They exert direct effects on adipocyte differentiation in a depot-specific manner, via the androgen receptor (AR), leading to modulation of adipocyte size and fat compartment expansion. Androgens also impact directly on key adipocyte functions including insulin signaling, lipid metabolism, fatty acid uptake and adipokine production. Androgen excess and deficiency have implications for metabolic health in both males and females, and these metabolic effects may be mediated through adipose tissue via effects on fat distribution, adipocyte function and lipolysis. Research into the field of androgen metabolism in human and animal adipose tissue has produced inconsistent results; it is important to take into account the sex-, depot- and organism-specific effects of androgens in fat. In general, studies point towards a stimulatory effect on lipolysis, with impairment of adipocyte differentiation, insulin signaling and adipokine generation. Observed effects are frequently gender-specific. Adipose tissue is an important organ of pre-receptor androgen metabolism, through which local androgen availability is rigorously controlled. Adipose androgen exposure is tightly controlled by isoenzymes of AKR1C, 5α-reductase and others, but regulation of the balance between generation and irreversible inactivation remains poorly understood. In particular, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 are crucial in the regulation of local androgen bioavailability within adipose tissue. These isoforms control the balance between activation of androstenedione (A) to testosterone (T) by the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (17β-HSD) of AKR1C3, or inactivation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol by the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) activity of AKR1C2. Most studies suggest that androgen inactivation is the predominant reaction in fat, particularly in the abdominal subcutaneous (SC) depot. Modulation of local adipose androgen availability may afford future therapeutic options to improve metabolic phenotype in disorders of androgen excess and deficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
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    ABSTRACT: Adhesion of tumor cells to matrix components and endothelial cells is essential for tumor metastasis. Investigation of the adhesion molecules required and the signals which induce tumor cell adhesion and migration are crucial in order to increase our understanding of this process. This chapter describes protocols which may be used to study tumor cell adhesion to purified matrix elements and tissue sections. It also details methods used to investigate cell adhesion to endothelial cells, both under static and flow conditions. In addition, there is a section detailing the use of endothelial cell cultures on three-dimensional collagen gels which are useful when studying adhesion to endothelial cells and onward invasion through a protein matrix.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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