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    ABSTRACT: The bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum produces acids as an energy-yielding process during exponential growth. An acidic environment, however, is toxic to the cells and two survival mechanisms are in place to prevent them from dying. Firstly, during a solventogenesis phase, the cells take up these acids and convert them to solvents, thus raising the environmental pH. Secondly, the cells undergo sporulation to form highly resistant spores capable of surviving extreme conditions. One possible regulatory mechanism for these processes is the accessory gene regulatory (agr) quorum-sensing system, which is thought to coordinate cell population density with cell phenotype. We model this system to monitor its putative e.ect upon solventogenesis and the sporulation-initiation network responsible for triggering spore formation. We demonstrate that a high population density should be able to induce both solventogenesis and sporulation, with variations to the parameter set allowing sporulation alone to be triggered; additional distinct signals are capable of restoring the solventogenic response. We compare the agr system of C. acetobutylicum with that of Staphylococcus aureus in order to investigate why the di.erences in feedback between the two systems may have evolved. Our findings indicate that, depending upon the mechanism of interaction between the agr system and the sporulation-initiation network, the clostridial agr circuitry may be in place either to moderate the number of spores that are formed (in order for this number to reflect the urgency of the situation), or simply as an energy-saving strategy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Mathematical biosciences
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    ABSTRACT: Three benchtop high-throughput sequencing instruments are now available. The 454 GS Junior (Roche), MiSeq (Illumina) and Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies) are laser-printer sized and offer modest set-up and running costs. Each instrument can generate data required for a draft bacterial genome sequence in days, making them attractive for identifying and characterizing pathogens in the clinical setting. We compared the performance of these instruments by sequencing an isolate of Escherichia coli O104:H4, which caused an outbreak of food poisoning in Germany in 2011. The MiSeq had the highest throughput per run (1.6 Gb/run, 60 Mb/h) and lowest error rates. The 454 GS Junior generated the longest reads (up to 600 bases) and most contiguous assemblies but had the lowest throughput (70 Mb/run, 9 Mb/h). Run in 100-bp mode, the Ion Torrent PGM had the highest throughput (80–100 Mb/h). Unlike the MiSeq, the Ion Torrent PGM and 454 GS Junior both produced homopolymer-associated indel errors (1.5 and 0.38 errors per 100 bases, respectively).
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Nature Biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing environmental mycobacterium commonly found in soil and water which is often also associated with infections in humans, particularly of the lung. We report herein the draft genome sequence of M. abscessus strain 47J26.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of bacteriology
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