University of Abuja
  • Suleja, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria
Recent publications
Social Media today has become the most relevant and affordable platform to express one's views in real-time. The #Endsars protest in Nigeria and the COVID-19 pandemic have proven how important and reliant both government agencies and individuals are on social media. This research uses tweets collected from Twitter API to identify and classify transportation disasters in Nigeria. Information such as the user, location, and time of the tweet makes identification and classification of transportation disasters available in real-time. Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) uses a transformer that includes two separate mechanisms, a decoder that produces a prediction for the task and an encoder that reads the text input. It learns contextual relations between words (sub-words) in a text. This research applied BERT with a combination of AdamW optimizers. AdamW is an improved version of stochastic gradient descent that computes an adaptive learning rate for each parameter. Our proposed model produces an accuracy of 82%. It was concluded that our approach outperformed the existing algorithm: BERT having an accuracy of 64%.
Catalytic steam reforming of renewable feedstock to renewable energy or chemicals always goes with intense coking activities that produce carbonaceous products leading to low performance and eventual catalyst deactivation. Supported metal catalyst such as Ni/Al2O3 is known to catalysed gasification and decomposition of biomass feedstock largely for renewable fuel production with promising results. Catalyst deactivation from high carbon deposition, agglomeration and phase transformations resulting to rapid deactivation are some of the issues identified with the use of the catalyst. In this work, improvement on the coke resistance and catalytic properties of Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is sought via the use of a thermally stable and coke resistant perovskite La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3‐δ (LSCM) as catalyst promoter/modifier and involving Zirconia‐doped Ceria (Ce‐Zr) as alternative support in steam reforming of pure and by‐product glycerol. The stabilizing influence of the LSCM on the Ni catalyst has improved stability against agents of deactivation with a consequent significant improvement of catalytic activity of Ni/Al2O3 in H2 production and robust suppression of carbon deposition. Particularly, the synergy between the LSCM promoter and alternative Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 support enhanced the basic and redox properties known for Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 support in contrast to the week acid centres in γ‐Al2O3 support which further improved nickel stability, catalyst‐support interaction with a resultant high catalytic activity and robust coke suppression as a result of enhanced oxygen mobility. There is correlation between the product distribution, nature of coke deposited and reforming temperature as well as type of support and structural modification. Hence, integration of a robust perovskite material as a catalyst promoter and choice of support could be tailored in design and development of robust catalyst systems to improve performance of supported metal catalysts particularly suppression of carbon deposition for hydrocarbon and biomass conversion to renewable fuel or chemicals.
Background The pituitary glands normally produce and store gonadotropic hormones (GnH) that are responsible for ovulation and spermiation in animals. However, whether such fish pituitary extracts can elicit the same effects in treated animals need elucidation as a prelude to their practical usage in animals. Background The pituitary glands normally produce and stores gonadotropic hormones (GnH) that are responsible for ovulation and spermiation in animals. However, whether such fish pituitary extracts can elicit same effects in treated animals need elucidation as a prelude to their practical usage in animals. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the oestrus-inducing potential of the pituitary gland extract of the Africa Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in immature Wistar rats. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the oestrus-inducing potential of the pituitary gland extract of the Africa Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in immature Wistar rats. Methods The experiment involved the use of 18 immature female Wistar rats and 10 male catfish brood stocks with the use of six Wistar rats per groups as follows: Group A had human choriogonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Group B had only normal saline treatment whereas Group C had the C. gariepinus pituitary extract administration to induce oestrus with treatments occurring twice six hours apart in each group. Results There was an obvious expression of visible signs of heat and the presence of uterine horn oedema with significant (p<0.05) increase in reproductive tract weight and uterine width and length. However, only progesterone levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in the hCG and the C. gariepinus pituitary extract treated groups compared to other assayed hormones. Conclusion These results showed that C. gariepinus pituitary extract has the capacity to induce oestrus in Wistar rats because of its gonadotropic effects, which needs further investigations at higher doses and for longer exposure periods for possible oestrus induction and synchronization in domestic ruminants. Other None
Polymeric Membranes, as a thin layer barrier for various size differential separation, are usually integrated with chemical and biological treatment of wastewater settings. Membrane filtration (MF) technology is very effective for heavy metal and metalloid removal from wastewater that contains a higher concentration of pollutants. MF and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are generally used for the filtration of water effluent. Moreover the suitable alteration of polymeric membranes by incorporation of carbon based and metal nanoparticles resulting in highly engineered polymeric nanocomposite membranes put forward great benefits such as high strength, stability, resistivity better permeability and antimicrobial and antifouling properties. The resultant water from these membrane processes may be used for diverse reuse applications after disinfection. Researchers are exploring membrane-based, deionization, and nanotechnology-inspired approaches for converting raw or effluent water fit for specific purposes and minimization of pollution load. We quite often gather information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of available technologies for water remediation, and along with recent progress, this chapter also contains the developmental history, current status, future prospects, and significance of exploring and utilizing polymeric nanocomposite membranes in this domain.
Background: 70% of children with obesity and overweight live in low-income and middle-income countries. Several interventions have been done to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity and prevent incident cases. Hence, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing and preventing childhood obesity. Methods: We conducted a search for randomised controlled trials and quantitative non-randomised studies published on MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases between Jan 1, 2010, and Nov 1, 2022. We included interventional studies on the prevention and control of obesity in children up to age 12 years in low-income and middle-income countries. Quality appraisal was performed using Cochrane's risk-of-bias tools. We did three-level random-effects meta-analyses and explored the heterogeneity of studies included. We excluded critical risk-of-bias studies from primary analyses. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation. Findings: The search generated 12 104 studies, of which eight studies were included involving 5734 children. Six studies were based on obesity prevention, most of which targeted behavioural changes with a focus on counselling and diet, and a significant reduction in BMI was observed (standardised mean difference 2·04 [95% CI 1·01-3·08]; p<0·001). In contrast, only two studies focused on the control of childhood obesity; the overall effect of the interventions in these studies was not significant (p=0·38). The combined studies of prevention and control had a significant overall effect, with study-specific estimates ranging between 0·23 and 3·10, albeit with a high statistical heterogeneity (I2>75%). Interpretation: Preventive interventions, such as behavioural change and diet modification, are more effective than control interventions in reducing and preventing childhood obesity. Funding: None.
Background: Pre-slaughter stress or the welfare condition of food-producing animals (FPAs) and the slaughter practices of slaughterhouse workers (SHWs) are critically important for the safety and quality of meats processed in slaughterhouses (SHs). Consequently, this study determined the pre-slaughter, slaughter, and post-slaughter (PSP) practices of SHWsin four SHs in Southeast, Nigeria; and discussed the impacts on meat quality and safety. Methods: The PSP practices were determined by observation method. Additionally, a structured and validated closed-ended questionnaire was used to determine the knowledge of the SHWs on: the effects of poor welfare (preslaughter stress) on the quality and safety of meats produced, carcass/meat processing practices and modes of transmission of meat-borne zoonotic pathogens during carcass/meat processing. Finally, a systematic post-mortem inspection (PMI) was conducted on cattle, pigs and goats slaughtered, and economic losses accruable from condemned carcasses/meats were estimated. Results: Food-producing animals were transported to the SHs or held in the lairage under inhumane conditions. A pig being conveyed to one of the SHs was seen gasping for air, as it was firmly tied on motorbike at the thoracic and abdominal regions. Fatigued cattle were forcefully dragged on the ground from the lairage to the killing floor. Cattle for slaughter were restrained, held in lateral recumbency and left groaning, due to extreme discomfort, for about one hour before slaughter. Stunning was not performed. Singed pig carcasses were dragged on the ground to the washing point. Although more than 50% of the respondents knew the modes of transmission of meat-borne zoonotic pathogens during meat processing, 71.3% of the SHWs processed carcasses on bare floor, 52.2% used same bowl of water to wash multiple carcasses while 72% did not wear personal protective equipment during meat/carcass processing. Processed meats were transported to meat shops in an unsanitary conditions, using open vans and tricycles. During the PMI, diseased carcasses/meats/organs were detected in 5.7% (83/1452), 2.1% (21/1006) and 0.8% (7/924) of the cattle, pig and goat carcasses inspected, respectively. Gross lesions pathognomonic of bovine tuberculosis, contagious bovine pleuro-pneumonia, fascioliasis and porcine cysticercosis were detected. Consequently, 391,089.2 kg of diseased meat/organs valued at 978 million Naira (235, 030 USD) were condemned. There were significant associations (p < 0.05) between educational level and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during slaughterhouse operations and knowledge that FPAs can harbour zoonotic pathogens (p = < 0.001) transmissible during carcass processing. Similarly, significant association was observed between working experience and use of PPE; and between geographical location of the respondents and knowledge that zoonotic pathogens in animals are transmissible during carcass processing or via the food chain. Conclusion: The findings show that slaughter practices of SHWs have detrimental impacts on the quality and safety of meats processed for human consumption in Southeast, Nigeria. These findings underscore the need to: improve the welfare condition of slaughter-animals, mechanise abattoir operations, train and retrain the SHWs on hygienic carcass/meat processing practices. There is a need to adopt strict enforcement of food safety laws to promote meat quality, food safety and consequently promote the health of the public.
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a common cause of poor milk microbial quality, often resulting from unhygienic milk handling. Here, a cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of E. coli O157 in raw cow milk sold in Kwara State. Raw cow milk (n=1225) samples from 11 selected markets within the agro-ecological zones of Kwara State (known for vending milk) were collected across rainy (n=548) and dry (n=677) seasons. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done using standard procedures. The Polymerase Chain Reaction was utilized to detect E. coli O157 targeting 16S RNA and its virulence (eaeAO157) and toxigenic (Shiga-toxin 1 (stx1)) genes. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile of E. coli O157 isolates was determined by multi-disc diffusion. The total prevalence of E. coli was 48.9% (n=599), of which 2.3% (n=28) were E. coli O157. The prevalence of E. coli was significantly higher during the dry (58.8%) than during the rainy (36.7%) season. Twenty-six E. coli O157 isolates possessed the eaeAO157 gene, while all the 28 isolates carried the stx1. E. coli O157 were susceptible to nitrofurantoin (50.0%) and ciprofloxacin (46.5%), but resistant to cefotaxime (96.4%), ampicillin (89.3%), gentamicin (89.3%) and chloramphenicol (71.4%). This study established the presence of E. coli O157 with virulence, toxigenic genes, and antimicrobial resistance in raw cow milk in Kwara State. Improved hygienic practices during milk handling are recommended.
Background Understanding the pathogenesis of animal trypanosomiasis can be improved by studying the genetics of bovine trypanosomes. Pathogenic animal trypanosomes are a major impediment to livestock production, with negative economic consequences spreading beyond Sub-Saharan Africa to subtropical regions of Northern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America. An atypical K1 strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) isolates from infected cattle in Nigeria was analyzed. The therapeutic effect of phenolic-rich compounds on the histopathology of wistar rats infected with the K1 strain was studied. Methods The K1 strain T. evansi was analyzed molecularly using PCR and sequence analysis of the Spacer-1 ribosomal RNA gene. To assess the evolutionary relationship, this was phylogenetically compared to other species studied in different parts of the world. Thirty adult male wistar rats were divided into six groups of five each. Animals in group A served as the standard control (not infected). Group B animals were infected but not treated. Group C animals were infected and given 3.5 mg/kg body weight of the standard drug diminazene aceturate. Animals in groups D, E, and F were infected and treated with phenolic-rich compounds isolated from Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The phytochemicals were extracted using standard analytical procedures, and GCMS analysis revealed the presence of phenolic-rich compounds. The animals were given 0.2 mg/ml trypanosome intraperitoneally, diluted with normal saline. The vital organs of the animals were harvested and histologically examined. Results The nested PCR amplification of the trypanosome's ITS-1 region revealed a DNA amplicon of 627 base pairs. The rRNA nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank under the accession number MN462960. Basic Local Alignment search of the obtained ITS-1 rRNA sequences revealed that the K1 strain trypanosome and other strains from different regions have an evolutionary relationship. The phenolic-rich compounds had protective effects on the organs of infected animals, resulting in a decrease in parasitemia levels. They have anti-trypanosome activities at the minimum and maximum effective doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Conclusions The K1 strain T. evansi was isolated from naturally infected cattle in this study. The results indicate that phenolic-rich compounds have anti trypanosoma activities capable of healing organ damage caused by trypanosomiasis.
Introduction: Medicinal plants have over time played important roles in many indigenous primary health care systems. Alchornea cordifolia, a widely distributed plant, is a commonly used medicinal plant for the treatment and management of many disease conditions. The present study involved the evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of ethanol leaf extract of A. cordifolia in male Wistar rats. Methods: The hematological and biochemical profiles evaluation was via the automated hematologic analyzer and the spectrophotometer with sodium and calcium ions evaluations using flame photometer, and tissue histopathological evaluations following standard procedures. Results: The results showed no visible signs of acute toxicity at a limit dose of 5000 mg/kg. The plant leaf extract did not induce anemia or change the immunocompetence of the treated rats after 28 days of treatment. There was a significant (p
Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are two of the leading causes of non-traumatic amputation worldwide with tremendous negative effects on the quality of life, psychosocial well-being of persons with diabetes mellitus; and a great burden on health care expenditure. It is therefore imperative, to identify the common and contrast determinants of PAD and DPN in order to ease adoption of common and specific strategies for their early prevention. Methods: This was a multi-center cross-sectional study which involved the consecutive enrolment of one thousand and forty (1040) participants following consent and waiver of ethical approval. Relevant medical history, anthropometric measurements, other clinical examinations including measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and neurological examinations were undertaken. IBM SPSS version 23 was used for statistical analysis and logistic regression was used to assess for the common and contrast determinants of PAD and DPN. Significance level used was p < 0.05. Results: Multiple stepwise logistic regression showed that common predictors of PAD vs DPN respectively include age, odds ratio (OR) 1.51 vs 1.99, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.34 vs 1.35-2.54, p = 0.033 vs 0.003; duration of DM (OR 1.51 vs 2.01, CI 1.23-1.85 vs 1.00-3.02, p = <.001 vs 0.032); central obesity (OR 9.77 vs 1.12, CI 5.07-18.82 vs 1.08-3.25, p = <.001 vs 0.047); poor SBP control (OR 2.47 vs 1.78, CI 1.26-4.87 vs 1.18-3.31, p = .016 vs 0.001); poor DBP control (OR 2.45 vs 1.45, CI 1.24-4.84 vs 1.13-2.59, p = .010 vs 0.006); poor 2HrPP control (OR 3.43 vs 2.83, CI 1.79-6.56 vs 1.31-4.17, p = <.001 vs 0.001); poor HbA1c control (OR 2.59 vs 2.31, CI 1.50-5.71 vs 1.47-3.69, p = <.001 vs 0.004). Common negative predictors or probable protective factors of PAD and DPN respectively include statins (OR 3.01 vs 2.21, CI 1.99-9.19 vs 1.45-3.26, p = .023 vs 0.004); and antiplatelets (OR 7.14 vs 2.46, CI 3.03-15.61 vs 1.09-5.53, p = .008 vs 0.030). However, only DPN was significantly predicted by female gender (OR 1.94, CI 1.39-2.25, p = 0.023), height (OR 2.02, CI 1.85-2.20, p = 0.001), generalized obesity (OR 2.02, CI 1.58-2.79, p = 0.002), and poor FPG control (OR 2.43, CI 1.50-4.10, p = 0.004) CONCLUSION: Common determinants of PAD and DPN included age, duration of DM, central obesity, and poor control of SBP, DBP, and 2HrPP control. Additionally, the use of antiplatelets and statins use were common inverse determinants of PAD and DPN which means they may help protect against PAD and DPN. However, only DPN was significantly predicted by female gender, height, generalized obesity, and poor control of FPG.
Background: Genetic factors play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) susceptibility. Objective: To discover common genetic variants contributing to the risk of PCa in men of African ancestry. Design, setting, and participants: We conducted a meta-analysis of ten genome-wide association studies consisting of 19378 cases and 61620 controls of African ancestry. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Common genotyped and imputed variants were tested for their association with PCa risk. Novel susceptibility loci were identified and incorporated into a multiancestry polygenic risk score (PRS). The PRS was evaluated for associations with PCa risk and disease aggressiveness. Results and limitations: Nine novel susceptibility loci for PCa were identified, of which seven were only found or substantially more common in men of African ancestry, including an African-specific stop-gain variant in the prostate-specific gene anoctamin 7 (ANO7). A multiancestry PRS of 278 risk variants conferred strong associations with PCa risk in African ancestry studies (odds ratios [ORs] >3 and >5 for men in the top PRS decile and percentile, respectively). More importantly, compared with men in the 40-60% PRS category, men in the top PRS decile had a significantly higher risk of aggressive PCa (OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.10-1.38, p = 4.4 × 10-4). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the importance of large-scale genetic studies in men of African ancestry for a better understanding of PCa susceptibility in this high-risk population and suggests a potential clinical utility of PRS in differentiating between the risks of developing aggressive and nonaggressive disease in men of African ancestry. Patient summary: In this large genetic study in men of African ancestry, we discovered nine novel prostate cancer (PCa) risk variants. We also showed that a multiancestry polygenic risk score was effective in stratifying PCa risk, and was able to differentiate risk of aggressive and nonaggressive disease.
Purpose: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetically inherited red blood cell disorder that affects people all over the world but is more common among blacks of African ancestry than other races. The condition is linked to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). This scoping review aims to evaluate studies that reported SNHL in SCD patients and to identify demographic and contextual risk factors for SNHL in SCD patients. Methods: We conducted scoping searches for relevant studies in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. All articles were evaluated independently by two authors. The checklist Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) was used. SNHL was detected at hearing levels above 20 decibels. Results: In terms of methodology, the studies reviewed were diverse, with 15 being prospective and four being retrospective. Fourteen of the 19 articles chosen from 18,937 search engine results were case-control studies. Sex, age, foetal haemoglobin (HbF), SCD type, painful vaso-occlusive crisis (PVO), blood parameters, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV), and hydroxyurea use were all extracted. Few studies investigated SNHL risk factors with noticeable knowledge gaps. Age, PVO, and certain blood parameters appear to predispose to SNHL, whereas decreased FMV, the presence of HbF, and the use of hydroxyurea appear to have an inverse relationship with the development of SNHL in SCD. Conclusion: There is a clear gap in the existing literature regarding the knowledge of demographic and contextual risk factors that is required for the prevention and management of SNHL in SCD.
Introduction: A team-based care approach to hypertension care in low-resource settings is an effective strategy for improving hypertension control. Objective: In this multi-country survey, we assessed the extent to which team-based care is operationalized for hypertension care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the perception of hypertension program experts and health care workers (HCWs). Methods: Two surveys were administered; the first survey (Country Profile Survey), administered in 25 countries, sought to identify the current tasks of HCWs from perspectives of national representatives involved in public health programming. The second survey (HCW Survey), administered among HCWs in four LMICs; Bangladesh, China, Ethiopia, and Nigeria, aimed to understand current practices of HCWs, perspectives on team-based management of hypertension, and barriers and facilitators. Results: In the Country Profile Survey, all countries surveyed allowed team-based care for basic clinical hypertension management tasks, but less for advanced tasks (9/25, 36%). In the HCW survey, 854 HCWs from four countries participated: 47% (401/854) work in rural settings. Although there were slight variations by country, overall, barriers to team-based hypertension care were similar, including: inadequate training of HCWs (83%), regulatory issues (76%), resistance by patients (56%), and opposition by physicians (42%) and nurses (40%). Perceived facilitators of team-based hypertension care were use of treatment algorithms (94%), telehealth/m-health technology (92%), and adequate compensation for HCWs (80%) ( Figure A-B ). Conclusions: These surveys revealed key targets for health systems and governments to facilitate team-based care implementation. Specifically, policies to provide additional training, optimize HCWs roles within the care team, and establish hypertension treatment protocols and telehealth/m-health are essential.
Objectives: To estimate the potential health gains, costs, and cost-effectiveness of a mandatory limit on industrial trans fatty acids (iTFA) in the Nigerian food supply. Methods: We used Markov cohort models to estimate the effect on ischemic heart disease (IHD) burden, costs, and cost-effectiveness of a mandatory iTFA-limit (≤2% of all fats) for foods in Nigeria. Data on demographics, IHD epidemiology, and trans-fatty acid intake were derived from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study. We calculated the IHD burden attributable to iTFA by comparing the current trans-fatty acid intake to counterfactual settings with complete elimination of iTFA intake. Policy implementation costs (including government costs for legislation and monitoring, and industry costs for product reformulation), avoided IHD events and deaths, health-adjusted life years (HALYs) gained, and healthcare costs saved were estimated over 10 years and lifetime of the Nigerian population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios using net costs (i.e., implementation costs minus healthcare cost savings) and HALYs gained (both discounted at 3%) were used to assess cost-effectiveness. Results: Over the first 10 years, elimination of iTFA intake was estimated to prevent 9,996 (95% uncertainty interval: 8,870; 11,118): IHD deaths and 66,569 (58,862; 74,083) IHD events, and to save 90 million USD (78; 102) in total healthcare costs. The corresponding estimates over the lifetime were 259,934 (228,736; 290,191), 479,308 (95% UI: 420,472; 538,177), and ~518 (450; 587). Policy implementation costs (government plus industry) were estimated as 18 million USD (12; 25) over the first 10 years, and 27 million USD (20; 35) over the population lifetime. The intervention was estimated to be cost-saving. Findings were robust across several deterministic sensitivity analyses (Figure). Conclusions: Our findings support legislating a mandatory limit of iTFAs as a cost-saving strategy to avert substantial numbers of IHD events and deaths in Nigeria.
The present experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of corn with chocolate byproducts, protected fats, or their mixture supplemented with zinc in the diet of lactating cows on feed utilization and lactation performance for 90 days. Fifty multiparous Holstein cows (565±25 kg BW, 3±1 parity, 7±1 days in milk, a previous milk production of 35±2.9 kg/d), were randomly assigned to 5 treatments in a completely randomized design. The control diet contained (per kg DM): 412 g concentrate feed mixture, 412 g corn silage, and 176 g berseem hay. The control diet was supplemented with 1 g of zinc daily (Zinc diet). In the other diets, each kg of crushed corn grain was replaced with (DM basis) 600 g chocolate byproducts (CH diet), 400 g protected fats (PF diet), or 500 g of chocolate byproducts and protected fats mixture (1:1 DM basis) (CHPF diet). Both amounts of protected fats and chocolate byproducts had the same energy concentration as 1 kg of corn. The total mixed ration was prepared and distributed using a horizontal mixer system after mixing for 20 min. Chemical analysis showed that the replacement minimally affected the composition of the total mixed rations. Additionally, treatments did not affect feed intake. Compared to the control treatment, the zinc treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, or feed efficiency. Increased (P<0.05) daily production of milk and component yields, and feed efficiency as well as fat concentration were observed by the CH, PF and CHPF treatments. Without affecting other measured blood parameters or hematocrit, treatments increased (P<0.05) the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and zinc in the blood of cows. Additionally, the CH, PF and CHPF treatments increased (P<0.01) the digestibility of nutrients compared to the control treatment. It is concluded that the addition of zinc to the control did not affect cow performance; however, its addition to chocolate byproducts, protected fats, or their mixture to partially replace corn improved the performance of cows.
Background Preeclampsia affects pregnant women, resulting in stroke, organ failure, and other health problems like seizures. The effect of preeclampsia is most pronounced in developing countries and it affects about 4% of pregnant women causing several illnesses and even death. The key to solving the problem of preeclampsia is its early detection and use of machine learning algorithms that can take various demographic features, biochemical markers, or biophysical features, select important features and find hidden patterns that point to preeclampsia. Objective The objective of this research is to develop a machine-learning framework to detect Preeclampsia in pregnant women. Method This research develops a model to detect preeclampsia using principal component analysis (PCA) as a feature selection, k-means as an outlier detection, a combination of SMOTE oversampling, random under sampling and the decision tree (DT) to classify and predict the risk of preeclampsia among pregnant women. The data was obtained from the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Result Findings revealed that the combination of the PCA, SMOTE and random undersampling and DT outcome resulted in the best accuracy of 96.8% which is better than the accuracy of existing work (92.1%). Furthermore, the reliability of the model was measured and tested using Bayesian Probability. Conclusion The developed model can be helpful to Health care providers in checking preeclampsia among women with high blood pressure during their second antenatal visits.
Crude oil is an essential source of energy. Without access to energy, output growth is impossible. As a result of this link, volatility in oil prices has the ability to induce fluctuations in the output of both developed and developing economies. Moreover, factors such as business cycles and policy changes often introduce nonlinearity into the transmission mechanism of oil price shocks. This study therefore examines not only the interconnectedness of oil price volatility and output growth, but also the nonlinear, asymmetric impact of oil price volatility on output growth in the countries making up the Group of Seven. To this end, monthly data on West Texas Intermediate oil price and industrial production indices of the Group of Seven countries over the period 1990:01 to 2019:08 is used for empirical analysis. The study employs the DCC and cDCC-GARCH techniques for symmetric empirical analysis. The asymmetric empirical analysis is also conducted via GJR-GARCH, FIEGARCH, HYGARCH and cDCC-GARCH techniques. The findings reveal disparities in the magnitudes of the positive and negative (asymmetric) effects of oil price shocks on output growth. The results also reveal that past news and lagged volatility have a significant impact on the current conditional volatility of the output growth of the Group of Seven countries. The study concludes that the impact of oil price volatility on output growth in the selected economies is asymmetric, the volatility is highly persistent and clustered, and the asymmetric GARCH models outperform the symmetric GARCH models.
In this work, the reparameterized Scarf II oscillator was employed to describe the internal vibration of diatomic systems. Analytical equations for bound state pure vibrational energies and canonical partition function were obtained. The equations were used to derive statistical-mechanical models for the prediction of molar entropy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and constant pressure (isobaric) heat capacity of gaseous substances. The obtained model equations were used to generate numerical data on bound state energy eigenvalues and, to investigate the thermodynamic properties of the ground states chloroborane (BCl), bromine fluoride (BrF), and bromine chloride (BrCl) molecules. With the aid of the expression for molar entropy of the system, average absolute deviations obtained for the molecules are 0.1878%, 0.1267%, and 0.0586% from experimental data. The isobaric heat capacity model yields average absolute deviation of 2.1608%, 1.8601%, and 1.9805%. The results obtained are in good agreement with available literature data on gaseous molecule. The work could be applicable in the fields of molecular physics, chemical physics, solid-state physics and chemical engineering.
The current study was undertaken to investigate the radiological and dosimetric parameters of natural product-based composite (SPI/NaOH/IA-PAE/Rhizophora spp.) phantoms. The radiological properties of the phantoms were measured at different gamma energies from Compton scatter of photons through angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees. Ionization chamber (IC) and Gafchromic EBT3 film dosimeters were employed to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics for photons (6-10 MV) and electrons (6-15 MeV). Radiological property results of the composite phantoms were consistent with good quality compared to those of solid water phantoms and theoretical values of water. Photon beam quality index of the SPI15 phantom with p-values of 0.071 and 0.073 exhibited insignificant changes. In addition, good agreement was found between PDD curves measured with IC and Gafchromic EBT3 film for both photons and electrons. The computed therapeutic and half-value depth ranges matched within the limits and are similar to those of water and solid water phantoms. Therefore, the radiological and dosimetric parameters of the studied composite phantom permit its use in the selection of convenient tissue- and water-equivalent phantom material for medical applications.
Propene is a vital feedstock in the petrochemical industry with a vast range of applications. And there is a continuous rise in propene demand. To gain insight into how the on-purpose method could help meet the demand in the propene market, we investigated the impact of temperature ( T ) and pressure ( P ) on product distribution in terms of product yield and selectivity using the process simulation approach. Existing related studies were deployed to identify possible products that could be evaluated in the simulation. In the study, we used Gibbs minimization (with Gibb’s reactor) to predict the likely products obtained at different T and P . The impact of feed purity on product distribution was also evaluated. The study was aided by using the Aspen HYSYS process simulator, while Design Expert was used to search for the optimum conditions for higher conversion, yield, and selectivity. Results obtained for the modeling and simulation of the process show that operating the production process at a lower pressure would favor higher selectivity within the temperature range of 500–600 °C. In comparison, the one run at a higher pressure was predicted to be only promising, showing better selectivity within the range of 550–650 °C. The feed purity significantly impacts the propene amount, especially for one with sulfur impurity, leading to the formation of smaller olefins and sulfide compounds. Our study reveals the importance of reviewing feed purity before charging them into the dehydrogenation reactor to prevent poisoning, coking, and other activities, which do lead to undesired products like methane and ethylene. A catalyst can also be designed to efficiently dehydrogenate the propane to propene at a lower temperature to prevent side reactions.
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1,614 members
Olumide Owolabi
  • Computer Science
Samuel Abayomi Asala
  • Department of Anatomical Sciences
Florence Chimezie Nwinyi
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Mohammed Isa Shuaibu
  • Department of Economics
Airport Road , Suleja, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria
Head of institution
Prof. Abdul-Rasheed Na'Allah