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ABSTRACT: This study tested the habit discontinuity hypothesis, which states that behaviour change interventions are more effective when delivered in the context of life course changes. The assumption was that when habits are (temporarily) disturbed, people are more sensitive to new information and adopt a mind-set that is conducive to behaviour change. A field experiment was conducted among 800 participants, who received either an intervention promoting sustainable behaviours, or were in a no-intervention control condition. In both conditions half of the households had recently relocated, and were matched with households that had not relocated. Self-reported frequencies of twenty-five environment-related behaviours were assessed at baseline and eight weeks later. While controlling for past behaviour, habit strength, intentions, perceived control, biospheric values, personal norms, and personal involvement, the intervention was more effective among recently relocated participants. The results also suggested that the duration of the ‘window of opportunity’ was three months after relocation.
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ABSTRACT: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc-dependent dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase with an essential role in blood pressure homeostasis in mammals. ACE has long been targeted in the treatment of hypertension through ACE inhibitors, however current inhibitors are known to cause severe side effects. Therefore, there is a requirement for a new generation of ACE inhibitors and structural information will be invaluable in their development. ACE is a challenging enzyme to work with due to its extensive glycosylation. As such, the Drosophila melanogaster ACE homologue, AnCE, which shares ∼60% sequence similarity with human ACE, can be used as a model for studying inhibitor binding. The presence of ligands originating from the crystallisation condition at the AnCE active site has proved an obstacle to studying the binding of new inhibitor precursors. Here we present the crystal structure of AnCE (in a new crystal form) at 1.85 Å resolution, using crystals grown under different conditions. This new structure may be more suitable for studying the binding of new compounds, with the potential of developing a new generation of improved ACE inhibitors.
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ABSTRACT: Aim/hypothesis: The etiology of plantar fasciitis (PF) has been related to several risk factors, but the magnitude of the plantar load is the most commonly described factor. Although PF is the third most-common injury in runners, only two studies have investigated this factor in runners, and their results are still inconclusive regarding the injury stage. Objective: Analyze and compare the plantar loads and vertical loading rate during running of runners in the acute stage of PF to those in the chronic stage of the injury in relation to healthy runners. Methods: Forty-five runners with unilateral PF (30 acute and 15 chronic) and 30 healthy control runners were evaluated while running at 12 km/h for 40 meters wearing standardized running shoes and Pedar-X insoles. The contact area and time, maximum force, and force-time integral over the rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot were recorded and the loading rate (20-80% of the first vertical peak) was calculated. Groups were compared by ANOVAs (p<0.05). Results: Maximum force and force-time integral over the rearfoot and the loading rate was higher in runners with PF (acute and chronic) compared with controls (p<0.01). Runners with PF in the acute stage showed lower loading rate and maximum force over the rearfoot compared to runners in the chronic stage (p<0.01). Conclusion: Runners with PF showed different dynamic patterns of plantar loads during running over the rearfoot area depending on the injury stage (acute or chronic). In the acute stage of PF, runners presented lower loading rate and forces over the rearfoot, possibly due to dynamic mechanisms related to pain protection of the calcaneal area.
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