Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.
In the past decade, the release of various organic pollutants from industries and anthropogenic activities has jeopardized natural resources. The creation of numerous semiconductor heterojunctions exhibited long-standing popularity in the field of the photocatalysis process due to its great potential for the degradation of different organic pollutants, stimulating the development of numerous characterization techniques. However, there are a lot of reviews and research articles concentrating on the fabrication of varying semiconductor heterojunctions for environmental purification, but only a few published reviews discussed and summarized the comprehensive characterization techniques for such heterojunctions. Therefore, the main aims of this review are to discuss the most critical characteristics of semiconductor photocatalysts by summarizing the main characterization techniques, including the structure and chemical composition (XRD, FTIR, XPS, EDX, and Raman spectra), morphological properties (SEM, TEM, HRTEM, and BET), and optical and photoelectrochemical properties (DRS, EIS, PL, and the transient photocurrent responses). Furthermore, the practical applications of photocatalytic degradation using semiconductor heterojunctions were concisely reviewed using recently reported examples. This review article can assist students, physicists, and chemists choose the best characterization technique for investigating the fabricated semiconductor heterojunction and possibly other relevant materials. Finally, the future outlook has been drawn to address the obstacles and encourage further studies in this vital discipline.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic life-limiting disease of gastrointestinal tract characterized by widespread enteric inflammation. IBD is a multifactorial disease and different environmental, microbial, and immune-related factors give rise to the development of disease. Among several factors, the preponderance of pro-inflammatory T helper 17 cells over the anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells augments inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Prevailing evidence accentuates that PI3K signaling pathway plays a central role in the pathophysiology of the condition by regulating the inflammatory process in the gut mucosa. By recognizing the implications of PI3K in the pathogenesis of IBD, agents that could modulate this pathway have recently been at the focus of research, yielding encouraging results mainly in the experimental IBD models. In this review, we have summarized the recent advances, which may hold the keys to identify novel therapeutic strategies for IBD.
Investigation of mesomorphic properties of new 1,3,4-thiadiazolines (which are synthesised via many steps in Scheme 1) was carried out in this study. These compounds are designed to have a heterocyclic unit, a carboxylate linkage group and a polar ether chain at the end of the molecule adjacent to the benzene ring, which enhance the dipolar interactions forces (varied from one to eight carbons) to investigate the association properties of their phases. The structure of the target compounds and the intermediates were confirmed by ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR, mass and FTIR spectral techniques. Polarised microscopic studies revealed that all the compounds in the series exhibited enantiotropic liquid crystalline properties. This was further confirmed using differential scanning calorimetric experiments. The synthesised compounds type [V]n in this study displayed different liquid crystalline mesophases and the homologous [V] having an alkoxy terminal group (n = 1–3) exhibited nematic phase, whilst the last derivatives of the series (4–8), displayed smectic A phase.
In this study, toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were determined in the peripheral blood of 43 patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis and 41 age- and gender-matched controls. Serum TLR10 levels were assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. EBV DNA and viral load were detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay kit. Results revealed that median TLR10 levels were significantly lower in patients than in controls (318 vs. 574 pg/mL; p < 0.001). Most patients were classified as low producers of TLR10 (≤ median of controls) compared to controls (84.0 vs. 51.0%; p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with low TLR10 production had an odds ratio of 4.52. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that TLR10 is a good predictor of multiple sclerosis (area under the curve = 0.778; p < 0.001). Prevalence of EBV was less frequent in patients than in controls but the difference was not significant (23.3 vs. 41.5%; p = 0.102), while median EBV load was significantly higher in patients compared to controls (8.55 vs. 1.29 DNA copy/100 cells). When TLR10 levels were stratified according to age group, gender, EBV positivity, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), or therapy, no significant differences were found in each stratum. Further, no significant correlation was found between TLR10 levels and EDSS or EBV load. In conclusions, TLR10 was down-regulated in serum of multiple sclerosis patients, and this down-regulation was not affected by age, gender, EBV load, EDSS, or therapy.
Under conventional and silica-supported Muffle furnace methods, water-soluble substituted trimeric triaryl pyridinium cations with various inorganic counter anions are synthesized. The solvent-free synthesis method is superior to the conventional method in terms of non-toxicity, quicker reaction times, ease of workup, and higher yields. Trimeric substituted pyridinium salts acted as excellent catalytic responses for the preparation of Gem-bisamide derivatives compared with available literature. To evaluate the molecular docking, benzyl/4-nitrobenzyl substituted triaryl pyridinium salt compounds with VEGFR-2 kinase were used with H-bonds, π–π stacking, salt bridges, and hydrophobic contacts. The results showed that the VEGFR-2 kinase protein had the most potent inhibitory activity. Intriguingly, the compound [NBTAPy]PF6⁻ had a strongly binds to VEGFR-2 kinase and controlled its activity in cancer treatment and prevention.
Coccidiosis is a serious parasitic disease that causes severe economic losses in rabbits. Commercial probiotics are widely used as potential therapeutic replacements for weight gain and increased resistance to many diseases. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of a probiotic product called MiaClost as a liquid extract to protect animals from Eimeria stiedae infection. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 equal groups. Rabbits in the first 3 groups were treated with concentrations of 107, 108, and 109 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml of MiaClost in their drinking water for 10 days before experimental infection with 1 × 104 of sporulated oocyst of E. stiedae. The last 2 groups served as positive and negative control groups. We found a significant reduction in mortality in rabbits receiving 109 CFU/ml MiaClost as well as an improvement in weight retention and food consumption ratios. Beneficial low oocyst output in feces of rabbits treated with 109 CFU/ml MiaClost led to a reduction in pathological changes in the liver and gall bladder. Our findings suggest that a liquid extract of MiaClost in concentration of 109 CFU/ml can provide protection against hepatic coccidiosis. Further research is needed to test this product against other diseases through different routes of consumption in animals.
Our case highlights a rare occurrence of newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis in an extremely old female (106 years old) that is rarely reported in the medical literature. By reporting this case, we hope to encourage medical professionals to concentrate on diagnosing old patients with unusual presentation of rheumatoid arthritis.
A serious effect on people’s life, social communication, and surely on medical staff who were forced to monitor their patients’ status remotely relying on the available technologies to avoid potential infections and as a result reducing the workload in hospitals. this research tried to investigate the readiness level of healthcare professionals in both public and private Iraqi hospitals to utilize IoT technology in detecting, tracking, and treating 2019-nCoV pandemic, as well as reducing the direct contact between medical staff and patients with other diseases that can be monitored remotely.A cross-sectional descriptive research via online distributed questionnaire, the sample consisted of 113 physicians and 99 pharmacists from three public and two private hospitals who randomly selected by simple random sampling. The 212 responses were deeply analyzed descriptively using frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation.The results confirmed that the IoT technology can facilitate patient follow-up by enabling rapid communication between medical staff and patient relatives. Additionally, remote monitoring techniques can measure and treat 2019-nCoV, reducing direct contact by decreasing the workload in healthcare industries. This paper adds to the current healthcare technology literature in Iraq and middle east region an evidence of the readiness to implement IoT technology as an essential technique. Practically, it is strongly advised that healthcare policymakers should implement IoT technology nationwide especially when it comes to safe their employees’ life.Iraqi medical staff are fully ready to adopt IoT technology as they became more digital minded after the 2019-nCoV crises and surely their knowledge and technical skills will be improved spontaneously based on diffusion of innovation perspective.
In our work, we constructed a numerical approximations method to deal with approximations of a linear differential equation. We explained the general framework of the projection method which helps to clarify the basic ideas of the Kantorovich methods. We applied the iterative projection methods and presented a theorem to show the convergence of the constructed solutions to the exact solution. Also, most of the expressions encountered earlier can be used to define functions. Here are some illustrations. A great deal of information can be learned about a functioning relationship by studying its graph. A fundamental objective of section 4, is to acquaint with the graphs of some important functions and develop basic graphing procedures.
It's no secret that businesses of all sizes and types rely on IT to carry out their day-to-day operations and provide the best possible service to their clientele and constituents. Since the early 2000s, banks and other financial institutions have grown increasingly reliant on computers and the internet to manage day-to-day operations, client interactions, and market activity. Damage to a bank's reputation and bottom line can result from security breaches and other dangers. Businesses throughout the world have lost billions of dollars each year due to a variety of insider and outsider assaults. When it comes to a financial institution's competitive edge, money flow, legal compliance, and commercial rules and regulations compliance, the three pillars of information security are very critical. (confidentiality, integrity and availability).This has made it necessary for financial institutes and banks to put adequate security controls and information security governance frameworks (ISGF) to ensure data accessibility to all the authorized users, and prevent intruders to gain access to the banking information system. Security measures strengthen the safeguards against all types of threats across the bank and guarantee information systems safety. The potential threats of information security banking system are discussed in this research. It proposes a framework for information security governance (ISGF). ISO 27002 is one example of a widely-accepted framework for governing information security. ISSA; FFIEC; PCI-DSS; COBIT and others are explained in this paper. The comprehensive information security governance framework (ISG) categorized into three levels which are strategic, tactical operational level and technical level. All components of the suggested ISG are listed in table. The banking system will actually use this framework. It explains the importance of each part of the ISG and how they work together to make the ISGF as strong as possible. Recommendations would be included to prevent all intrusions. In this study has been made and suggestions have included gaining robust information security governance frameworks to achieve better real banking system environment.
Soil compaction is one of the most harmful elements affecting soil structure, limiting plant growth and agricultural productivity. It is crucial to assess the degree of soil penetration resistance to discover solutions to the harmful consequences of compaction. In order to obtain the appropriate value, using soil cone penetration requires time and labor-intensive measurements. Currently, satellite technologies, electronic measurement control systems, and computer software help to measure soil penetration resistance quickly and easily within the precision agriculture applications approach. The quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors affecting their diversity contribute to digital soil mapping. Digital soil maps use machine learning algorithms to determine the above relationship. Algorithms include multiple linear regression (MLR), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector regression (SVR), cubist, random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN). Machine learning made it possible to predict soil penetration resistance from huge sets of environmental data obtained from onboard sensors on satellites and other sources to produce digital soil maps based on classification and slope, but whose output must be verified if they are to be trusted. This review presents soil penetration resistance measurement systems, new technological developments in measurement systems, and the contribution of precision agriculture techniques and machine learning algorithms to soil penetration resistance measurement and prediction.
The link between the inflammatory marker and SARS-CoV-2 cycle threshold (Ct) with disease progression remains undefined, mainly in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, this study aimed to identify several inflammatory markers (Ferritin, LDH, and D-dimer), and Ct values to predict outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 Iraqi patients. A case study was performed on 426 patients to guess cutoff values of inflammatory markers that were detected by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and specific auto-analyzer instrument. Significantly increased levels of inflammatory markers in critical and severe patients compared with mild-moderate (p < 0.001). Compared with aging and disease severity, inflammatory markers and Ct values are significantly related to the aging and severity in critical and severe COVID-19 patients (p < 0.001). Finding the Ct value was negatively associated with Ferritin, LDH, and D-dimer (p < 0.001); moreover, inflammatory markers concentrations and Ct values were significantly higher during the first ten days. The Ct values correlate with some relevant clinical parameters of inflammation. Higher levels of D dimer, S. Ferritin and LDH were associated with older age and the severity of COVID-19. The area under the ROC curve indicates that serum ferritin was the highest and excellent predictor for disease severity. Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019; Inflammation; D-dimer; Ferritin; Lactate dehydrogenase; Cycle threshold (Ct).
Rheumatoid arthritis is a worldwide inflammatory chronic autoimmune disease with varying severity. Due to no definitive cure for this disease, current therapies aim to decrease the pain and slow further damage. The interleukin (IL)‐36 cytokine was little known for its role in rheumatoid arthritis; this research aimed to evaluate the serum IL36 levels in RA patients compared to healthy controls. This study included 80 patients with rheumatoid arthritis registered at the Rheumatology Clinic in Baghdad teaching hospital. The patients were divided into three groups based on the treatments received. Group 1 included patients treated with biological therapy (etanercept, adalimumab), Group2 patients with non-biological treatment (methotrexate hydroxychloroquine and prednisone), Group3 patients without any treatment and compared with Group 4 healthy control group. Patients is all groups were assessed for their serum IL-36 concentration; the mean IL-36 serum level was significantly higher in three groups of RA patients which include the group of patients treated with biological therapy (Enbrel (etanercept) and Humira (adalimumab) means were (1132.41±475.2,), and group of non-biological therapy patients (Methotrexate hydroxychloroquine and prednisone) (G2) means was 553.95±307, than patients' group without any treatment (G3) means was 1044.01±575.3 compared to the control (341.38±113.1) p-value> 0.00001. The patient's age and BMI were not significantly different between three groups of patient Rheumatoid arthritis. Parameters for this disease also were tested which include RF, CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), there were significant differences when compared with the control group. IL-36 serum level was significantly higher in three groups of rheumatoid arthritis than those in controls, and when compared between three patients groups there was less concentration in the non-biological therapy treatment group means was 553.95±307 than in the rest of the patient groups,biology tratment, without any treatment, means were (1132.41±475.2, 1044.01±575.3) respectively. This study found that Rheumatoid arthritis patients' serum IL36 levels increased, where a non-biologic therapies reduced this cytokine. IL-36's pathogenic involvement in Rheumatoid arthritis needs more study. Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, IL-36, IL-1,C‐reactive protein, RF, ESR and anti-CCP.
Estimation of elements: Pb, Zn, Mn, Cd, and Cu, which were conducted seasonally from October-2021 till March-2022 in residential areas of Baghdad City using Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor ratios (EF), the factor of contamination (CF), contamination degree (Cd), index of pollution load (PLI) and index of potential ecological risk (Eif). The overall contamination factor in the research area is limited from low contamination with Cu, Mn, and Zn, moderately contaminated to very high contamination with Pb and Cd, while the assessment according to the I-geo index shows categories that vary from a slightly polluted to unpolluted by those examined heavy metals. The pollution load index indicates that the soils in some residential areas in Baghdad City have high levels of contamination by certain heavy metals. According to the EF results, the areas were moderately to significantly enriched with Pb and Cd and minimally enriched with Mn, Zn, and Cu. The potential for ecological risk had an irregular distribution, and the overall ecological risk level ranged from moderate to low. The PLI depicts the research area's vulnerability to soil heavy metal contamination and associated ecological concerns, particularly from lead and cadmium. Keywords: Pollution Index, Enrichment Factor, PLI index, Potential ecological risk.
The current study was conducted on goats in various parts of Wasit Province, Iraq, from November 2021 to April 2022. The study aims to find and identify intestinal parasites (IPs) in goats in Wasit province. The goat's fresh fecal specimens (n=180) include cysts, eggs, oocysts, trophozoites and larval stages. One hundred eighty sheep feces samples were collected, and more than one parasite was isolated from one sample (mixed infection). According to the data acquired, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in goats was 52.77 (95 samples). In the current investigation, eleven distinct (IPs) species with infection rates were identified, including Toxocara vitulorum (Goeze, 1782) (16.66 %), Cryptosporidium sp.( Tyzzer, 1907) (11.11%), Amoeba sp. (8.8%), Giardia sp.( Künstler, 1882) (8.8%), Trichostrongylus sp.( Looss, 1905) (8.33%), Cyclospora sp. (Schneider, 1881) (5.55%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum synonym (Distoma dendriticum) (Rudolphi, 1819) (5%), Paramphistomum cervi (Zeder, 1790) (4.44%), cercaria larva (2.22%), Balantidium coli (Malmsten, 1857) (1.66%), filariae form larvae (1.66%), respectively. This may be the result of infection with various parasites due to the use of Conventional and unsanitary management systems Keywords: Intestinal Parasites, Goats, Toxocara vitulorum, Cryptosporidium spp.
Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen as well as commensal bacteria. S. aureus has colonized around 30% of the human population. This study aimed to diagnose Staphylococcus aureus by molecular techniques, correlate the resistance against selected antimicrobial substances with the presence of the lukf-pv gene, and find the sequence of lukf-pv gene for the isolates obtained to investigate the mutations of those obtained isolates. This study included 60 patients diagnosed by the hospital with a urinary tract infection in Teaching Medical City Hospital, Baghdad, and Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, between January 2021 and July 2021. The isolates were cultured on a blood agar overnight; then, isolates were diagnosed by VITEK as S. aureus. DNA has been isolated from all the included samples. A specific region of the 16SRNA gene has been amplified to diagnose S. aureus by molecular techniques. Then possession of the lukf-pv gene was tested by PCR, then amplified products were sequenced to detect the mutations within the lukf-pv gene. The finding appeared that blood group O+ has the highest rate of bacterial infection, the lowest is O- (1.7%), and the highest rate is shown within people not suffering from complicated diseases (65%). Of the 60 isolates, 60 (100%) were confirmed by 16sRNA gene amplification and were positive, among which 37 (61.6%) were lukf-pv positive. Results of the lukf-pv gene sequences showed around 501 bits score and 96% compatibility (ID: CP076105.1). The current study showed that antibiotics Cefoxitin, Benzylpenicillin, Oxacillin, Clindamycin, Fusidic acid, Rifampicin, Erythromycin, Vancomycin, and Teicoplanin had the highest resistance to antibiotics and as follow;100 %, 100 %, 40.54 %, 27.03 %, 27.03 %, 16.22 %, 13.51 %, and 10.81 %, respectively. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, 16sRNA and lukf-pv genes
A range of hematological and biochemical markers have been investigated in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) patients to determine the relationship between cancer growth and metabolic problems. This study aimed to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency in Iraqi patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had recently been diagnosed. There was a significant inverse correlation between the total serum cholesterol (TC) level of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients group [(148.77±12.2) for males, (165.29±9.64) for females] and the control group [(164.50±7.26) for males, (180.05±7.31) for females], also an inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients group [(46.00±2.04) for males, (46.18±1.08) for females] and control group [(54.25±1.86) for males,(51.94±1.37) for females]. A significant difference was between the serum triglyceride (TG) level of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients group [(128.71±13.07) for males, (152.48±10.6) for females] and control group [85.12±11.30) for male, (90.50±10.90) for females], also between vitamin D level of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients group [(17.23±1.18) for males, (12.96±0.74) for females] and control group [(42.62±1.43) for males, (40.76±0.82) for females]. A statistically significant difference was between the serum calcium levels of individuals with acute myeloid leukemia [(8.99±0.32) for males, (8.91±0.23) for females] and the control group [(13.13±1.16) for males, (10.73±0.28) for females]. AML patients can benefit from vitamin D treatment, according to a pairwise analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The above results are related to concluding that Vitamin D can be utilized as a diagnostic test for AML patients. Keywords; acute myeloid leukemia (AML), Hypereosinophilia, ROC curve, hypocholesterolemia, vitamin D.
A total of 9 samples of wild cat Felischausfurax (de Winton, 1898) and 13 (11 positives) samples of domestic cat Feliscattus (Linnaeus, 1758) belong to Family Felidae. All cats were trapped and used hair and skin scrapings by forceps and surgical blades. The areas of the collection were: Mosul province (north of Iraq); Baghdad, Al-Rashidiya, Tharthar, Nahrawan, AL-Mahmoudiya (middle of Iraq) and AL-Haretha (south of Iraq). The current study revealed that the sensitive and specific PCR assay allowing rapid and reliable identification of Malasseziarestricta by the fragment size amplified was 500bp in the ITS1 gene in one sample of wild cats. The current study recorded a new strain of Malasseziarestrictathat called AF2013 strain "small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1", complete sequence; and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. Which was inserted in GenBank: MW376484.1 from wild cat Felischausfurax for the first time in Iraq. Sequencing revealed close matching of the phylogenetic tree to an isolate from Korea (CP030254). The compression was performed using NCBI – the based nucleotides website. Keywords: Dermatitis, Cutaneous microflora, fungi, Genotype, Malasseziarestricta.
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Al-Jadriya, --10071—, Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Head of institution
Qusay Abdul Wahab Al-Suhail