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- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper details a comprehensive investigation into the surface integrity of Udimet 720 following end milling under different environment conditions (dry, flood, higher pressure and MQL) and cutting speed (25 and 50m/min). Surface roughness (Ra) was < 0.25μm regardless of tool condition with no white layers detected on any of the samples analysed. Residual stress measurements indicated surface compressive stress of 120MPa on workpieces milled using new cutters under MQL environment. In contrast, worn tools produced surface tensile stresses of ∼80MPa, with subsurface compressive residual stress of up to ∼400MPa at a depth of 80μm.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Energy is a vital resource in modern life. With increasingly limited availability of traditional energy resources, e.g., oil, coal and nuclear, together with environmental concerns, there is raised awareness that energy needs to be both used more efficiently and generated in line with thinking on sustainability. Ready access to ‘clean’ energy is essential if we wish to maintain our current way of life without compromising our wellbeing or the carrying capacity of the planet. This paper aims to analyse the differences and similarities in energy supply and demand between two very different cities. Masdar City, founded in 2008, is a dynamic new Middle-Eastern city being built in a desert environment. Its aim is to be the most sustainable city in the world and offers an exciting opportunity to provide unique insights into the application of different innovative technologies as ‘new-build’ within an urban environment. Birmingham is a well-established post-industrial city that has evolved over fourteen hundred years. It was one of the fastest growing cities in 19th century England (Popp and Wilson, 2009) . To do this a material flow analysis approach has been adopted to provide a framework for the study. The energy-related opportunities and mutual benefits that each city can gain from the experiences of the other are explored and five emergent issues are identified: innovation and experimentation, lock-in, balance, resilience and governance. This work shows how a greater understanding of common issues can lead to more sustainable, resilient and robust cities, able to face the challenges of the next 50 years.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Administration of high ratios of plasma to packed red blood cells is a routine practice for in-hospital trauma resuscitation. Military and civilian emergency teams are increasingly carrying prehospital blood products (PHBP) for trauma resuscitation. This study systematically reviewed the clinical literature to determine the extent to which the available evidence supports this practice. Methods: Bibliographic databases and other sources were searched to July 2015 using keywords and index terms related to the intervention, setting, and condition. Standard systematic review methodology aimed at minimizing bias was used for study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (protocol registration PROSPERO: CRD42014013794). Synthesis was mainly narrative with random effects model meta-analysis limited to mortality outcomes. Results: No prospective comparative or randomized studies were identified. Sixteen case series and 11 comparative studies were included in the review. Seven studies included mixed populations of trauma and non-trauma patients. Twenty-five of 27 studies provided only very low quality evidence. No association between PHBP and survival was found (OR for mortality: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.84–1.96, P = 0.24). A single study showed improved survival in the first 24 h. No consistent physiological or biochemical benefit was identified, nor was there evidence of reduced in-hospital transfusion requirements. Transfusion reactions were rare, suggesting the short-term safety of PHBP administration. Conclusions: While PHBP resuscitation appears logical, the clinical literature is limited, provides only poor quality evidence, and does not demonstrate improved outcomes. No conclusions as to efficacy can be drawn. The results of randomized controlled trials are awaited.
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