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ABSTRACT: PURPOSEThe aims of this study were to quantify the prospects of salvage treatment of patients who did not undergo transplantation in first complete remission (CR1) and to assess the contribution of allograft in second complete remission (CR2) with respect to major risk groups. This evaluation can inform the decision whether to offer a transplant in CR1. PATIENTS AND METHODS Of 8,909 patients who entered the Medical Research Council AML10, AML12, and AML15 trials, 1,271 of 3,919 patients age 16 to 49 years who did not receive a transplant in CR1 relapsed. Of these patients, 19% are alive beyond 5 years compared with 7% of patients who relapsed after an allograft in CR1. Overall survival and the contribution of a transplant in CR2 were assessed overall and by cytogenetic risk group by using Mantel-Byar analysis. RESULTS: favorable (82%), intermediate (54%), adverse (27%), and unknown (53%), which resulted in 5-year survivals of 32%, 17%, 7%, and 23%, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of remitters received an allotransplant that delivered superior survival compared with patients who did not receive a stem-cell transplant (42% v 16%). A more-stringent assessment of a transplant by using delayed-entry (Mantel-Byar) analysis confirmed the benefit of transplant overall and within intermediate and adverse risk groups but not the favorable subgroup. CONCLUSION Successful salvage treatment of patients who do not undergo transplantation in CR1 and relapse can be achieved in 19% of patients, which is improved by a transplant except in favorable risk disease. This result suggests that, for intermediate-risk patients in particular, equivalent overall survival can be achieved by delaying transplantation until after relapse, which would require many fewer transplants.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy leads to end-stage renal disease in more than 20% of patients. Although immunosuppressive therapy benefits some patients, trial evidence for the subset of patients with declining renal function is not available. We aimed to assess whether immunosuppression preserves renal function in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy with declining renal function. METHODS: This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 37 renal units across the UK. We recruited patients (18-75 years) with biopsy-proven idiopathic membranous nephropathy, a plasma creatinine concentration of less than 300 μmol/L, and at least a 20% decline in excretory renal function measured in the 2 years before study entry, based on at least three measurements over a period of 3 months or longer. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by a random number table to receive supportive treatment only, supportive treatment plus 6 months of alternating cycles of prednisolone and chlorambucil, or supportive treatment plus 12 months of ciclosporin. The primary outcome was a further 20% decline in renal function from baseline, analysed by intention to treat. The trial is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number 99959692. FINDINGS: We randomly assigned 108 patients, 33 of whom received prednisolone and chlorambucil, 37 ciclosporin, and 38 supportive therapy alone. Two patients (one who received ciclosporin and one who received supportive therapy) were ineligible, so were not included in the intention-to-treat analysis, and 45 patients deviated from protocol before study end, mostly as a result of minor dose adjustments. Follow up was until primary endpoint or for minimum of 3 years if primary endpoint was not reached. Risk of further 20% decline in renal function was significantly lower in the prednisolone and chlorambucil group than in the supportive care group (19 [58%] of 33 patients reached endpoint vs 31 [84%] of 37, hazard ratio [HR] 0·44 [95% CI 0·24-0·78]; p=0·0042); risk did not differ between the ciclosporin (29 [81%] of 36) and supportive treatment only groups (HR 1·17 [0·70-1·95]; p=0·54), but did differ significantly across all three groups (p=0·003). Serious adverse events were frequent in all three groups but were higher in the prednisolone and chlorambucil group than in the supportive care only group (56 events vs 24 events; p=0·048). INTERPRETATION: For the subset of patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and deteriorating excretory renal function, 6 months' therapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil is the treatment approach best supported by our evidence. Ciclosporin should be avoided in this subset. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Novartis, Renal Association, Kidney Research UK.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effectiveness of transversus abdominis plane blocks in gynecological surgery by systematic review and meta-analysis. Embase, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL) bibliographic databases were searched using a Cochrane Library search strategy modified for gynecological surgery. We included randomized controlled trials comparing transversus abdominis plane block with no block or placebo block. We retrieved 681 citations from which we included five published studies (225 randomized participants) which fulfilled our inclusion criteria, and identified a further six ongoing studies. Quality was assessed across six risk of bias domains: randomization sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, missing outcome data, selective reporting and other biases. Data were meta-analyzed where possible and presented as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Study quality was moderate. Compared with no block or saline placebo, transversus abdominis plane block provided significantly less postoperative pain at rest on a 10cm visual analog scale at 2h (mean difference -2.14cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -3.57 to -0.71) but not at 24h postoperatively (-0.52cm, 95% CI -1.49 to 0.45). Pain on movement showed similar results. Transversus abdominis plane block resulted in significantly less postoperative requirement for morphine use at 24h (-11.76mg, 95% CI -18.77 to -4.75) but not at 48h (-16.01mg, 95% CI -39.40 to 7.39). Evidence exists for the short-term efficacy (within 24h) of transversus abdominis plane blocks during hysterectomy in terms of reported pain and morphine consumption, which may not be sustained at 48h. Updates to this review should be undertaken periodically, and until further robust evidence is available, anesthetists should not rush to adopt this procedure into routine practice.
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