Background To evaluate the precision of corneal higher-order aberrations measurements after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) using the Sirius Scheimpflug-Placido topographer (CSO, Italy). Methods Seventy-five eyes from 75 postoperative subjects were included in this prospective study. Three consecutive corneal aberrometric measurements were obtained with the Scheimpflug-Placido topographer by two experienced operators to assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. The within-subject standard deviation (S w ), test-retest repeatability (TRT) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results For intraobserver repeatability of anterior and total corneal aberrations, all ICCs were more than 0.922, except for trefoil (0.722 to 0.768). The ICCs of total root mean square (RMS), coma Z (3, ± 1), and spherical aberration Z (4, 0) were over 0.810 while higher-order RMS, trefoil Z (3, ± 3), and astigmatism II Z (4, ± 2) were below 0.634 for posterior corneal surface aberrations. All S w values for all types of aberrations were equal to or below 0.07 μm. Regarding interobserver reproducibility, all TRT values were no more than 0.12 μm, 0.05 μm, and 0.11 μm for anterior, posterior, and total corneal aberrations, respectively. The ICC values ranged from 0.875 to 0.989, from 0.686 to 0.976 and over 0.834 for anterior, posterior, and total corneal aberrations, respectively. Conclusions The repeatability of measurements of anterior and total corneal aberrations with the Sirius system in corneas after SMILE surgery was high, except for trefoil. There was some variability in posterior corneal aberrometric measurements. High reproducibility of corneal aberrometric measurements was observed between measurements of both examiners, except for trefoil, with poor to moderate reproducibility.
Background This study aimed to provide reference values for body fat (BF) of basketball players considering sex, measurement method, and competitive level. Methods A systematic literature research was conducted using five electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Scopus). BF values were extracted, with analyses conducted using random-effects models and data reported as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results After screening, 80 articles representing 4335 basketball players were selected. Pooled mean BF was 13.1% (95% CI 12.4–13.8%) for male players and 20.7% (95% CI 19.9–21.5%) for female players. Pooled mean BF was 21.4% (95% CI 18.4–24.3%) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 15.2% (95% CI 12.8–17.6%) via bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), 12.4% (95% CI 10.6–14.2%) via skinfolds and 20.0% (95% CI 13.4–26.6%) via air displacement plethysmography. Pooled mean BF across competitive levels were 13.5% (95% CI 11.6–15.3%) for international, 15.7% (95% CI 14.2–17.2%) for national and 15.1% (95% CI 13.5–16.7%) for regional-level players. As the meta-regression revealed significant effects of sex, measurement method and competitive level on BF, the meta-analysis was adjusted for these moderators. The final model revealed significant differences in BF between male and female players ( p < 0.001). BF measured by DXA was significantly higher than that measured by BIA or skinfolds ( p < 0.001). International-level players had significantly lower BF than national and regional-level players ( p < 0.05). Conclusions Despite the limitations of published data, this meta-analysis provides reference values for BF of basketball players. Sex, measurement method and competitive level influence BF values, and therefore must be taken into account when interpreting results.
Background: Ocular surface disease in glaucoma patients is a significant ocular co-morbidity that can affect 40% to 59% of these patients worldwide. The current study was aimed at evaluating the potential clinical benefit of an intense pulsed light (IPL)-based treatment in glaucomatous patients with ocular surface disease due to prolonged hypotensive eyedrop treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first series analyzing the therapeutic effect of this treatment option in this type of patients. Methods: This non-comparative prospective case series study enrolled a total of 30 glaucoma patients ranging in age from 57 to 94 years old and treated with hypotensive eyedrops for years with dry eye symptomatology. All patients received four sessions of IPL treatment using the Optima IPL system (Lumenis, Yokneam, Israel) adjusted to the official optimized Lumenis setting. Changes in symptomatology, corneal staining, conjunctival hyperemia, non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT), tear osmolarity, tear meniscus height (TMH), meiboscore and meibomian gland expressibility was analyzed after treatment. Results: Statistically significant reductions were observed after IPL treatment in the symptomatology scores measured with different questionnaires [ocular surface disease index (OSDI), standard patient evaluation of eye dryness (SPEED) and symptom assessment questionnaire in dry eye (SANDE)] as well as with the visual analogue scale (P < 0.001). Mean change in OSDI was - 15.0 ± 11.3. A significant reduction was found after treatment in the corneal staining score (P < 0.001). A significant reduction was found in tear film meniscus height (P = 0.012), as well as in tear film osmolarity (P = 0.001). A significant reduction was also found in meibomian gland expressibility (P = 0.003), changing the percentage of grade 3 eyes from 44.4% before IPL to 17.2% after treatment. Conclusions: IPL therapy combined with meibomian gland expression (MGX) seems to be an effective option to improve symptomatology in glaucomatous patients with ocular surface disease due to prolonged hypotensive eyedrop treatments, with an additional improvement in clinical signs, such as tear osmolarity and corneal staining.
Las inundaciones son el riesgo natural que genera mayores impactos socioeconómicos y territoriales en el litoral mediterráneo español. El aumento en la frecuencia de este tipo de eventos y una desajustada ocupación del suelo ha elevado la exposición y la vulnerabilidad de territorios y poblaciones en las últimas décadas. El mapa es el documento de acreditación legal del riesgo y pieza clave para la toma de decisiones en las distintas escalas geográficas de la ordenación territorial. Este trabajo plantea una evaluación multiescalar del tratamiento de la cartografía de riesgo de inundación en los instrumentos de ordenación territorial y analiza el grado de vinculación entre ellos. Se analizan los casos de la Comunidad Valenciana y Andalucía, territorios altamente expuestos y vulnerables ante inundaciones. Los resultados identifican importantes retos conceptuales y metodológicos, especialmente en los documentos de planificación urbana y en lo referente a cuestiones ligadas con la evaluación de la vulnerabilidad.
Digital Transformation is upending businesses everywhere. While there is ample research on this topic, there is a clear gap when it comes to understanding the changing talent management role of senior executives in digital transformation processes and the demands of individual employees. This article relies on 23 in-depth interviews with senior managers who are leading all or some of the digital transformation efforts of their respective organizations. Our research, using a grounded theory approach, identifies four key activities (and 37 sub-activities or themes) stemming from the new managerial needs and talent management practices arising from DT processes. We branded these key activities “Drive business change”, “Master fluid & loose organizational structures”, “Master Talent Complexity”, and “Prioritize learning”. This paper aims to provide an overview into the thinking and managerial practices of senior executives in a digital transformation context and complements the limited number of studies that examine the intersection between managerial actions and digital transformation. It also provides a conceptual framework that captures the key managerial demands arising from digital transformation processes and identifies key actions made by senior executives as part of these processes, which can be leveraged by both scholars and practitioners alike.
The Late Bronze Age (1700–900 BC) represents an extremely dynamic period for Mediterranean Europe. Here, we provide a comparative survey of the archaeological record of over half a millennium within the entire northern littoral of the Mediterranean, from Greece to Iberia, incorporating archaeological, archaeometric, and bioarchaeological evidence. The picture that emerges, while certainly fragmented and not displaying a unique trajectory, reveals a number of broad trends in aspects as different as social organization, trade, transcultural phenomena, and human mobility. The contribution of such trends to the processes that caused the end of the Bronze Age is also examined. Taken together, they illustrate how networks of interaction, ranging from the short to the long range, became a defining aspect of the “Middle Sea” during this time, influencing the lives of the communities that inhabited its northern shore. They also highlight the importance of research that crosses modern boundaries for gaining a better understanding of broad comparable dynamics.
Pd–N-heterocyclic carbine complex immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles is synthesized and characterized by different techniques such as FT-IR, XPS, TEM, EDX, FESEM, VSM, TGA, and ICP. The synthesized catalyst was used as a new water dispersible heterogeneous catalyst in the fluoride-free Hiyama, Suzuki–Miyaura and cyanation reactions in pure water. By this method, different types of biaryls and aryl nitriles were synthesized in good to high yields by the reaction of a variety of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with triethoxyphenylsilane, phenylboronic acid and K4[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O, respectively. The presence of sulfonates as hydrophilic groups on the surface of the catalyst confers a highly water dispersible, active and yet magnetically recoverable Pd catalyst. The possibility to perform the reaction in water as a green medium, ease of the catalyst recovery and reuse by magnetic separation, and the absence of any additives or co-solvents make this method as an eco-friendly and economical protocol for the synthesis of biaryl derivatives and aryl nitriles. Graphic Abstract A new water dispersible heterogeneous Pd–N-heterocyclic carbene for the efficient fluoride-free Hiyama, Suzuki–Miyaura and cyanation reactions in pure water is developed.
The development of silvicultural practices that seek to promote structural heterogeneity is increasingly demanded. This work investigates the effect of thinning spatial pattern on the response to pre-commercial thinning of dense Aleppo pine post-fire stands. On three replicated experimental sites in SE Spain, we applied the following treatments: 600 trees/ha, regular thinning pattern (600R), with residual trees evenly spaced; 600 trees/ha, aggregated thinning pattern (600A), with residual pines arranged in clumps of ∽25 trees with a local within-clump density of 2500 trees/ha; and control treatment, with no thinning applied (> 20,000 trees/ha). We assessed treatment effects on pine growth, size-growth relationships, soil water content, and understory vegetation over the first three years after thinning application. Both regular and aggregated thinning pattern similarly increased pine radial growth. In general, dbh growth rates in response to thinning were faster for smaller trees than for larger trees. The growth rate of pine height was higher for 600R and control than for 600A, indicating a positive effect on height of both low and very high pine densities. We found a near-term positive effect of aggregated pattern on water availability at the stand level, mostly resulting from enhanced soil water content in the canopy gaps. For both thinning patterns, the recovery of understory vegetation was dominated by resprouter species. This study highlights the potential of aggregated thinning patterns to enhance the complexity and heterogeneity of the pine stands without compromising pine growth, which could be of great use to managing pine forests in Mediterranean areas.
This note is devoted to the splitting algorithm proposed by Davis and Yin (Set-valued Var. Anal. 25 (4), 829–858, 2017) for computing a zero of the sum of three maximally monotone operators, with one of them being cocoercive. We provide a direct proof that guarantees its convergence when the stepsizes are smaller than four times the cocoercivity constant, thus doubling the size of the interval established by Davis and Yin. As a by-product, the same conclusion applies to the forward-backward splitting algorithm. Further, we use the notion of “strengthening” of a set-valued operator to derive a new splitting algorithm for computing the resolvent of the sum. Last but not least, we provide some numerical experiments illustrating the importance of appropriately choosing the stepsize and relaxation parameters of the algorithms.
In this work we deal with set-valued functions with values in the power set of a separated locally convex space where a nontrivial pointed convex cone induces a partial order relation. A set-valued function is evenly convex if its epigraph is an evenly convex set, i.e., it is the intersection of an arbitrary family of open half-spaces. In this paper we characterize evenly convex set-valued functions as the pointwise supremum of its set-valued e-affine minorants. Moreover, a suitable conjugation pattern will be developed for these functions, as well as the counterpart of the biconjugation Fenchel-Moreau theorem.
We report for the first time the support dependent activity and selectivity of Ni-rich nickel phosphide catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation. New catalysts for CO2 hydrogenation are needed to commercialise the reverse water–gas shift reaction (RWGS) which can feed captured carbon as feedstock for traditionally fossil fuel-based processes, as well as to develop flexible power-to-gas schemes that can synthesise chemicals on demand using surplus renewable energy and captured CO2. Here we show that Ni2P/SiO2 is a highly selective catalyst for RWGS, producing over 80% CO in the full temperature range of 350–750 °C. This indicates a high degree of suppression of the methanation reaction by phosphide formation, as Ni catalysts are known for their high methanation activity. This is shown to not simply be a site blocking effect, but to arise from the formation of a new more active site for RWGS. When supported on Al2O3 or CeAl, the dominant phase of as synthesized catalysts is Ni12P5. These Ni12P5 catalysts behave very differently compared to Ni2P/SiO2, and show activity for methanation at low temperatures with a switchover to RWGS at higher temperatures (reaching or approaching thermodynamic equilibrium behaviour). This switchable activity is interesting for applications where flexibility in distributed chemicals production from captured CO2 can be desirable. Both Ni12P5/Al2O3 and Ni12P5/CeAl show excellent stability over 100 h on stream, where they switch between methanation and RWGS reactions at 50–70% conversion. Catalysts are characterized before and after reactions via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR, TPO), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and BET surface area measurement. After reaction, Ni2P/SiO2 shows the emergence of a crystalline Ni12P5 phase while Ni12P5/Al2O3 and Ni12P5/CeAl both show the crystalline Ni3P phase. While stable activity of the latter catalysts is demonstrated via extended testing, this Ni enrichment in all phosphide catalysts shows the dynamic nature of the catalysts during operation. Moreover, it demonstrates that both the support and the phosphide phase play a key role in determining selectivity towards CO or CH4.
An effective management of waste printed circuit board (WCB) recycling presents significant advantages of an economic, social, and environmental nature. This is particularly the case when a suitable valorisation is made of the non-metallic parts of the WCBs, well known for their “hidden” toxicological risks. Such benefits motivate research on techniques that could contribute to mitigating their adverse socio-environmental impacts. In this work, waste printed circuit boards (WCBs) containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) as a brominated flame retardant (BFR) underwent debromination using a mechanochemical treatment (MCT) and marble sludge, another recoverable waste, as well as pure CaO as additives. All runs in this work were performed at an intermediate rotation speed of 450 rpm, using additive/WCB mass ratios (Rm) of 4:1 and 8:1, ball to powder ratios (BPR) of 20:1 and 50:1, treatment times from 2.5 h to 10 h, two WCB sizes (powder and 0.84 mm) and marble sludge, from original to precalcined conditioning. Stainless steel jars and balls were used to verify the effect of each parameter on the system and to seek an optimum process. Complete debromination of 0.84 mm WCBs was achieved at 450 rpm, using a Rm of 8:1, a BPR of 50:1, a residence time of 10 h (more than 95% in only 5 h), and a precalcined marble sludge as additive. The results revealed that when using a Rm of 4:1 instead of 8:1, more waste could be effectively treated, per batch with a lesser need for additives, at the expense of a slightly lower level of debromination efficiency. In the same way, an appropriate apparent ball diameter (with respect to the volume of the used jar) should be carefully studied in relation to WCB size in order to achieve a beneficial total amount of energy transfer during milling.
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a remote sensing technique with multiple uses throughout scientific fields. It can also be used to transfer point data measured in the field to broader spatial scales, which might enable the evaluation of habitats over large areas and define biodiversity hotspots. Our study took place in Cabañeros National Park, which is situated in the Mediterranean, namely, central Spain, and its vegetation is dominated by forest and impenetrable scrubland. LiDAR was used to detect veteran trees as key elements for a highly diverse saproxylic community. The saproxylic beetle community inhabiting tree hollows was studied among different forest types and habitats to determine its preferences. We identified potential hotspots for the saproxylic beetle community of tree hollows both inside and outside of the park, as well as the connectivity of suitable habitat patches. This was based on the species response to the spatial partitioning of the landscape. We found that not all potentially suitable forest types hosted the same saproxylic diversity or similar species compositions. In addition, forest distribution and connectivity inside and outside of the park also varied highly among forest types and habitats, where the most diverse deciduous oak forest was also the least connected together with the riparian forest. The evergreen oak forest could act as a habitat linkage for most of the threatened and less mobile species in the park. However, the low connectivity of the most diverse forest types in the park surroundings can compromise the persistence of saproxylic diversity in the near future. We concluded that LiDAR data were an effective tool for estimating saproxylic beetle diversity distribution over large-scale areas in the context of landscapes with low accessibility. Additionally, this tool allowed us to identify the most threatened forest types and critical patches for connectivity persistence where management practices capable of accelerating tree veteranisation could help to increase adequate forest connectivity in the region.
Existing research for the assistance of visually impaired people mainly focus on solving a single task (such as reading a text or detecting an obstacle), hence forcing the user to switch applications to perform other actions. This paper proposes an interactive system for mobile devices controlled by hand gestures that allow the user to control the device and use several assistance tools by making simple static and dynamic hand gestures (e.g., pointing a finger at an object will show a description of it). The system is based on a multi-head neural network, which initially detects and classifies the gestures, and subsequently, depending on the gesture detected, performs a second stage that carries out the corresponding action. This architecture optimizes the resources required to perform different tasks, it takes advantage of the information obtained from an initial backbone to perform different processes in a second stage. To train and evaluate the system, a dataset with about 40k images was manually compiled and labeled including different types of hand gestures, backgrounds (indoors and outdoors), lighting conditions, etc. This dataset contains synthetic gestures (whose objective is to pre-train the system to improve the results) and real images captured using different mobile phones. The comparison made with nearly 50 state-of-the-art methods shows competitive results as regards the different actions performed by the system, such as the accuracy of classification and localization of gestures, or the generation of descriptions for objects and scenes.
Forests of the Mediterranean Basin provide a wide range of provisioning and regulating services that are currently jeopardised by land-use change. Although many ecosystem services are mediated by insects, most of the studies that have focused on how to enhance diversity in traditionally managed forests are about plants and vertebrates. Quercus pyrenaica woodlands of the Western Iberian Peninsula constitute a scenario in which traditional human practices (i.e., extensive livestock grazing, pollarding, firewood, forest thinning, etc.), and their progressive abandonment, have generated differences in landscape that affect habitat and microhabitat structures. We used saproxylic beetles (deadwood-dependent species) as biological indicators because they are the most diverse taxa and provide important ecosystem services related to deadwood decomposition, forest pest control and pollination. We modelled the response of two taxonomic (species richness and abundance), one ecological (species diversity of order 1) and two functional (functional richness and redundancy) diversity metrics to the environmental variables that result from traditional management or its abandonment at habitat and microhabitat levels. We included 16 explanatory variables related to forest structure, tree microhabitats and abiotic factors, which were grouped into eight principal components. Linear regression was the best fitting model for data. The resulting models were used to perform diversity predictions in different scenarios. We found that abandonment of some traditional forest management activities in the Mediterranean Region reduced taxonomic saproxylic beetle diversity, which may be further aggravated by climate change. We suggest minimal management actions to improve taxonomic and ecological saproxylic beetle diversity related to habitat and tree management (i.e., maintenance of >20% scrub coverage, >20 m³/ha of deadwood on soil and >20 hollow trees/ha). However, actions that boost saproxylic biodiversity do not ensure the community’s higher functional resilience. We should also promote tree microhabitat diversity to reduce the vulnerability of saproxylic beetle functions to environmental changes.
A well-known classical result states that c0 is linearly embeddable in a Banach lattice if and only if it is lattice embeddable. Improving results of H.P. Lotz, H.P. Rosenthal and N. Ghoussoub, we prove that C[0,1] shares this property with c0. Furthermore, we show that any infinite-dimensional closed sublattice of C[0,1] is either lattice isomorphic to c0 or contains a closed sublattice isomorphic to C[0,1]. As a consequence, it is proved that for a separable Banach lattice X the following conditions are equivalent: (1)X is linearly embeddable in a Banach lattice if and only if it is lattice embeddable; (2)X is lattice embeddable into C[0,1].
In human-wildlife conflicts, it is crucial to develop accurate protocols for the reliable verification of the causative species and its relationship with potential damage claims. One of such conflicts is that occurring between apiarists and bee-eaters. In this work, we aim to assess the utility of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) as an efficient methodology to measure European bee-eater (Merops apiaster) predation pressure at beehives and its impact on honeybees foraging activity. Using Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs) in apiaries, coupled to automated recognition methods for bee-eater calls identification, we found a positive relationship between Vocal Activity Rate (VAR) index and number of bee-eaters hunting attempts on honeybees. We also found that VAR varied over time, showing a lower predation pressure during midday hours and higher during the post-breeding migratory period. Honeybees flying activity was negatively associated with VAR and this relationship was conditioned by the hour of the day. Our study offers a new application of PAM and acoustic derived indices for the evaluation of potential damages caused by wildlife. We focused on the interaction between honeybees and the European bee-eater, but we expect PAM might be useful also to remotely monitor impacts to human activities produced by other vocally active species.
The biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) has gained an overwhelming interest due to their biological applications. However, NPs synthesis by pigmented extreme halophiles remains underexplored. The NPs synthesis using pigmented halophiles is inexpensive and less toxic than other processes. In this study, pigmented halophilic microorganisms (n = 77) were screened to synthesize silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) with silver nitrate as metal precursors, and their biological applications were assessed. The synthesis of AgCl-NPs was possible using the crude extract from cellular lysis (CECL) of six extreme halophiles. Two of the AgCl-NPs viz. AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs synthesized by the CECL of Haloferax alexandrinus RK_AK2 and Haloferax lucentense RK_MY6, respectively, exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory activities. The surface plasmon resonance of the AgCl-NPs was determined with UV spectroscopy. XRD analysis of AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs confirmed the presence of silver in the form of chlorargyrite (silver chloride) having a cubic structure. The crystallite size of AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs, estimated with the Scherrer formula, was 115.81 nm and 137.50 nm. FTIR analysis verified the presence of diverse functional groups. Dynamic light-scattering analysis confirmed that the average size distribution of NPs was 71.02 nm and 117.36 nm for AK2-NPs and MY6-NPs, respectively, with monodisperse nature. The functional group in 1623–1641 cm⁻¹ indicated the presence of protein β-sheet structure and shifting of amino and hydroxyl groups from the pigmented CECL, which helps in capping and stabilizing nanoparticles. The study provides evidence that CECL of Haloferax species can rapidly synthesize NPs with unique characteristics and biological applications.
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