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    ABSTRACT: The effects of cryopreservation on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) phenotype are not well documented; however this process is of increasing importance for regenerative therapies. This study examined the effect of cryopreservation (10% dimethyl-sulfoxide) on the morphology, viability, gene-expression and relative proportion of MSC surface-markers on cells derived from rat adipose, bone marrow and dental pulp. Cryopreservation significantly reduced the number of viable cells in bone marrow and dental pulp cell populations but had no observable effect on adipose cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant increases in the relative expression of MSC surface-markers, CD90 and CD29/CD90 following cryopreservation. sqRT-PCR analysis of MSC gene-expression demonstrated increases in pluripotent markers for adipose and dental pulp, together with significant tissue-specific increases in CD44, CD73 and CD105 following cryopreservation. Cells isolated from different tissue sources did not respond equally to cryopreservation with adipose tissue representing a more robust source of MSCs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Cryobiology
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    ABSTRACT: Dental tissue infection and disease result in acute and chronic activation of the innate immune response, which is mediated by molecular and cellular signaling. Different cell types within the dentin-pulp complex are able to detect invading bacteria at all stages of the infection. Indeed, at relatively early disease stages, odontoblasts will respond to bacterial components, and as the disease progresses, core pulpal cells including fibroblasts, stems cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells will become involved. Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors expressed on these cell types, are responsible for detecting bacterial components, and their ligand binding leads to the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase intracellular signaling cascades. Subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor subunits from these pathways will lead to proinflammatory mediator expression, including increases in cytokines and chemokines, which trigger host cellular defense mechanisms. The complex molecular signaling will result in the recruitment of immune system cells targeted at combating the invading microbes; however, the trafficking and antibacterial activity of these cells can lead to collateral tissue damage. Recent evidence suggests that if inflammation is resolved relatively low levels of proinflammatory mediators may promote tissue repair, whereas if chronic inflammation ensues repair mechanisms become inhibited. Thus, the effects of mediators are temporal context dependent. Although containment and removal of the infection are keys to enable dental tissue repair, it is feasible that the development of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory approaches, based on molecular, epigenetic, and photobiomodulatory technologies, may also be beneficial for future endodontic treatments.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of endodontics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the interfurcal bone height in relation to the possible need for subsequent sinus floor elevation in patients with advanced periodontitis and furcation involvement of first and/or second maxillary molars. Seventeen dentate patients, who received cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for detailed preoperative diagnosis and planning of surgical interventions at periodontally involved maxillary molars (17 first and 15 second molars), were consecutively recruited for the study. The minimal bone height in the interfurcal region was measured from CBCT and related to furcation involvement, residual bone above the root tips, and the clinical probing pocket depth (PPD). The minimal interfurcal bone height measured 4.1 ± 2.6 mm on average with 75% of maxillary molars having ≤6 mm and almost 60% having only ≤4 mm bone height left below the sinus floor. A higher risk for reduced interfurcal bone height of ≤4 mm was given when residual PPD of ≥6 mm was remaining at two or more tooth sites (OR 0.10; 0.11). The majority of periodontally involved maxillary molars had a substantially reduced interfurcal bone height, particularly with at least two sites with residual PPD ≥ 6 mm. This was a predictor for a subsequent need for sinus floor elevation when tooth replacement with a dental implant is desired.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Clinical Oral Implants Research
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