University Medical Center Utrecht
Recent publications
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that often causes serious damage to tooth-supporting tissues. The limited successful outcomes of clinically available approaches underscore the need for therapeutics that cannot only provide structural guidance to cells but can also modulate the local immune response. Here, three-dimensional melt electrowritten (i.e., poly(ε-caprolactone)) scaffolds with tissue-specific attributes were engineered to guide differentiation of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) and mediate macrophage polarization. The investigated tissue-specific scaffold attributes comprised fiber morphology (aligned vs. random) and highly-ordered architectures with distinct strand spacings (small 250 μm and large 500 μm). Macrophages exhibited an elongated morphology in aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds, while maintaining their round-shape on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds. Expressions of periostin and IL-10 were more pronounced on the aligned and highly-ordered scaffolds. While hPDLSCs on the scaffolds with 500 μm strand spacing show higher expression of osteogenic marker (Runx2) over 21 days, cells on randomly-oriented fibrous scaffolds showed upregulation of M1 markers. In an orthotopic mandibular fenestration defect model, findings revealed that the tissue-specific scaffolds (i.e., aligned fibers for periodontal ligament and highly-ordered 500 μm strand spacing fluorinated calcium phosphate [F/CaP]-coated fibers for bone) could enhance the mimicking of regeneration of natural periodontal tissues.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have resulted in profound clinical responses in the treatment of CD19-positive hematological malignancies, but a significant proportion of patients do not respond or relapse eventually. As an alternative to CAR T cells, T cells can be engineered to express a tumor-targeting T cell receptor (TCR). Due to HLA restriction of TCRs, CARs have emerged as a preferred treatment moiety when targeting surface antigens, despite the fact that functional differences between engineered TCR (eTCR) T and CAR T cells remain ill-defined. Here, we compared the activity of CAR T cells versus engineered TCR T cells in targeting the B cell malignancy-associated antigen CD20 as a function of antigen exposure. We found CAR T cells to be more potent effector cells, producing higher levels of cytokines and killing more efficiently than eTCR T cells in a short time frame. However, we revealed that the increase of antigen exposure significantly impaired CAR T cell expansion, a phenotype defined by high expression of coinhibitory molecules and effector differentiation. In contrast, eTCR T cells expanded better than CAR T cells under high antigenic pressure, with lower expression of coinhibitory molecules and maintenance of an early differentiation phenotype, and comparable clearance of tumor cells.
Background: Sexual assault is associated with a high risk of developing PTSD. Little is known about the PTSD onset in children who have recently been victimized by sexual assault. It is important to identify children at risk for PTSD after sexual assault to prevent chronic problems and revictimization. Objective: The first aim of this study was to describe the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms in the four weeks after sexual assault. The second aim was to analyse whether pre-assault factors, assault-related factors, social support, and post-traumatic stress, measured at two weeks post-assault, were associated with an indication of PTSD. Method: From January 2019 to March 2021, data were collected of victims aged 8-17 years (n = 51; mean age = 15.00; SD = 1.78) who had contacted a Sexual Assault Centre. Severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms was measured at two and four weeks post-assault. The study was designed to use a multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study included female victims only. Results: Most of the victims (58.8%) showed a decline in the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms in the four weeks after sexual assault. However, 27.4% showed an increase and 13.7% showed no change in symptoms. More than two-thirds of the children (70.6%) showed severe post-traumatic stress symptoms at four weeks post-assault, i.e. had an indication of PTSD. Since only one significant difference was found, the multivariate analysis was not executed. A significant difference was found between severity of symptoms at two weeks and an indication of PTSD at four weeks (t(49) = -5.79; p < .001). Conclusion: Children with high levels of post-traumatic stress at two weeks post-assault are at risk for PTSD indication at four weeks post-assault. Further research is needed to determine whether early trauma-based treatment for children with high post-traumatic stress symptoms can prevent the development of PTSD.
Objective: To identify the information needs and perceptions of patients regarding the application of virtual reality in pre-surgical patient education. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted between March and July 2020. The study population consisted of a purposive sample of patients scheduled for cardiac surgery from a single institution. Semi-structured individual interviews (n=19) were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Patient perceptions regarding virtual reality and information needs related to hospitalisation and surgery could be categorised into three themes: Creating familiarity, contents to explore and challenges and preconditions. Conclusions: Virtual reality technology is a promising tool that can enhance conventional patient education to improve understanding and to potentially reduce concerns and anxieties. The virtual reality environment creates an opportunity for patients to be in control of the timing, quantity, depth and frequency of patient education. A virtual reality education tool should not be a substitute for personal contact with the physician. Innovation: Patient information needs were identified profoundly to the further development of a virtual reality intervention. This intervention aims to educate patients prior to elective cardiac surgery.
Lack of rapid and comprehensive microbiological diagnosis in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) hampers appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study evaluates the real-world performance of the BioFire FilmArray Pneumonia panel plus (FAP plus ) and explores the feasibility of evaluation in a randomised controlled trial. Patients presenting to hospital with suspected CAP were recruited in a prospective feasibility study. An induced sputum or an endotracheal aspirate was obtained from all participants. The FAP plus turnaround time (TAT) and microbiological yield were compared with standard diagnostic methods (SDs). 96/104 (92%) enrolled patients had a respiratory tract infection (RTI); 72 CAP and 24 other RTIs. Median TAT was shorter for the FAP plus , compared with in-house PCR (2.6 vs 24.1 h, p < 0.001) and sputum cultures (2.6 vs 57.5 h, p < 0.001). The total microbiological yield by the FAP plus was higher compared to SDs (91% (162/179) vs 55% (99/179), p < 0.0001). Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus were the most frequent pathogens. In conclusion, molecular panel testing in adults with CAP was associated with a significant reduction in time to actionable results and increased microbiological yield. The impact on antibiotic use and patient outcome should be assessed in randomised controlled trials.
Abstract Although male Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients have higher Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rates and a worse disease course, a comprehensive analysis of female and male ICU survival and underlying factors such as comorbidities, risk factors, and/or anti-infection/inflammatory therapy administration is currently lacking. Therefore, we investigated the association between sex and ICU survival, adjusting for these and other variables. In this multicenter observational cohort study, all patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted to seven ICUs in one region across Belgium, The Netherlands, and Germany, and requiring vital organ support during the first pandemic wave were included. With a random intercept for a center, mixed-effects logistic regression was used to investigate the association between sex and ICU survival. Models were adjusted for age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, comorbidities, and anti-infection/inflammatory therapy. Interaction terms were added to investigate effect modifications by sex with country and sex with obesity. A total of 551 patients (29% were females) were included. Mean age was 65.4 ± 11.2 years. Females were more often obese and smoked less frequently than males (p-value 0.001 and 0.042, respectively). APACHE II scores of females and males were comparable. Overall, ICU mortality was 12% lower in females than males (27% vs 39% respectively, p-value 0.23 and 0.84, respectively). ICU survival in female SARS-CoV-2 patients was higher than in male patients, independent of age, disease severity, smoking, obesity, comorbidities, anti-infection/inflammatory therapy, and country. Sex-specific biological mechanisms may play a role, emphasizing the need to address diversity, such as more sex-specific prediction, prognostic, and therapeutic approach strategies.
Background: The genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is frequently accompanied by the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, with varying degrees of impairment. These co-morbidities in TSC have been linked to the structural brain abnormalities, such as cortical tubers, and recurrent epileptic seizures (in 70-80% cases). Previous transcriptomic analysis of cortical tubers revealed dysregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion in the brain, which may be associated with the neurodevelopmental deficits in TSC. In this study we aimed to investigate the expression of one of these genes - cell-adhesion molecule contactin-3. Methods: Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the contactin-3 gene (CNTN3) was performed in resected cortical tubers from TSC patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 35, age range: 1-48 years) and compared to autopsy-derived cortical control tissue (n = 27, age range: 0-44 years), as well as by western blot analysis of contactin-3 (n = 7 vs n = 7, age range: 0-3 years for both TSC and controls) and immunohistochemistry (n = 5 TSC vs n = 4 controls). The expression of contactin-3 was further analyzed in fetal and postnatal control tissue by western blotting and in-situ hybridization, as well as in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line differentiation model in vitro. Results: CNTN3 gene expression was lower in cortical tubers from patients across a wide range of ages (fold change = - 0.5, p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Contactin-3 protein expression was lower in the age range of 0-3 years old (fold change = - 3.8, p < 0.001) as compared to the age-matched controls. In control brain tissue, contactin-3 gene and protein expression could be detected during fetal development, peaked around birth and during infancy and declined in the adult brain. CNTN3 expression was induced in the differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in vitro (fold change = 6.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our data show a lower expression of contactin-3 in cortical tubers of TSC patients during early postnatal period as compared to controls, which may affect normal brain development and might contribute to neuropsychiatric co-morbidities observed in patients with TSC.
Background The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in pediatric patients with underlying malignancies remains controversial. However, in an era in which the survival rates for children with malignancies have increased significantly and several recent reports have demonstrated effective ECMO use in children with cancer, we aimed to estimate the outcome and complications of ECMO treatment in these children. Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases for studies on the use ECMO in pediatric patients with an underlying malignancy from inception to September 2020. This review was conducted in adherence to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis statement. Study eligibility was independently assessed by two authors and disagreements resolved by a third author. Included studies were evaluated for quality using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Random effects meta-analyses (DerSimonian and Laird) were performed. The primary outcomes were mortality during ECMO or hospital mortality. Results Thirteen retrospective, observational cohort studies were included, most of moderate quality (625 patients). The commonest indication for ECMO was severe respiratory failure (92%). Pooled mortality during ECMO was 55% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47–63%) and pooled hospital mortality was 60% (95% CI 54–67%). Although heterogeneity among the included studies was low, confidence intervals were large. In addition, the majority of the data were derived from registries with overlapping patients which were excluded for the meta-analyses to prevent resampling of the same participants across the included studies. Finally, there was a lack of consistent complications reporting among the studies. Conclusion Significantly higher mortalities than in general PICU patients was reported with the use of ECMO in children with malignancies. Although these results need to be interpreted with caution due to the lack of granular data, they suggest that ECMO appears to represents a viable rescue option for selected patients with underlying malignancies. There is an urgent need for additional data to define patients for whom ECMO may provide benefit or harm.
Background: Respiratory complications are the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Respiratory muscle weakness results in impaired cough, recurrent respiratory tract infections and eventually can cause respiratory failure. We assessed longitudinal patterns of respiratory muscle strength in a national cohort of treatment-naïve children and adults with SMA, hypothesizing a continued decline throughout life. Methods: We measured maximal expiratory and inspiratory pressure (PEmax and PImax), Sniff Nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and peak cough flow (PCF) in treatment-naïve patients with SMA. We used mixed-models to analyze natural history patterns. Results: We included 2172 measurements of respiratory muscle function from 80 treatment-naïve patients with SMA types 1c-3b. All outcomes were lower in the more severe phenotypes. Significant differences in PEF were present between SMA types from early ages onwards. PEF decline was linear (1-2%/year). PEF reached values below 80% during early childhood in types 1c-2, and during adolescence in type 3a. PEmax and PImax were severely lowered in most patients throughout life, with PEmax values abnormally low (i.e. < 80 cmH2O) in virtually all patients. The PEmax/PImax ratio was < 1 throughout life in all SMA types, indicating that expiratory muscles were most affected. All but SMA type 3b patients had a lowered PCF. Patients with types 2b and 3a had PCF levels between 160 and 270 L/min, those with type 2a around 160 L/min and patients with type 1c well below 160 L/min. Finally, SNIP was low in nearly all patients, most pronounced in more severely affected patients. Conclusions: There are clear differences in respiratory muscle strength and its progressive decline between SMA types. We observed lower outcomes in more severe SMA types. Particularly PEF may be a suitable outcome measure for the follow-up of respiratory strength in patients with SMA. PEF declines in a rather linear pattern in all SMA types, with clear differences at baseline. These natural history data may serve as a reference for longer-term treatment efficacy assessments.
Aim This study explores the relationship between in vivo 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived blood flow energetics in the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), exercise capacity and CMR-derived liver fibrosis/congestion. Background The Fontan circulation, in which both caval veins are directly connected with the pulmonary arteries (i.e. the TCPC) is the palliative approach for single ventricle patients. Blood flow efficiency in the TCPC has been associated with exercise capacity and liver fibrosis using computational fluid dynamic modelling. 4D flow CMR allows for assessment of in vivo blood flow energetics, including kinetic energy (KE) and viscous energy loss rate (EL). Methods Fontan patients were prospectively evaluated between 2018 and 2021 using a comprehensive cardiovascular and liver CMR protocol, including 4D flow imaging of the TCPC. Peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) was determined using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Iron-corrected whole liver T1 (cT1) mapping was performed as a marker of liver fibrosis/congestion. KE and EL in the TCPC were computed from 4D flow CMR and normalized for inflow. Furthermore, blood flow energetics were compared between standardized segments of the TCPC. Results Sixty-two Fontan patients were included (53% male, 17.3 ± 5.1 years). Maximal effort CPET was obtained in 50 patients (peak VO 2 27.1 ± 6.2 ml/kg/min, 56 ± 12% of predicted). Both KE and EL in the entire TCPC (n = 28) were significantly correlated with cT1 (r = 0.50, p = 0.006 and r = 0.39, p = 0.04, respectively), peak VO 2 (r = − 0.61, p = 0.003 and r = − 0.54, p = 0.009, respectively) and % predicted peak VO 2 (r = − 0.44, p = 0.04 and r = − 0.46, p = 0.03, respectively). Segmental analysis indicated that the most adverse flow energetics were found in the Fontan tunnel and left pulmonary artery. Conclusions Adverse 4D flow CMR derived KE and EL in the TCPC correlate with decreased exercise capacity and increased levels of liver fibrosis/congestion. 4D flow CMR is promising as a non-invasive screening tool for identification of patients with adverse TCPC flow efficiency.
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) is an inherited disorder characterized by lethal arrhythmias and a risk to sudden cardiac death. A hallmark feature of AC is the progressive replacement of the ventricular myocardium with fibro-fatty tissue, which can act as an arrhythmogenic substrate further exacerbating cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, identifying the processes underlying this pathological remodelling would help understand AC pathogenesis and support the development of novel therapies. In this review, we summarize our knowledge on the different models designed to identify the cellular origin and molecular pathways underlying cardiac fibroblast and adipocyte cell differentiation in AC patients. We further outline future perspectives and how targeting the fibro-fatty remodelling process can contribute to novel AC therapeutics.
Background Movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity levels, sedentary behavior) in people with stroke are not self-contained but cluster in patterns. Recent research identified three commonly distinct movement behavior patterns in people with stroke. However, it remains unknown if movement behavior patterns remain stable and if individuals change in movement behavior pattern over time. Objectives 1) To investigate the stability of the composition of movement behavior patterns over time, and 2) determine if individuals change their movement behavior resulting in allocation to another movement behavior pattern within the first two years after discharge to home in people with a first-ever stroke. Methods Accelerometer data of 200 people with stroke of the RISE-cohort study were analyzed. Ten movement behavior variables were compressed using Principal Componence Analysis and K-means clustering was used to identify movement behavior patterns at three weeks, six months, one year, and two years after home discharge. The stability of the components within movement behavior patterns was investigated. Frequencies of individuals’ movement behavior pattern and changes in movement behavior pattern allocation were objectified. Results The composition of the movement behavior patterns at discharge did not change over time. At baseline, there were 22% sedentary exercisers (active/sedentary), 45% sedentary movers (inactive/sedentary) and 33% sedentary prolongers (inactive/highly sedentary). Thirty-five percent of the stroke survivors allocated to another movement behavior pattern within the first two years, of whom 63% deteriorated to a movement behavior pattern with higher health risks. After two years there were, 19% sedentary exercisers , 42% sedentary movers, and 39% sedentary prolongers. Conclusions The composition of movement behavior patterns remains stable over time. However, individuals change their movement behavior. Significantly more people allocated to a movement behavior pattern with higher health risks. The increase of people allocated to sedentary movers and sedentary prolongers is of great concern. It underlines the importance of improving or maintaining healthy movement behavior to prevent future health risks after stroke.
Background Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is used commonly to treat pain and function in Achilles tendinopathy (AT). The aim of this study was to synthesize the evidence from (non-) randomized controlled trials, to determine the clinical effectiveness of ESWT for mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (mid-AT) and insertional Achilles tendinopathy (ins-AT) separately. Methods We searched PubMed/Medline, Embase (Ovid), and Cochrane Central, up to January 2021. Unpublished studies and gray literature were searched in trial registers (ACTRN, ChiCTR, ChiCtr, CTRI, DRKS, EUCTR, IRCT, ISRCTN, JPRN UMIN, ClinicalTrials.gov, NTR, TCTR) and databases (OpenGrey.eu, NARCIS.nl, DART-Europe.org, OATD.org). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled clinical trials (CCTs) were eligible when investigating the clinical effectiveness of ESWT for chronic mid-AT or chronic ins-AT. We excluded studies that focused on treating individuals with systemic conditions, and studies investigating mixed cohorts of mid-AT and ins-AT, when it was not possible to perform a subgroup analysis for both clinical entities separately. Two reviewers independently performed the study selection, quality assessment, data extraction, and grading of the evidence levels. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion or by consulting a third reviewer when necessary. Results We included three RCTs on mid-AT and four RCTs on ins-AT. For mid-AT, moderate quality of evidence was found for the overall effectiveness of ESWT compared to standard care, with a pooled mean difference (MD) on the VISA-A of 9.08 points (95% CI 6.35–11.81). Subgroup analysis on the effects of ESWT additional to standard care for mid-AT resulted in a pooled MD on the VISA-A of 10.28 points (95% CI 7.43–13.12). For ins-AT, we found very low quality of evidence, indicating that, overall, ESWT has no additional value over standard care, with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of − 0.02 (95% CI − 0.27 to 0.23). Subgroup analysis to determine the effect of ESWT additional to standard care for ins-AT showed a negative effect (SMD − 0.29; 95% CI − 0.56 to − 0.01) compared to standard care alone. Conclusions There is moderate evidence supporting the effectiveness of ESWT additional to a tendon loading program in mid-AT. Evidence supporting the effectiveness of ESWT for ins-AT is lacking. Trial Registration : PROSPERO Database; No. CRD42021236107.
Background Immunomodulatory therapies that improve the outcome of sepsis are not available. We sought to determine whether treatment of critically ill patients with sepsis with low-dose erythromycin—a macrolide antibiotic with broad immunomodulatory effects—decreased mortality and ameliorated underlying disease pathophysiology. Methods We conducted a target trial emulation, comparing patients with sepsis admitted to two intensive care units (ICU) in the Netherlands for at least 72 h, who were either exposed or not exposed during this period to treatment with low-dose erythromycin (up to 600 mg per day, administered as a prokinetic agent) but no other macrolides. We used two common propensity score methods (matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting) to deal with confounding by indication and subsequently used Cox regression models to estimate the treatment effect on the primary outcome of mortality rate up to day 90. Secondary clinical outcomes included change in SOFA, duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of ICU-acquired infections. We used linear mixed models to assess differences in 15 host response biomarkers reflective of key pathophysiological processes from admission to day 4. Results In total, 235 patients started low-dose erythromycin treatment, 470 patients served as controls. Treatment started at a median of 38 [IQR 25–52] hours after ICU admission for a median of 5 [IQR 3–8] total doses in the first course. Matching and weighting resulted in populations well balanced for proposed confounders. We found no differences between patients treated with low-dose erythromycin and control subjects in mortality rate up to day 90: matching HR 0.89 (95% CI 0.64–1.24), weighting HR 0.95 (95% CI 0.66–1.36). There were no differences in secondary clinical outcomes. The change in host response biomarker levels from admission to day 4 was similar between erythromycin-treated and control subjects. Conclusion In this target trial emulation in critically ill patients with sepsis, we could not demonstrate an effect of treatment with low-dose erythromycin on mortality, secondary clinical outcomes or host response biomarkers.
We validated an adapted form of the Pediatric Sepsis Score (aPSS), a disease-specific severity score available within 60 min of PICU admission, in children with invasive infection. aPSS consist of all components of PSS except lactate. aPSS predicted mortality in children with invasive infection ( n = 4096; AUC 0.70 (95% CI 0.67–0.73)) and in children with sepsis ( n = 1690; AUC 0.71 (0.67–0.76)). aPSS can be an adequate tool to predict outcome in children admitted to PICU with invasive infection or sepsis, especially in situations where lactate is not available within 60 min.
In the ideal intensive care unit (ICU) of the future, all patients are free from delirium, a syndrome of brain dysfunction frequently observed in critical illness and associated with worse ICU-related outcomes and long-term cognitive impairment. Although screening for delirium requires limited time and effort, this devastating disorder remains underestimated during routine ICU care. The COVID-19 pandemic brought a catastrophic reduction in delirium monitoring, prevention, and patient care due to organizational issues, lack of personnel, increased use of benzodiazepines and restricted family visitation. These limitations led to increases in delirium incidence, a situation that should never be repeated. Good sedation practices should be complemented by novel ICU design and connectivity, which will facilitate non-pharmacological sedation, anxiolysis and comfort that can be supplemented by balanced pharmacological interventions when necessary. Improvements in the ICU sound, light control, floor planning, and room arrangement can facilitate a healing environment that minimizes stressors and aids delirium prevention and management. The fundamental prerequisite to realize the delirium-free ICU, is an awake non-sedated, pain-free comfortable patient whose management follows the A to F (A–F) bundle. Moreover, the bundle should be expanded with three additional letters, incorporating humanitarian care: gaining (G) insight into patient needs, delivering holistic care with a ‘home-like’ (H) environment, and redefining ICU architectural design (I). Above all, the delirium-free world relies upon people, with personal challenges for critical care teams to optimize design, environmental factors, management, time spent with the patient and family and to humanize ICU care.
Background MTOR inhibition is an effective treatment for many manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex. Because mTOR inhibition is a disease modifying therapy, lifelong use will most likely be necessary. This study addresses the long-term effects of mTOR inhibitors on lipid and glucose metabolism and aims to provide better insight in the incidence and time course of these metabolic adverse effects in treated TSC patients. Methods All patients who gave informed consent for the nationwide TSC Registry and were ever treated with mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and/or everolimus) were included. Lipid profiles, HbA1c and medication were analysed in all patients before and during mTOR inhibitor treatment. Results We included 141 patients, the median age was 36 years, median use of mTOR inhibitors 5.1 years (aimed serum levels 3.0–5.0 µg/l). Total cholesterol, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels at baseline were similar to healthy reference data. After start of mTOR inhibition therapy, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly and were higher compared to healthy reference population. Mean total cholesterol levels increased by 1.0 mmol/L after 3–6 months of mTOR inhibition therapy but did not increase further during follow-up. In this study, 2.5% (3/118) of patients developed diabetes (defined as an HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol) during a median follow-up of 5 years. Conclusions Hypercholesterolemia is a frequent side effect of mTOR inhibition in TSC patients, and predominantly occurs within the first year of treatment. Although hyperglycemia is a frequent side effect in other indications for mTOR inhibition, incidence of diabetes mellitus in TSC patients was only 2.5%. This may reflect the difference of mTOR inhibition in patients with normal mTOR complex pathway function versus patients with overactive mTOR complex signaling due to a genetic defect (TSC patients).
Introduction Preclinical studies provided a strong rationale for a pathophysiological link between cell-free hemoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-Hb) and secondary brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-SBI). In a single-center prospective observational clinical study, external ventricular drain (EVD) based CSF-Hb proved to be a promising biomarker to monitor for SAH-SBI. The primary objective of the HeMoVal study is to prospectively validate the association between EVD based CSF-Hb and SAH-SBI during the first 14 days post-SAH. Secondary objectives include the assessment of the discrimination ability of EVD based CSF-Hb for SAH-SBI and the definition of a clinically relevant range of EVD based CSF-Hb toxicity. In addition, lumbar drain (LD) based CSF-Hb will be assessed for its association with and discrimination ability for SAH-SBI. Methods HeMoVal is a prospective international multicenter observational cohort study. Adult patients admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are eligible. While all patients with aSAH are included, we target a sample size of 250 patients with EVD within the first 14 day after aSAH. Epidemiologic and disease-specific baseline measures are assessed at the time of study inclusion. In patients with EVD or LD, each day during the first 14 days post-SAH, 2 ml of CSF will be sampled in the morning, followed by assessment of the patients for SAH-SBI, co-interventions, and complications in the afternoon. After 3 months, a clinical follow-up will be performed. For statistical analysis, the cohort will be stratified into an EVD, LD and full cohort. The primary analysis will quantify the strength of association between EVD based CSF-Hb and SAH-SBI in the EVD cohort based on a generalized additive model. Secondary analyses include the strength of association between LD based CSF-Hb and SAH-SBI in the LD cohort based on a generalized additive model, as well as the discrimination ability of CSF-Hb for SAH-SBI based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Discussion We hypothesize that this study will validate the value of CSF-Hb as a biomarker to monitor for SAH-SBI. In addition, the results of this study will provide the potential base to define an intervention threshold for future studies targeting CSF-Hb toxicity after aSAH. Study registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04998370 . Date of registration: August 10, 2021.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by genetic defects that impair the CFTR channel in airway epithelial cells. These defects may be overcome by specific CFTR modulating drugs, for which the efficacy can be predicted in a personalized manner using 3D nasal-brushing–derived airway organoids in a forskolin-induced swelling assay. Despite of this, previously described CFTR function assays in 3D airway organoids were not fully optimal, because of inefficient organoid differentiation and limited scalability. In this report, we therefore describe an alternative method of culturing nasal-brushing–derived airway organoids, which are created from an equally differentiated airway epithelial monolayer of a 2D air–liquid interface culture. In addition, we have defined organoid culture conditions, with the growth factor/cytokine combination neuregulin-1 β and interleukin-1 β , which enabled consistent detection of CFTR modulator responses in nasal-airway organoid cultures from subjects with cystic fibrosis.
Background Chronically medically ill patients often need clinical assistance with symptom management, as well as self-care interventions that can help to reduce the impact of bothersome symptoms. Experienced clinicians can help to guide the development of more effective self-care interventions. Objective To create a consensus-based list of common bothersome symptoms of chronic conditions and of self-care management behaviors recommended to patients by clinicians to reduce the impact of these symptoms. Methods A two-round Delphi study was performed among an international panel of 47 clinicians using online surveys to identify common and bothersome symptoms and related self-care management behaviors recommended to patients with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, type 2 diabetes, or arthritis. Results A total of 30 common bothersome symptoms and 158 self-care management behaviors across the five conditions were listed. Each chronic condition has its own bothersome symptoms and self-care management behaviors. Consensus was reached on the vast majority of recommended behaviors. Conclusions The list of common bothersome symptoms and self-care management behaviors reflect consensus across four countries on many points but also disagreement on others, and a few recommendations are inconsistent with current guidelines. Efforts to encourage clinicians to recommend effective self-care management behaviors may reduce symptom impact in chronically ill patient populations.
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3,583 members
Michal Mokry
  • Wilhelmina Children´s Hospital
Aridaman Pandit
  • Department of Rheumatology
Tanja Nijboer
  • Department of Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine
Jaap van Doorn
  • Department of Genetics, section Metabolic Diseases
Huib Versnel
  • Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
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