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Available from: Wei Wang
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Currently, many studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, tumorigenesis, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have been identified from various human and murine tumors. The identification of CSCs allows us to develop strategies to target the CSCs.
Methods and Results
In this study, we used ALDEFLUOR as a single marker to isolate the CSCs from the human lung cancer cell line H460. We then characterized the CSCs by testing their sphere formation ability and tumorigenicity. Furthermore, we used CSC lysate-pulsed dendritic cells to stimulate CD8+T cells as a treatment strategy. Our study demonstrated that ALDEFLUOR could be used as a single marker to identify CSCs from the human lung cancer cell line H460. The ALDHhigh cells could form more spheres and were more tumorigenic than the ALDHlow cells. Further study demonstrated that ALDHhigh-CD8+T cells conferred more significant antitumor effects, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival. And the ALDHhigh-CD8+T cells-mediated anti-tumor immunity might be due to the directly targeting against ALDHhigh cancer stem cells (CSCs).
This study shows that ALDHhigh-CD8+T cells mediate anti-tumor immunity by selectively targeting cancer stem cells, which result in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice, which provides a new strategy using ALDHhigh-CD8+T cells to treat tumors.
Available from: Jackie Blissett
Available from: Linda Wheeldon
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ABSTRACT: Two eye movement experiments tested the effect of orthographic and/or phonological overlap between prime and target words embedded in a sentence. In Experiment 1, four types of overlap were tested: phonological and orthographic overlap (O+P+) occurring word initially (strain–strait) or word finally (wings–kings), orthographic overlap alone (O+P−, bear–gear) and phonological overlap alone (O−P+, smile–aisle). Only O+P+ overlap resulted in inhibition, with the rhyming condition showing an immediate inhibition effect on the target word and the non-rhyming condition on the spillover region. No priming effects were found on any eye movement measure for the O+P− or the O−P+ conditions. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the size of this inhibition effect is affected by both the distance between the prime and target words and by syntactic structure. Inhibition was again observed when primes and targets appeared close together (approximately 3 words). In contrast, no inhibition was observed when the separation was nine words on average, with the prime and target either appearing in the same sentence or separated by a sentence break. However, when the target was delayed but still in the same sentence, the size of the inhibitory effect was affected by the participants’ level of reading comprehension. Skilled comprehenders were more negatively impacted by related primes than less skilled comprehenders. This suggests that good readers keep lexical representations active across larger chunks of text, and that they discard this activation at the end of the sentence. This pattern of results is difficult to accommodate in existing competition or episodic memory models of priming.
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