Identifying the basic competencies that a professional should possess to fulfill his or her role as an extensionist is important, since it favors the connection with the communities being accompanied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the level of perception of the development of competencies of the extensionists, by means of an instrument designed by the authors, on a scale from one (critical situation) to five (optimal situation) using a rubric defined for each competency. The extensionist competencies index (ICE) for Antioquia was 4.1 and for Santander 3.8, which showed the potential and options for improvement to focus efforts on updating and training extensionists, which in the cases analyzed were focused on conflict resolution, information management, the ICT implementation in accompaniment processes, and alignment with the sector’s own regulations and policies.
Background Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that are the causative agent of rickettsioses and are spread to vertebrate hosts by arthropods. There are no previous reports of isolation of Rickettsia amblyommatis for Colombia. Methods A convenience sampling was executed in three departments in Colombia for direct collection of adult ticks on domestic animals or over vegetation. Ticks were screened for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) amplifying the citrate synthase gene (gltA), and the positive sample was processed for isolation and further molecular characterization by conventional PCR. The absolute and relative frequencies were calculated for several tick species variables. All products from conventional PCR were further purified and sequenced by the Sanger technique. Representative sequences of 18 Rickettsia species were downloaded from GenBank. Consensus phylogenetic trees were constructed for the gltA, ompB, ompA, and htrA genes with 1000 replicates, calculating bootstrap values through the maximum likelihood method and the generalized time reversible substitution model in the MEGA 7.0 software program. Results One female Amblyomma mixtum collected on vegetation was amplified by qPCR (gltA), indicating a frequency of 1.6% (1/61) for Rickettsia spp. infection. Sequence analysis of a rickettsial isolate from this tick in BLASTn showed 100% identity with gltA (340 base pairs [bp]), 99.87% for ompB (782 bp), 98.99% for htrA (497 bp), and 100% for ompA (488 bp) to R. amblyommatis. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis confirmed these findings indicating that the isolate is grouped with other sequences of Amblyomma cajennense complex from Panama and Brazil within the R. amblyommatis clade. Conclusions This paper describes the isolation and early molecular identification of a R. amblyommatis strain from A. mixtum in Colombia. Graphical Abstract
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin condition impacting quality of life. Allergen recognition via specific IgE triggers immune responses and allergy symptoms. Cross-reactivity may induce auto-IgE responses and worsen AD. We aimed to analyze molecular mimicry between human AQP3 and Aspergillus fumigatus aquaporin, a potential allergen source. Methods: In silico analysis compared human (AQP3) and A. fumigatus aquaporin sequences with 25 aquaporins from allergenic sources. Sequences were obtained from UniProt and NCBI. Phylogenetic relationships and homology-based modeling were performed, with ElliPro predicting conserved antigenic regions on 3D structures. Results: Global identity among aquaporins was 32.6%, but one antigenic site exhibited 71.4% local conservation. Five monophyletic clades (A to E) were formed. Group B showed the highest identity (95%), including 6 mammalian aquaporins, including AQP3. A. fumigatus aquaporin shared the highest identity with Malassezia sympodialis (35%). Both human and A. fumigatus aquaporins featured three linear and three discontinuous epitopes, with a root mean square deviation (RMSD) of 1.006. Conclusion: Possible linear and conformational epitopes on AQP3 were identified. High identity in one antigenic region suggests molecular mimicry between human and A. fumigatus aquaporins, potentially leading to autoreactivity and cross-reactivity. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Phylogenetic relationships within the oestroid subclades Rhinophorinae (Calliphoridae) and Polleniidae were reconstructed for the first time, applying a Sanger sequencing approach using the two protein-coding nuclear markers CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase; 1794 bp) and MCS (molybdenum cofactor sulfurase; 2078 bp). Three genera of Polleniidae and nineteen genera of Rhinophorinae were analyzed together with a selection of taxa representing the major lineages of Oestroi-dea (non-rhinophorine Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Sarcophagidae, Tachinidae). The selected markers provide good resolution and moderate to strong support of the distal branches, but weak support for several deeper nodes. Polleniidae (cluster flies) emerge as monophyletic and their sister-group relationship to Tachinidae is confirmed. Morinia Robineau-Desvoidy as currently circumscribed emerges as paraphyletic with regard to Melanodexia Williston, and Pollenia Robineau-Desvoidy is the sister taxon of the Morinia-Melanodexia clade. We propose a classification with two subfamilies, Moriniinae Townsend (including Morinia, Mel-anodexia, and Alvamaja Rognes), and Polleniinae Brauer & Bergenstamm (including Polle-nia, Dexopollenia Townsend, and Xanthotryxus Aldrich). Anthracomyza Malloch and Nesodexia Villeneuve are considered as Oestroidea incertae sedis pending further study. Rhinophorinae (woodlouse flies) emerge as monophyletic and sister to a clade composed of (Ameniinae + (Ameniinae + Phumosiinae)), and a tribal classification is proposed with the subfamily divided into Rhinophorini Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 and Phytonini Robineau-Des-voidy, 1863 (the Stevenia-group and the Phyto-group of authors, respectively). Oxytachina Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, stat. rev. is resurrected to contain nine Afrotropical rhinophorine species currently assigned to genus Rhinomorinia Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891: Oxytachina approximata (Crosskey, 1977) comb. nov., O. atra (Bischof, 1904) comb. nov., O. bisetosa (Crosskey, 1977) comb. nov., O. capensis (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1893) comb. nov., O. scutellata (Crosskey, 1977) comb. nov., O. setitibia (Crosskey, 1977) comb. nov., O. verticalis (Crosskey, 1977) comb. nov., O. vittata Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891, and O. xanthocephala (Bezzi, 1908) comb. nov.
Objetivos: el aborto es un derecho en salud sexual y reproductiva de la mujer en Colombia, sin embargo no toda la sociedad colombiana reconoce este derecho. Este trabajo busca comprender la transformación de los significados después de haber afrontado una interrupción voluntaria del embarazo tardía, en mujeres residentes en Colombia, y su interacción con familiares, amigos y sistema de salud. Materiales y métodos: investigación hermenéutica desde un paradigma constructivista, el análisis se hizo desde una perspectiva feminista con técnicas de la teoría fundamentada: codificación, categorización y comparación constante. Se realizaron 19 entrevistas semiestructuradas a 18 mujeres residentes en Colombia que se sometieron a interrupción voluntaria del embarazo tardía definida por ser una gestación mayor a 20 semanas, acompañada de feticidio e inducción de parto, en dos ciudades colombianas, entre 2016 y 2020. Además, se realizaron dos grupos focales, uno con algunas de las entrevistadas, y otro con feministas expertas para triangular la información emergente del proceso investigativo y profundizar los hallazgos. Resultados: las mujeres tenían un significado negativo y contrario sobre la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo, pero cuando se encuentran inmersas en una situación que las obliga a terminar con la gestación, contravienen los significados propios y los de su sociedad y buscan justificaciones que les ayuden a mantener la decisión. Esta confrontación las hace reflexionar profunda e íntimamente y las lleva a transformar sus vidas. Conclusiones: los significados sobre el aborto, en las mujeres que se realizan interrupción voluntaria del embarazo tardía, generalmente son contrarios a este derecho en salud sexual y reproductiva. Posterior al evento estos significados se transforman por medio de la reflexión consciente de las mujeres al tener que enfrentar sus propios significados y los de la sociedad.
Nutritional imbalance in adolescent girls causes alterations in health, reproductive cycles, and fetal outcomes of future generations. To evaluate the dietary pattern and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, a 24‐hour multi‐step food recall was carried out among 793 adolescent women (14–20 years old) from Medellin, Colombia. Their dietary pattern was characterized by lower than recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables (CRI 0.4, AMD 0.2), dairy (CRI 0.5, AMD 0.2), and proteins (CRI 0.8, AMD 0.3), while starches (CRI 1.2, AMD 0.4), fats (CRI 1.1, AMD 0.6), and sugars (CRI 1.0, AMD 0.5) were at similar or higher levels than recommendations. A high risk of deficiency was found in the usual intake of energy (53.0%), protein (39.8%), calcium (98.9%), folates (85.7%), iron (74.4%), thiamine (44.3%), vitamin C (31.3%), zinc (28.3%), vitamin A (23.4%), cyanocobalamin (17.3%), and pyridoxine (10.9%). A low risk of deficiency was noted in usual fiber intake (0.5%), and a higher than recommended intake was noted in saturated fat (100.0%) and simple carbohydrates (68.8%). Anecdotally, a large proportion of respondents saw decreases in their food consumption during the COVID‐19 pandemic. These results suggest an urgent need for nutrition education programs to emphasize the importance of adequate nutrition among adolescent women.
Specific mortality rates have been widely used to monitor the main impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic; however, a more meaningful measure is the Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to the disease, considering it takes into account the premature nature of each death. We estimated the YLL due to COVID-19 between January 2020 and December 2021 in 49 countries for which information was available, developing an analytical method that mathematically refines that proposed by the World Health Organization. We then calculated YLL rates overall, as well as by sex and life cycle. Additionally, we estimated the national cost-effective budgets required to manage COVID-19 from a health system perspective. During the two years of analysis, we estimated that 85.6 million years of life were lost due to COVID-19 in the 49 countries studied. However, due to a lack of data, we were unable to analyze the burden of COVID-19 in about 75% of the countries in the world. We found no difference in the magnitude of YLL rates by gender but did find differences according to life cycle, with older adults contributing the greatest burden of YLL. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant burden of disease, which has varied between countries. However, due to the lack of quality and disaggregated data, it has been difficult to monitor and compare the pandemic internationally. Therefore, it is imperative to strengthen health information systems in order to prepare for future pandemics as well as to evaluate their impacts.
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic disease geographically restricted to Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina; Brazil is the country with the highest endemicity. Chile and the Caribbean islands are not affected. No outbreaks have been reported, but recently two clusters have been described. Currently, phylogenetic studies divide the Paracoccidioides genus into five species, namely P. brasiliensis, P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, and P. lutzii. These species have a widespread distribution except for the central and northern regions of Brazil which are preferred locations of P. lutzii. They are thermally dimorphic, existing as a mold at temperatures under 28 °C and as a yeast in cultures at 35–37 °C, and in tissues. The yeast reproduces by multiple budding, leading to a shape that resembles a pilot’s wheel. The natural habitat of the Paracoccidioides spp. complex has not been defined, although it is suspected to be the soil, preferentially at sites where the environment has a high rainfall index and the soils show optimal permeability, a combination that is associated with high relative humidity and abundance of vegetation and watercourses. Paracoccidioides spp. is capable of entering into prolonged periods of latency, as is demonstrated by those patients diagnosed outside the recognized endemic areas several years after having left the endemic Latin American zones. The mycosis predominates in adult males (13:1), but no such gender difference is observed in children or adolescents. Two types of clinical presentations are recognized, the acute-subacute (juvenile) and the chronic (adult) forms of the disease. A residual, non-mycotic active form characterized by fibrosis is also recognized. The initial stages of the host-fungal interactions are not known, as the habitats of the Paracoccidioides complex remain undefined; experimental animal models have shown that inhaled conidia settle in the lungs and convert into yeast cells, thereby initiating tissue colonization and dissemination through blood/lymphatic vessels. The classical PCM diagnosis combines clinical evaluation and laboratory techniques, including direct examination, histopathology, culture-based techniques, and immunological and molecular assays. With the advances in characterizing the Paracoccidioides genus, a higher complexity has been added to the standardization of laboratory techniques for diagnosing PCM to the species level. Many efforts are being made and are underway to search for new markers, new epitopes, and new techniques. As for treatment, three different classes of antifungals are currently used to treat this mycosis. They include sulfonamides, the polyene amphotericin B and its lipid formulations, and certain azoles. Azoles, including itraconazole and voriconazole, have emerged as therapeutic options for the control of PCM, with the former being the current agent of choice. Mortality is usually low but the disease persists as an important cause of morbidity and sequels, especially when the diagnosis is delayed.
This chapter presents an overview of the general characteristics of the Nancy Ma’s owl monkey (Aotus nancymaae) and a case study where we explore the genetic composition of wild populations in northern Peru and its genetic representation in an ex situ population. The species has historically been heavily exploited for biomedical research. On the Colombian-Peruvian border of the Amazon, trafficking, post-experimentation releases into the wild, and deforestation present growing threats for this vulnerable species. We provide evidence of the heterogeneous geographical origin of the ex situ population and relatively high diversity in wild populations. Unexpectedly, we found no evidence of the Amazon River as a barrier to dispersal, based on the scarce genetic differentiation among populations on opposite riverbanks. We conclude recommending binational collaboration concerning data sharing, population health assessment, and adherence to recent policies to improve the conservation of the most threatened owl monkey species in the Amazon region.
This study evaluated the impact of the Milnutri Profutura® (MNP) dairy infant formula on the gut microbiota of early childhood children (three to five years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using static fermentation (time zero, 24, and 48 h) and the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbiol Ecosystem (SHIME®) (time zero, 72 h, and 7days). The relative abundance of selected intestinal bacterial groups, pH values, organic acids, and sugars were verified at time zero, 24, and 48 h using flow cytometry and measurements. In addition, the diversity and changes in the gut microbiota, and the amounts of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and ammonium ions (NH+4) in fermentation using the SHIME® were measured at time zero, 72 h, and 7 days. MNP increased Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations and decreased Bacteroides/Prevotella, Clostridium histolyticum and Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides populations (p<0.05) at 24 and 48h of static fermentation, showing a positive prebiotic activity score (65.18±0.07). The pH, fructose and glucose decreased, while lactic, butyric, and propionic acids increased (p<0.05) at 48 h of static fermentation. MNP increased (p<0.05) the Firmicutes phylum during the fermentation in SHIME®. MNP decreased the diversity at 72 h of fermentation, mostly by the increase (p<0.05) in the Lactobacillus genus. Microbial groups considered harmful such as Lachnospiraceae, Negativicoccus, and Lachnoclostridium were inhibited after administration with MNP. Propionic and butyric acids increased at 72 h and NH4+ decreased (p < 0.05) at the end of fermentation with MNP. The results indicate MNP as an infant formula which may benefit the gut microbiota of children with ASD.
Osteotomy in endodontic microsurgery for teeth with periapical lesions which have not perforated the cortical plate can be a complex procedure especially if anatomical structures such as the mental nerve are close to the area of surgical intervention. For such cases, the cortical bone window technique is an excellent option to access the operating field, preserving the cortical bone and avoiding the use of other bone regeneration materials. The present case documented the use of the cortical bone window technique with a modification, due to the proximity of the mental nerve to approach a persistent periapical lesion of a mandibular second premolar with previous endodontic treatment. Cone beam tomography (CBCT) and intraoral scanning were used for planning and elaboration of a navigation guide for surgical procedure. The clinical and radiographic 5-month follow-up with periapical radiography and CBCT revealed a favorable outcome, with an asymptomatic patient and an advanced healing process at the previous periapical lesion site.
During the last century, the critically endangered cotton‐top tamarin ( Saguinus oedipus ) has been threatened by multiple anthropogenic factors that drastically affected their habitat and population size. As the genetic impact of these pressures is largely unknown, this study aimed to establish a genetic baseline with the use of temporal sampling to determine the genetic makeup before detrimental anthropogenic impact. Genomes were resequenced from a combination of historical museum samples and modern wild samples at low‐medium coverage, to unravel how the cotton‐top tamarin population structure and genomic diversity may have changed during this period. Our data suggest two populations can be differentiated, probably separated historically by the mountain ranges of the Paramillo Massif in Colombia. Although this population structure persists in the current populations, modern samples exhibit genomic signals consistent with recent inbreeding, such as long runs of homozygosity and a reduction in genome‐wide heterozygosity especially in the greater northeast population. This loss is likely the consequence of the population reduction following the mass exportation of cotton‐top tamarins for biomedical research in the 1960s, coupled with the habitat loss this species continues to experience. However, current populations have not experienced an increase in genetic load. We propose that the historical genetic baseline established in this study can be used to provide insight into alteration in the modern population influenced by a drastic reduction in population size as well as providing background information to be used for future conservation decision‐making for the species.
Purpose of Review Describe disparities in diagnosis and management between men and women with advanced heart failure (HF). Our goal is to identify barriers and suggest solutions. Recent Findings Women with advanced HF are less likely to undergo diagnostic testing and procedures (i.e., revascularization, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy, mechanical circulatory support, and orthotopic heart transplantation). Summary Disparities related to gender create less favorable outcomes for women with advanced HF. The issues arise from access to care, paucity of knowledge, enrollment in clinical trials, and eligibility for advanced therapies. In this review, we propose a call to action to level the playing field in order to improve survival in women with advanced HF.
Is there continuity from implicit recognition of intentional action in infants to explicit mindreading in preschoolers? Systematic review of longitudinal evidence and theoretical implications ( ¿Hay continuidad entre el reconocimiento implícito de la acción intencional en bebés y la lectura de mente explícita en preescolares? Revisión sistemática de la evidencia longitudinal e implicaciones teóricas )
1: Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) revolutionises ecological research, utilizing sounds for species-specific inferences. However , PAM generates large volumes of data, posing challenges in annotation, classification, and review complexity, necessitating efficient data management strategies. 2: Given this particular need, this research aimed to improve the performance of a pattern-matching algorithm for detecting signals of interest in two nocturnal bird species. The study pursued two main objectives: first, to evaluate various similarity scores and determine the optimum one through a sensitivity-specificity analysis. Second, we investigate potential relationships between species-specific spectral features, such as high, low, and peak frequencies, and the algorithm's performance by reviewing and comparing their dispersion with a Levene test. 3: The outcomes demonstrated a generally favorable algorithm performance, achieving up to 80% sensitivity and specificity. This underscores its effectiveness in identifying target signals. Our investigation indicated that factors like individuality, which could be reflect on the spectral features, could potentially impact the algorithm's efficacy. 4: ARBIMON provides transformative collaborative solutions in the field of bioacoustics. However, additional research is imperative to fully grasp the performance and potential applications of such tools. This exploration extends beyond ARBIMON to encompass the burgeoning technologies within the discipline. Hosted file Assessing the Performance of ARBIMON V4_EE.docx available at https://authorea.com/ users/661020/articles/664286-assessing-the-performance-of-arbimon-for-nocturnal-bird-monitoring-a-sensitivity-and-specificity-approach 1
Mangroves are a challenging ecosystem for the microorganisms that inhabit them, considering they are subjected to stressful conditions such as high and fluctuating salinity. Metagenomic analysis of mangrove soils under contrasting salinity conditions was performed at the mouth of the Ranchera River to the Caribbean Sea in La Guajira, Colombia, using shotgun sequencing and the Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform. Functional gene analysis demonstrated that salinity could influence the abundance of microbial genes involved in osmoprotectant transport, DNA repair, heat shock proteins (HSP), and Quorum Sensing, among others. In total, 135 genes were discovered to be linked to 12 pathways. Thirty-four genes out of 10 pathways had statistical differences for a p-value and FDR < 0.05. UvrA and uvrB (nucleotide excision repair), groEL (HSP), and secA (bacterial secretion system) genes were the most abundant and were enriched by high salinity. The results of this study showed the prevalence of diverse genetic mechanisms that bacteria use as a response to survive in the challenging mangrove, as well as the presence of various genes that are recruited in order to maintain bacterial homeostasis under conditions of high salinity.
COVID-19 vaccines have been essential for reducing the impact of the pandemic; nevertheless, population-based data under real-life conditions are needed to compare their effectiveness in various contexts. The objective of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of vaccines in preventing hospitalization and death from COVID-19 in Colombia under real-life conditions among people aged 18 years and older, according to sex, age, confirmed history of COVID-19 and vaccination series, including the effects of boosters. This investigation was an observational, retrospective, population-based study based on the Colombian cohort "Esperanza". A total of 14,213,409 individuals aged 18 years and older were analyzed, who were matched in a 1:1 ratio of vaccinated to unvaccinated. The study groups consisted of unvaccinated individuals, those with a complete series (CS) and individuals with a CS plus booster. The vaccinated individuals received either homologous or heterologous vaccinations with Ad26.COV2-S, BNT162b2, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, CoronaVac and mRNA-1273 vaccines. Follow-up was conducted between February 2021 and June 2022. Cox proportional hazards models were used, adjusted for potential confounders, to estimate the effectiveness of different vaccination series. For adults aged 18 years and older, the overall effectiveness of the vaccines in preventing hospitalization was 82.7% (95% CI 82.1-83.2) for CS and 80.2% (95%CI 78.7-81.6) for CS + booster. The effectiveness in preventing death was 86.0% (95%CI 85.5-86.5) for CS and 83.1% (95%CI 81.5-84.5) for CS + booster. Effectiveness decreased with age. While all efficacies were high, CoronaVac offered significantly lower protection, although this improved with a booster. Continued mass vaccination is pivotal, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The study highlights both the real-world effectiveness of these vaccines and the challenges in understanding waning immunity and the influence of different VoC(Variants of Concern) on results.
Endothelial cell (EC) culture requires specialized and commercial culture media that differ fundamentally in the composition of growth supplements. These media are expensive and must be imported, increasing the time to effective use. Human platelet lysate (PL) and platelet lysate serum (PLS) media are emerging alternatives to commercial media. This study evaluated the performance and behavior of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) using the commercial medium ECGM- Promocell ® and media supplemented with PL and PLS. After obtaining informed consent, umbilical cords were collected and HUVEC were isolated. The performance of HUVECs was compared between ECGM- Promocell ® commercial medium and media developed from PL and PLS. A PL-derived protein substrate was introduced to pre-treat and form a thin layer on culture plates. The cells were characterized by flow cytometry using the markers CD31, CD144, CD146, CD34, and HLA-DR. A mixed culture medium was obtained from the combination of PLS and ECGM- Promocell ® commercial medium, which was able to maintain the viability, adhesion, and proliferation of ECs. At the same time, a protein substrate was implemented using PL, which was added to the surface of the culture plates, being able to simulate an extracellular matrix, facilitating enhanced endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and yield. Cells cultured with ECGM- Promocell® and the mixed medium, with and without the PL protein substrate, expressed the surface markers CD31, CD144, and CD146, and were negative for CD34 and HLA-DR markers. The mixed medium together with the PL protein substrate represents excellent alternatives for the culture, maintenance, and proliferation of endothelial cells; being a promising and profitable strategy for the research and production of these cells for therapeutic and research purposes.
El texto propone una reflexión derivada de un estudio cuyo objetivo fue comprender cómo se representa la experiencia del duelo en narrativas autobiográficas literarias sobre pérdidas disruptivas, y explorar la función que cumple la escritura en el proceso de duelo. Este artículo se concentra en el eje del duelo por suicidio a partir de la interpretación formal de la memoria Cuando muere el hijo, del escritor Abel Posse (2013). La metodología fue biográfico-narrativa, con enfoque hermenéutico y estrategias de investigación documental. En cuanto a los resultados, la memoria revela algunas particularidades del duelo por suicidio, como son el peso del estigma social, los enigmas que rodean la decisión del fallecido, las preguntas por la participación en el acto, la desestimación del vínculo que se sostenía con el suicida y el perturbador encuentro del cadáver. Es posible concluir que la escritura se torna para Posse en un medio para ordenar la experiencia disruptiva de su duelo y dejar su letra, a modo de sistema de señales, para que otros tengan alguna luz en la oscuridad de esa larga y peligrosa noche.
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