Resumen Objetivo: la atención centrada en la familia durante procedimientos invasivos ha sido respaldada por muchas organizaciones profesionales dedicadas al cuidado de la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las actitudes de los profesionales de la salud con respecto a la presencia de los padres durante los procedimientos invasivos realizados en niños. Método: a los prestadores de atención médica en Pediatría (divididos en categorías profesionales y rangos de edad) de uno de los hospitales más importantes de España se les solicitó que respondieran un cuestionario y redactaran comentarios de texto libre. Resultados: un total de 227 profesionales respondieron la encuesta. En sus respuestas, la mayoría (72%) de los participantes informó que, en ocasiones, los padres están presentes durante las intervenciones, aunque se registraron diferencias entre las distintas categorías profesionales al respecto. Los procedimientos en los que los padres estuvieron presentes se consideraron como “menos invasivos” (96% de los casos), mientras que solamente el 4% estuvo presente en los considerados “más invasivos”. A mayor edad de los profesionales, menos necesaria se consideró la presencia de los padres. Conclusión: las actitudes con respecto a la presencia de los padres durante procedimientos pediátricos invasivos se vieron influenciadas por la categoría profesional, la edad del prestador de salud y la invasividad de los procedimientos.
Objective: family-centered care during invasive procedures has been endorsed by many professional health care organizations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health professionals' attitudes towards parental presence during their child's invasive procedure. Method: pediatric healthcare providers (divided in professional categories and range of ages) from one of the Spain's largest hospitals were asked to complete a questionnaire and write free-text comments. Results: 227 responded the survey. Most (72%) participants, in their answers, reported that parents are sometimes present during interventions, although there were differences between professional categories in this respect. The procedures in which the parents were present were those considered "less invasive" (96% of cases), while only 4% were present in those considered "more invasive". The older the professional, the less necessary parental presence was considered. Conclusion: the attitudes towards parental presence during pediatric invasive procedure are influenced by the professional category, the age of the healthcare provider and the invasiveness of the procedure.
Resumo Objetivo: o atendimento centrado na família durante procedimentos invasivos tem sido endossado por muitas organizações profissionais de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as atitudes dos profissionais de saúde em relação à presença dos pais durante o procedimento invasivo realizado em seus filhos. Método: os prestadores de serviços de saúde pediátricos (divididos em categorias profissionais e faixa etária) de um dos maiores hospitais da Espanha foram solicitados a preencher um questionário e escrever comentários de texto livre. Resultados: a pesquisa foi respondida por 227 pessoas. A maioria (72%) dos participantes, em suas respostas, relatou que os pais algumas vezes estão presentes durante as intervenções, embora houvesse diferenças entre as categorias profissionais a esse respeito. Os procedimentos em que os pais estavam presentes eram aqueles considerados “menos invasivos” (96% dos casos), enquanto apenas 4% estavam presentes naqueles considerados “mais invasivos”. Quanto mais velho o profissional, a presença dos pais foi considerada menos necessária. Conclusão: as atitudes em relação à presença dos pais durante o procedimento pediátrico invasivo são influenciadas pela categoria profissional, a idade do prestador de serviço de saúde e a invasividade do procedimento.
One of the justifications for promoting tourism development is the capacity that it has to generate spillover effects on traditional economic activities. However, the strength of these spillover effects depends, largely, on the complementary or competitive nature of the traditional sector with respect to the resources used by tourism. Using time series analysis techniques, this paper examines the relationship existing between tourism development and the local fisheries sector. The results suggest that fisheries have been benefiting from growth in tourism, not so much in terms of an increase in the volume of catches but rather due to an increase in their value.
Objective The aim of the present study was to examine whether 10‐20‐30 training (consecutive 1‐min intervals consisting of 30 s at low‐speed, 20 s at moderate‐speed, and 10 s at high‐speed), performed with submaximal effort during the 10‐s high‐speed runs, would lead to improved performance as well as increased maximum oxygen uptake (VO2‐max) and muscle oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). In addition, to examine to what extent the effects would compare to 10‐20‐30 running conducted with maximal effort. Design Nineteen males were randomly assigned to 10‐20‐30 running performed with either submaximal (SUBMAX; n = 11) or maximal (MAX; n = 8) effort, which was conducted three times/week for 6 weeks (intervention; INT). Before and after INT, subjects completed a 5‐km running test and a VO2‐max test, and a biopsy was obtained from m. vastus lateralis. Results After compared to before INT, SUBMAX and MAX improved (p < 0.05) 5‐km performance by 3.0% (20.8 ± 0.4 (means±SE) vs. 21.5 ± 0.4 min) and 2.3% (21.2 ± 0.4 vs. 21.6 ± 0.4 min), respectively, and VO2‐max was ~7% higher (p < 0.01) in both SUBMAX (57.0 ± 1.3 vs. 53.5 ± 1.1 mL/min/kg) and MAX (57.8 ± 1.2 vs. 53.7 ± 0.9 mL/min/kg), with no difference in the changes between groups. In SUBMAX, muscle OXPHOS was unchanged, whereas in MAX, muscle OXPHOS subunits (I‐IV) and total OXPHOS (5.5 ± 0.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.3 A.U.) were 9%–29% higher (p < 0.05) after compared to before INT. Conclusion Conducting 10‐20‐30 training with a non‐maximal effort during the 10‐s high‐speed runs is as efficient in improving 5‐km performance and VO2‐max as maximal effort exercise, whereas increase in muscle OXPHOS occur only when the 10‐s high‐speed runs are performed with maximal effort.
In this work, we investigate for the first time Nariai-like black hole solutions in four dimensional space time with spherical symmetry in the context of scale-dependent gravity. In particular, we construct self-consistent solutions in such a way that the classical one that coming from Einstein theory) is also contained into our new results. We start by considering a truncated effective Einstein–Hilbert action with cosmological constant in which both the gravitational and the cosmological couplings are elevated to scale-dependent functions (instead of being coupling constants), taking advantage of the scale-dependent scenario, which is a concrete and simple approach strongly inspired by asymptotically safe gravity. We briefly discuss black hole thermodynamics and and compare it with its classical counterpart. The impact of non-Einsteinian features is encoded by the scale-dependent parameter, $$\epsilon $$ ϵ . A few comments regarding the topology of the solution and their impact are also mentioned.
This paper discusses the emergence of new rhyming slang for the concepts surrounding the coronavirus pandemic. Given that this slang is not currently at its most productive (see Thorne, 2014: x-xi; Green, 2017: 1; Burridge & Manns, 2022), it may be surprising to learn that a new set of rhymes has been created to refer to a new reality of pandemic life. In this respect, it is worth noting that rhyming slang serves one of the main purposes of slang in general (see Partridge, 1970: 6) which is to function as a coping strategy for the primal fears of disease and death.
Considering recent research that suggested linear relationships do not always explain the business reality well and the complexity and uniqueness of the underlying relationships between familiarity and the tourism enterprise, we propose to assess whether there is a nonlinear relationship between family involvement and the development of dynamic capabilities of sensing, capturing opportunities and reconfiguring their resources. To model and test the underlying relationships, we have used the PLS technique based on structural equation model (PLS-SEM). Our sample of study is composed by 107 Spanish hotel chains located in Spain.
The popularity and awareness of knowledge management has increased dramatically in recent decades. However, intellectual capital research remains fragmented and far from conclusive. These phenomena may be related to the underdevelopment of studies analyzing U-shaped relationships in the field of strategic management. Researchers fail to explain the relationships between different latent mechanisms because they are not using adequate procedures to detect the presence of nonlinear or U-shaped relationships. Therefore, the aim of this research is to explore the intellectual capital in the hotel industry and to analyze the U-shaped relationship between intellectual capital and hotel performance. Structural equation model based on the variance (PLS-SEM) was used to link data and theory in our research that includes moderator variables and nonlinear effect relationships.
Renal cancer is one of the ten most common cancers in the population that affects 65,000 new patients a year. Nowadays, to predict pathologies or classify tumors, deep learning (DL) methods are effective in addition to extracting high-performance features and dealing with segmentation tasks. This review has focused on the different studies related to the application of DL techniques for the detection or segmentation of renal tumors in patients. From the bibliographic search carried out, a total of 33 records were identified in Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science. The results derived from the systematic review give a detailed description of the research objectives, the types of images used for analysis, the data sets used, whether the database used is public or private, and the number of patients involved in the studies. The first paper where DL is applied compared to other types of tumors was in 2019 which is relatively recent. Public collection and sharing of data sets are of utmost importance to increase research in this field as many studies use private databases. We can conclude that future research will identify many benefits, such as unnecessary incisions for patients and more accurate diagnoses. As research in this field grows, the amount of open data is expected to increase.
Background Globalization and population migration have led to increasingly culturally diverse societies, which has made nursing education in cultural competence and transcultural care a priority. This includes the ability to provide person-centered and culturally congruent care, even within one's own culture. However, this sort of training has been developed and implemented in practice comparatively more by English-speaking societies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the existing educational initiatives for nurses and future ones in cultural competence and transcultural care in Spanish and explore their didactic characteristics in terms of teaching and learning formats, contents, skills, and evaluation methods at different academic levels. Methods A scoping review was carried out by following the specific PRISMA recommendations and those of the Joanna Briggs Institute guidance throughout PudMed, Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cinahl databases and also gray literature in the form of official documentation that later was complemented with a gap analysis including training programs published by Spanish and Latin-American educational institutions and the approaches of key academic informants. Results The published evidence on nursing training in cultural competence or related topics in Spanish-speaking higher education for nurses is limited. Specific nursing programs in Spanish-speaking universities are primarily found in Spain, with fewer options available in Latin America. These contents are offered either as optional subjects or immersed in other courses and mainly taught in theoretical sessions. Practice in real contexts is supposed to be evaluated transversally under the cultural scope according to national educational recommendations though barely visible in students’ evaluation reports. Even though postgraduate training dedicated to these issues exists, it is still limited, mixed with other contents, and generally depends on a few researchers investigating and publishing on the topic from very specific universities. Conclusions It is essential to establish a common global strategy including Spanish-speaking countries in nurses’ higher education and professional training on topics focused on cultural competence as well as the provision of nurses’ social and cultural sensitivity towards their own culture and to define whether those that currently exist are effective. It is also crucial that this training was evaluated in practice in order to achieve enough impact on students, health organizations, and population health.
Industrial structure upgrading (ISU) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been improving in recent years, making it essential to examine how such upgrading influences pollution emissions in SSA. However, studies concerning the environment in SSA have overlooked this important role. Consequently, achieving the Sustainable Development Goals becomes futile if such critical issues are not given due attention in policy discourse. In light of this, this study examined the effect of ISU on pollution emissions in 28 SSA countries using data from 1980 to 2020 and employed two key measures of ISU as contributions to the literature. Regarding the analysis, the fixed effects, random effects, and feasible generalized least squares estimators and the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (D-H) causality test were employed. The results show that ISU improves the sustainable environment by reducing pollution emissions in SSA by 0.03-0.04%. Furthermore, economic growth (EG) increases pollution emissions by 0.63-0.72%, but after reaching a threshold level of 0.10%, EG reduces pollution emissions by 0.03-0.04%. This confirms the EKC hypothesis in the selected SSAs. The D-H causality analysis also reveals a bidirectional relationship between ISU and pollution emissions. Based on these results, we conclude that upgrading the industrial structure in SSA is crucial for a clean and sustainable environment.
Tree transpiration considerably contributes to evaporative fluxes to the atmosphere in terrestrial ecosystems. Accurate transpiration quantification provides relevant information about forest water use and may benefit adaptive forest management, especially in a global change context. Tree transpiration can be measured by several methods, and sap flow measurements are one of the most valued. However, species-specific validations of these techniques are required to avoid undesirable bias. This is especially relevant in species with low transpiration rates where errors may be relevant , such as Aleppo pine trees (Pinus halepensis Mill.). Moreover, another significant source of uncertainty in sap flow measurements is probe misalignment. Hence, the aim of this study was to correlate transpiration rates estimated by sap flow probes using the heat ratio method (T HRM) and load cells to independently monitor water transpiration in juvenile Aleppo pine trees. The corrections to improve transpiration measures, including misalignment correction, were applied to T HRM results to test if the accuracy of results improved. These measurements were recorded in greenhouse under controlled conditions to implement different environmental conditions. The environmental variables that ruled the experiment, mainly vapour pressure deficit and soil water availability, spanned in a wide range of values. The results showed an accurate linear correspondence between T OBS and T HRM for low and medium values, but moderate underestimations at high transpiration rates were observed. These underestimations were partly removed when applying probe misalignment correction. This study supports the notion that HRM offers accurate Aleppo pine transpira-tion estimations with low and medium values under a variety of abiotic conditions, which also has implications for HRM application in other isohydric species. The results also support the interest in the use of probe misalignment correction to estimate transpiration, mainly when high transpiration values are recorded. The results of this study can be considered as a preliminary approach for future research in order to improve the estimates of the transpiration rates of the Aleppo pine under the limiting conditions of the Mediterranean.
Human skin segmentation is a crucial task in computer vision and biometric systems, yet it poses several challenges such as variability in skin colour, pose, and illumination. This paper presents a robust data-driven skin segmentation method for a single image that addresses these challenges through the integration of contextual information and efficient network design. In addition to robustness and accuracy, the integration into real-time systems requires a careful balance between computational power, speed, and performance. The proposed method incorporates two attention modules, Body Attention and Skin Attention, that utilize contextual information to improve segmentation results. These modules draw attention to the desired areas, focusing on the body boundaries and skin pixels, respectively. Additionally, an efficient network architecture is employed in the encoder part to minimize computational power while retaining high performance. To handle the issue of noisy labels in skin datasets, the proposed method uses a weakly supervised training strategy, relying on the Skin Attention module. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is comparable to, or outperforms, state-of-the-art methods on benchmark datasets.
Pollinators play a crucial role in ecosystems globally, ensuring the seed production of most flowering plants. They are threatened by global changes and knowledge of their distribution at the national and continental levels is needed to implement efficient conservation actions, but this knowledge is still fragmented and/or difficult to access. As a step forward, we provide an updated list of around 3000 European bee and hoverfly species, reflecting their current distributional status at the national level (in the form of present, absent, regionally extinct, possibly extinct or non-native). This work was attainable by incorporating both published and unpublished data, as well as knowledge from a large set of taxonomists and ecologists in both groups. After providing the first National species lists for bees and hoverflies for many countries, we examine the current distributional patterns of these species and designate the countries with highest levels of species richness. We also show that many species are recorded in a single European country, highlighting the importance of articulating European and national conservation strategies. Finally, we discuss how the data provided here can be combined with future trait and Red List data to implement research that will further advance pollinator conservation.
Background: The interactions between behavior, environment and personal factors are the basis of the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, A. 1986. Social Foundations of Thought and Action. NJ: Prentice Halls). Within this theory, students’ behavior and motivation toward an activity is dependent on their feelings, thoughts and beliefs (Lodewyck and Pybus 2013. “Investigating Factors in the Retention of Students in High School Physical Education.” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 32 (1): 61–77). Physical education can provide attractive contexts to promote students’ learning, but this depends on the teachers’ ability to offer them relevant educational experiences (Bailey, R. 2018. “Sport, Physical Education and Educational Worth.” Educational Review 70 (1): 51–66). Meaningful physical education is a pedagogical approach whose aim is to help teachers design significant experiences for all students (Beni, S., T. Fletcher, and D. Ní Chróinín. 2022. “‘It’s not a Linear Thing; There are a Lot of Intersecting Circles’: Factors Influencing Teachers’ Implementation of Meaningful Physical Education.” Teaching and Teacher Education 117: 103806). Physical education is a compulsory subject in Spain, but it is not included in the final year of high school. In 2018, one autonomous community decided to offer it as an elective subject in this course. Scholars and institutions claim for more hours of physical education. But, what about the students? Do they really want more? Purpose: The goal of the present study was to uncover the reasons why students selected, or not, physical education when it was included as an elective subject in their final year of high school. Participants and settings: A total of 795 year-13 students (17–18 years), enrolled in 13 different high schools participated. 444 (55.8%) had not selected physical education (61.71% females), while 351 (44.2%) did selected it (44.44% females). Convenience sampling was used to include participants, considering the possibilities of the researchers to access them. Research design: The study followed an ex post facto, transversal, prospective research design to gather data in a single time point (Cohen, L., K. Manion, and K. Morrison. 2011. Research Methods in Education. Routledge). Within this framework, a qualitative research design was selected to obtain rich, detailed, and heavily contextualized information from the source (Creswell, J. W. 2013. Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches. Sage). The participants responded to an open-ended question 3–4 weeks after the beginning of the school year to ‘fully explain the reason(s) for (not) selecting physical education in the final year of high school’. The qualitative software package MAXQDA 11 was used to help with data administration. Results: The deep analysis of the participants’ responses produced five themes for not selecting physical education (from strong to weak): academic stress, negative experiences, out-of-school physical activity, timetable, and importance, and four themes for selecting it: grade point average, importance, sport, and positive experiences. Conclusions: Results indicate that many students would eliminate physical education from their timetables if they had the chance. In many cases, it does not provide meaningful experiences, which produces low domain value. If physical education wants to survive as an academic subject in the schools, it must listen to its students, and attend their demands.
Marine viruses play a major role in the energy and nutrient cycle and affect the evolution of their hosts. Despite their importance, there is still little knowledge about RNA viruses. Here, we have explored the Atlantic Ocean, from surface to deep (4.296 m), and used viromics and quantitative methods to unveil the genomics, biogeography, and the mass contribution of RNA viruses to the total viroplankton. A total of 2481 putative RNA viral contigs (>500 bp) and 107 larger bona fide RNA viral genomes (>2.5 kb) were identified; 88 of them representing novel viruses belonging mostly to two clades: Yangshan assemblage (sister clade to the class Alsuviricetes ) and Nodaviridae . These viruses were highly endemic and locally abundant, with little or no presence in other oceans since only ≈15% of them were found in at least one of the Tara sampling metatranscriptomes. Quantitative data indicated that the abundance of RNA viruses in the surface and deep chlorophyll maximum zone was within ≈10 ⁶ VLP/mL representing a potential contribution of 5.2%–24.4% to the total viroplankton community (DNA and RNA viruses), with DNA viruses being the predominant members (≈10 ⁷ VLP/mL). However, for the deep sample, the observed trend was the opposite, although as further discussed, several biases should be considered. Together these results contribute to our understanding of the diversity, abundance, and distribution of RNA viruses in the oceans and provide a basis for further investigation into their ecological roles and biogeography.
The accurate computation of static nonlinear optical properties (SNLOPs) in large polymers requires accounting for electronic correlation effects with a reasonable computational cost. The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) used in the adiabatic connection fluctuation theorem is known to be a reliable and cost-effective method to render electronic correlation effects when combined with density-fitting techniques and integration over imaginary frequencies. We explore the ability of the RPA energy expression to predict SNLOPs by evaluating RPA electronic energies in the presence of finite electric fields to obtain (using the finite difference method) static polarizabilities and hyperpolarizabilities. We show that the RPA based on hybrid functional self-consistent field calculations yields accurate SNLOPs as the best-tuned double-hybrid functionals developed today, with the additional advantage that the RPA avoids any system-specific adjustment.
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