Chen et al. (2023) have proposed a scheme to define which services should be included as ecosystem services and which should be excluded so as to avoid “an all-encompassing metaphor that captures any benefit”. We discuss the proposals, drawing attention in particular to definitions of ‘natural capital’ and ‘ecosystems’, the complexities of separating biotic from abiotic flows, and the importance of geodiversity and geosystem services in delivering societal benefits. We conclude that rather than trying to separate out bits of nature in order to draw the boundary of ecosystem services, it is perhaps time to avoid using ‘nature’ and ‘biodiversity’ as synonyms and think instead of a more holistic and integrated approach involving ‘environmental’, ‘natural’ or ‘nature's services', in which the role of abiotic nature is fully recognised in both ecosystem services and non-ecosystem domains.
Background Common mental disorders (CMD) are highly prevalent among sick-listed precarious workers and often lead to long-term sickness-absence, work disability and unemployment. This study aimed to identify predictors of a longer time until return to work (RTW) and prolonged duration of sickness absence in sick-listed precarious workers with CMD. Methods We conducted a secondary Cox regression analysis using existing data from two Dutch randomized controlled trials and one cohort study among sick-listed precarious workers with CMD (N = 681). Age, gender, baseline employment status, study allocation, severity of psychological symptoms and RTW self-efficacy were evaluated for their predictive value on time until sustainable (≥ 28 days) RTW and duration of sickness absence during 12-month follow-up. In this study, time until sustainable RTW and duration of sickness absence are distinct dependent variables, because they are not mutually exclusive. Results Age above 50 years (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39–0.82), severe psychological symptoms (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.93), unemployment (HR 0.19 95% CI 0.11–0.33) and loss of employment contract during sickness absence (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.14–0.47) were predictive of a longer time until RTW. Male gender (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.97), severe psychological symptoms (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46–0.87), unemployment (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27–0.84) and loss of employment contract (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26–0.90) predicted a prolonged duration of sickness absence. Conclusions Unemployment at the moment of sick-listing, loss of employment contract during sickness absence, and severe psychological symptoms are predictors of both a longer time until RTW and prolonged duration of sickness absence among sick-listed precarious workers with CMD. This knowledge assists occupational health and mental health professionals in the early identification of workers at risk of long-term sickness absence, enabling them to arrange targeted occupational rehabilitation support and mental health care. Trial registration The included randomized controlled trials were prospectively registered in the Dutch national trial register under NTR4190 (September 27, 2013) and NTR3563 (August 7, 2012).
Fireworks are important elements of celebrations globally, but little is known about their effects on wildlife. The synchronized and extraordinary use of fireworks on New Year's Eve triggers strong flight responses in birds. We used weather radar and systematic bird counts to quantify how flight responses differed across habitats and corresponding bird communities, and determined the distance-dependence of this relationship. On average, approximately 1000 times as many birds were in flight on New Year's Eve than on other nights. We found that fireworks-related disturbance decreased with distance, most strongly in the first five kilometers , but overall flight activity remained elevated tenfold at distances up to about 10 km. Communities of large-bodied species displayed a stronger response than communities of small-bodied species. Given the pervasive nature of this disturbance, the establishment of large fireworks-free zones or centralizing fireworks within urban centers could help to mitigate their effects on birds. Conservation action should prioritize avian communities with the most disturbance-prone, large-bodied bird species.
Implementing parenting programs in real-world community settings is fundamental to making effective programs widely available and consequently improving the lives of children and their families. Despite the literature acknowledging that the high-quality implementation of parenting programs is particularly challenging in real-world community settings, little is known about how the programs are implemented in these settings. This scoping review followed the methodological framework described by the Joanna Briggs Institute to map evidence on how evidence-based parenting programs have been implemented under real-world conditions. A systematic search of 12 scientific databases, gray literature, and the reference lists of the included studies identified 1918 records, of which 145 were included in the review. Fifty-three parenting programs were identified in studies documenting implementation in real-world community settings worldwide. Most studies included families in psychosocial risk engaged with family-support agencies. The qualitative synthesis identified several implementation outcomes, adaptations, barriers, and facilitators. Most studies reported a maximum of two implementation outcomes, mainly fidelity and acceptability. Providers frequently made adaptations, mainly to bring down barriers and to tailor the program to improve its fit. Findings highlight the need for a more detailed description of the implementation of programs, with greater consistency in terminology, operationalization, and measurement of implementation outcomes across studies. This will promote a more transparent, consistent, and accurate evaluation and reporting of implementation and increase the public health impact of parenting programs. Future studies should also assess the impact of adaptations and the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of programs in real-world community settings.
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a growing public health challenge across the globe and is associated with negative and persistent long-term consequences. The last decades of research have identified different mechanisms associated with the development and persistence of PTSD, including maladaptive coping strategies, cognitive and experiential avoidance, and positive and negative metacognitions. Despite these advances, little is known about how these different processes interact with specific PTSD symptoms, and how they influence each other over time at the within-person level. Method: Leveraging a large (N > 1,800) longitudinal data set representative of the Norwegian population during the COVID-19 pandemic, this preregistered study investigated these symptom-process interactions over four assessment waves spanning an 8-month period. Results: Our panel graphical vector autoregressive network model revealed the dominating role of substance use to cope in predicting higher levels of PTSD symptoms over time and increases in PTSD symptomatology within more proximal time windows (i.e., within 6 weeks). Threat monitoring was associated with increased suicidal ideation, while threat monitoring itself was increasing upon decreased avoidance behavior, greater presence of negative metacognitions, and higher use of substances to cope. Conclusions: Our findings speak to the importance of attending to different coping strategies, particularly the use of substances as a coping behavior in efforts to prevent PTSD chronicity upon symptom onset. We outline future directions for research efforts to better understand the complex interactions and temporal pathways leading up to the development and maintenance of PTSD symptomatology.
Plain Language Summary Carrying an unintended pregnancy to term and maternal psychological distress over time Every unintended pregnancy is different, like every person is different. Nevertheless, carrying an unintended pregnancy to term might be stressful, that might impact mental health (e.g. depression or anxiety) of people carrying an unintended pregnancy to term. Research into long-term effects of carrying an unintended pregnancy to term on maternal mental health is scarce. In this study, we investigated effects of carrying an unintended pregnancy to term on maternal mental health up to 12 years postpartum. We used data from 7784 pregnant people living in Amsterdam, who participated in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study in 2003. Participants were followed up to 12 years postpartum. During pregnancy, participants answered questions about pregnancy mistiming (did the pregnancy happen at the right time), unwantedness (did they want to become pregnant) and unhappiness (how did they feel when they found out they were pregnant). We investigated these ‘dimensions’ of unintended pregnancy separately, to grasp to complexity of unintended pregnancy. Furthermore, participants answered multiple questions about experienced symptoms of depressions and anxiety around 3 months, 5 years and 12 years postpartum. People, who reported that their pregnancy was more mistimed, reported more mental health problems up to 5 years postpartum. Furthermore, people who reported more unhappiness with their pregnancy, reported more mental health problems around 3 months postpartum. People with an unintended pregnancy reported no longer more mental health problems around 12 years after birth, compared to people with more intended pregnancy. Strikingly, the mental health of people during pregnancy was more important for their mental health later in life, compared to their unintended pregnancy. Thus, the (emotional) circumstances around the pregnancy might be more influential for mental health later in life, compared to their pregnancy intentions. People carrying an unintended pregnancy to term may benefit from extra support, tailored to their individual needs and circumstances. Nevertheless, our results also showed that people are also resilient to deal with the many events and challenges faced during the periods after birth, since the effect of unintended pregnancy on maternal mental health disappeared over time.
Constitutive relations are needed to predict the behavior of complex fluids in nonviscometric flows. This is an area that is largely unexplored for yield stress materials because of the difficulty describing the elastoviscoplastic behavior for arbitrary flows. Here, we measure the shear and extensional rheology of a simple tunable yield stress system: emulsions with different oil volume fractions that allow one to vary the flow properties over a large range. We propose universal concentration scaling laws that produce master curves for the shear and extensional rheology with a minimal number of known emulsion parameters. The extensional viscosity is obtained experimentally using a theory for inelastic shear-thinning materials, demonstrating that elastic stresses are unimportant in the pinching dynamics, and the elastic normal stress differences contribute minimally to the von Mises yield surface. Hence, this shows that material elasticity is unimportant, and an explicit constitutive equation of, for example, Criminale-Ericksen-Filby type, with a Herschel-Bulkley viscosity and a modulus equal to the Laplace pressure is adequate to describe the behavior of such concentrated soft-sphere systems in general steady and low Deborah number unsteady Eulerian and Lagrangian flows.
In traditional recommender system literature, diversity is often seen as the opposite of similarity, and typically defined as the distance between identified topics, categories or word models. However, this is not expressive of the social science’s interpretation of diversity, which accounts for a news organization’s norms and values and which we here refer to as normative diversity. We introduce RADio, a versatile metrics framework to evaluate recommendations according to these normative goals. RADio introduces a rank-aware Jensen Shannon (JS) divergence. This combination accounts for (i) a user’s decreasing propensity to observe items further down a list and (ii) full distributional shifts as opposed to point estimates. We evaluate RADio’s ability to reflect five normative concepts in news recommendations on the Microsoft News Dataset and six (neural) recommendation algorithms, with the help of our metadata enrichment pipeline. We find that RADio provides insightful estimates that can potentially be used to inform news recommender system design.
Static quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides readouts of structural changes in diseased muscle, but current approaches lack the ability to fully explain the loss of contractile function. Muscle contractile function can be assessed using various techniques including phase‐contrast MRI (PC‐MRI), where strain rates are quantified. However, current two‐dimensional implementations are limited in capturing the complex motion of contracting muscle in the context of its three‐dimensional (3D) fiber architecture. The MR acquisitions (chemical shift‐encoded water–fat separation scan, spin echo‐echoplanar imaging with diffusion weighting, and two time‐resolved 3D PC‐MRI) wereperformed at 3 T. PC‐MRI acquisitions and performed with and without load at 7.5% of the maximum voluntary dorsiflexion contraction force. Acquisitions (3 T, chemical shift‐encoded water–fat separation scan, spin echo‐echo planar imaging with diffusion weighting, and two time‐resolved 3D PC‐MRI) were performed with and without load at 7.5% of the maximum voluntary dorsiflexion contraction force. Strain rates and diffusion tensors were calculated and combined to obtain strain rates along and perpendicular to the muscle fibers in seven lower leg muscles during the dynamic dorsi‐/plantarflexion movement cycle. To evaluate strain rates along the proximodistal muscle axis, muscles were divided into five equal segments. t ‐tests were used to test if cyclic strain rate patterns (amplitude > 0) were present along and perpendicular to the muscle fibers. The effects of proximal‐distal location and load were evaluated using repeated measures ANOVAs. Cyclic temporal strain rate patterns along and perpendicular to the fiber were found in all muscles involved in dorsi‐/plantarflexion movement ( p < 0.0017). Strain rates along and perpendicular to the fiber were heterogeneously distributed over the length of most muscles ( p < 0.003). Additional loading reduced strain rates of the extensor digitorum longus and gastrocnemius lateralis muscle ( p < 0.001). In conclusion, the lower leg muscles involved in cyclic dorsi‐/plantarflexion exercise showed cyclic fiber strain rate patterns with amplitudes that varied between muscles and between the proximodistal segments within the majority of muscles.
While the advent of modern analytical technology has allowed scientists to determine the complexity of mixtures, it also spurred the demand to understand these sophisticated mixtures better. Chemical transformation can...
The phenomenon of a hermitage in a landscape garden has not yet been studied from a transnational historical perspective. In this article we present a European architectural history of the hermitage, paying special attention to Dutch hermitages mentioned in digitised newspapers and other historical sources. The long European history of the hermitage shows that this 18th-century landscape garden folly does not, as is often believed, have an exclusively English origin. The Dutch examples affirm this, although they depart from the standard hermitage narrative in generally being neither royal nor noble. Indeed, they were primarily an urban phenomenon, built predominantly by burghers near cities. As a result, the architecture of the hermit’s hut and its meaning in the landscape garden are different from those in other countries.
Legal harmonisation of cyber laws in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is necessary to combat the transnational nature of cybercrimes. However, this is a difficult task in ASEAN as it requires all ASEAN member states to agree on a uniform cybercrime regulatory framework. The rapid evolution of cybercrime also undermines the strength of a static convention. This leads to the following question: How can a harmonized regulatory framework that would efficiently tackle the rapid evolution of cybercrime be designed? Regrettably, the Budapest Convention failed to facilitate the legal harmonisation in ASEAN with its inability to reach universal consensus. This paper argues that a regional cybercrime court, namely the ASEAN Cybercrime Court, can be an alternative approach to achieving legal harmonisation with the prevalence of cybercrimes. The theoretical framework of this paper is based on the concept of international common law articulated by Andrew Guzman and Timothy Meyer, in which certain members unable to agree on a broad agreement can instead agree to shallow rules to create an institution with authority to promulgate rules. In effect, it reduces the transaction costs for reaching a consensus. This paper also analyses the feasibility and merit of the creation of the ASEAN Cybercrime Court from three aspects: the jurisdiction, the existence of an independent prosecutorʼs office and the legal interpretation. Although the solution is not a perfect answer to legal harmonisation, it serves as a starting point on a path to progress ultimately leading to the conclusion of a binding multilateral treaty.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to over 770 million cases and >6.9 million deaths worldwide. We identified a panel of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein using Harbour H2L2 transgenic mice immunized with Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) (J. A. Duty, T. Kraus, H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, et al., Med 3:705–721, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2022.08.002 ). Representative antibodies from genetically distinct families were evaluated for the inhibition of replication-competent VSV expressing SARS-CoV-2 Spike (rcVSV-S) in the place of VSV-G. One mAb clone denoted FG-10A3 and its therapeutically modified version STI-9167 effectively inhibited infection and in vivo proliferation of early variants of SARS-CoV-2 including Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 and corresponding pseudoviruses and rcVSV-S variants (Duty et al.). To define the epitope of the broadly reactive FG-10A3 mAb, we generated mAb-resistant rcVSV-S virions and performed structural analysis of the antibody/antigen complex using cryo-electron microscopy (EM). FG-10A3/STI-9167 is a Class 1 antibody that prevents Spike-ACE2 binding by engaging a region within the Spike receptor binding motif. Sequencing of mAb-resistant rcVSV-S virions identified F486 as a critical residue for mAb neutralization, with structural analysis revealing that both the variable heavy and light chains of STI-9167 bound the disulfide-stabilized 470–490 loop at the Spike RBD tip. Furthermore, neutralization studies using rcVSV-S F486 point mutants and currently-circulating variants Omicron BA.5, XBB.1.5, and BQ.1.1 that contain a V or P at position 486 further supported the model in which residue 486 is an important residue for FG-10A3 inhibition. This work provides an experimental strategy to define the neutralizing capacity and limitations of mAb therapeutics against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic remains a significant public health concern for the global population; the development and characterization of therapeutics, especially ones that are broadly effective, will continue to be essential as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants emerge. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies remain an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent virus infection and spread so long as they recognize and interact with circulating variants. The epitope and binding specificity of a neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain antibody clone against many SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern were characterized by generating antibody-resistant virions coupled with cryo-EM structural analysis and VSV-spike neutralization studies. This workflow can serve to predict the efficacy of antibody therapeutics against emerging variants and inform the design of therapeutics and vaccines.
The evolution of cooperation is a major question in the biological and behavioral sciences. While most theoretical studies model cooperation in the context of an isolated interaction (e.g., a Prisoner’s Dilemma), humans live in heterogeneous social environments, characterized by large variations in fitness interdependence—the extent to which one’s fitness is affected by others. Theoretical and experimental work indicates that humans can infer, and respond to, variations in interdependence. In a heterogeneous ancestral environment, these psychological mechanisms to infer fitness interdependence could have provided a selective advantage, allowing individuals to maximize their fitness by deciding when and with whom to cooperate. Yet, to date, the link between cognitive inference, variation in fitness interdependence, and cooperation remains unclear. Here we introduce a theoretical framework to study the evolution of inference and cooperation in heterogeneous social environments, where individuals experience interactions with varying levels of corresponding interests. Using a combination of evolutionary game theory and agent-based modeling, we model the evolution of adaptive agents, who incur a cost to infer interdependence, in populations of fixed-behavior agents who always cooperate or defect. Our results indicate that natural selection could promote the evolution of psychological mechanisms to infer fitness interdependence, provided that there is enough variation in fitness interdependence to offset the cost of inference. Under certain conditions, the fixation of adaptive agents results in higher levels of cooperation. This depends crucially on the type of inference performed and the features of the interdependence landscape.
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