University Hospital Essen
  • Essen, NRW, Germany
Recent publications
Immune checkpoint molecule B7-H1 plays a decisive immune regulatory role in different pathologies including cancer, and manipulation of B7-H1 expression became an attractive approach in cancer immunotherapy. Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is characterized by pronounced immunosuppressive environment and B7-H1 expression correlates with PDAC prognosis. However, the first attempts to diminish B7-H1 expression in patients were not so successful. This points the complicity of PDAC immunosuppressive network and requires further examinations. We investigated the effect of B7-H1 deficiency in PDAC. Our results clearly show that partial or complete B7-H1 inhibition in vivo let to reduced tumor volume and improved survival of PDAC-bearing mice. This oncological benefit is due to the abrogation of immunosuppression provided by MDSC, macrophages, DC and Treg, which resulted in simultaneous restoration of anti-tumor immune response, namely improved accumulation and functionality of effector-memory CD4 and CD8 T cells. Our results underline the potential of B7-H1 molecule to control immunosuppressive network in PDAC and provide new issues for further clinical investigations.
Background Previously, we observed that hypothermia, widely used for organ preservation, elicits mitochondrial fission in different cell types. However, temperature dependence, mechanisms and consequences of this cold-induced mitochondrial fission are unknown. Therefore, we here study cold-induced mitochondrial fission in endothelial cells, a cell type generally displaying a high sensitivity to cold-induced injury. Methods Porcine aortic endothelial cells were incubated at 4–25 °C in modified Krebs–Henseleit buffer (plus glucose to provide substrate and deferoxamine to prevent iron-dependent hypothermic injury). Results Cold-induced mitochondrial fission occurred as early as after 3 h at 4 °C and at temperatures below 21 °C, and was more marked after longer cold incubation periods. It was accompanied by the formation of unusual mitochondrial morphologies such as donuts, blobs, and lassos. Under all conditions, re-fusion was observed after rewarming. Cellular ATP content dropped to 33% after 48 h incubation at 4 °C, recovering after rewarming. Drp1 protein levels showed no significant change during cold incubation, but increased phosphorylation at both phosphorylation sites, activating S616 and inactivating S637. Drp1 receptor protein levels were unchanged. Instead of increased mitochondrial accumulation of Drp1 decreased mitochondrial localization was observed during hypothermia. Moreover, the well-known Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 showed only partial protection against cold-induced mitochondrial fission. The inner membrane fusion-mediating protein Opa1 showed a late shift from the long to the fusion-incompetent short isoform during prolonged cold incubation. Oma1 cleavage was not observed. Conclusions Cold-induced mitochondrial fission appears to occur over almost the whole temperature range relevant for organ preservation. Unusual morphologies appear to be related to fission/auto-fusion. Fission appears to be associated with lower mitochondrial function/ATP decline, mechanistically unusual, and after cold incubation in physiological solutions reversible at 37 °C.
Background The optimal duration of immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy is not well established. Active residual disease is considered prohibitive for treatment discontinuation and its detection by diagnostic CT imaging is limited. Here, we set out to determine the potential added value of 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to identify patients at higher risk of relapse following discontinuation of ICB in advanced melanoma. Methods Metastatic melanoma patients who discontinued ICB were identified retrospectively. Eligible patients received FDG-PET and diagnostic CT within four months of ICB discontinuation. We defined morphologic response using RECIST v1.1. Complete metabolic response (CMR) was defined as uptake in tumor lesions below background, whereas any site of residual, FDG-avid disease was rated as non-CMR. The primary endpoint was time to progression (TTP) after therapy discontinuation stratified by morphologic and metabolic imaging response using Kaplan–Meier estimates and log-rank test. Results Thiry-eight patients were eligible for this analysis. Median follow-up was 37.3 months since ICB discontinuation. Median TTP in the overall cohort was not reached. A greater proportion of patients were rated as CMR in PET ( n = 34, 89.5%) as compared to complete response (CR) in CT ( n = 13, 34.2%). Median TTP was reached in patients with non-CMR (12.7 months, 95%CI 4.4-not reached) but not for patients with CMR (log-rank: p < 0.001). All patients with complete response by CT had CMR by PET. In a subset of patients excluding those with complete response by CT, TTP remained significantly different between CMR and non-CMR (log-rank: p < 0.001). Conclusion Additional FDG-PET at time of discontinuation of ICB therapy helps identify melanoma patients with a low risk of recurrence and favourable prognosis compared to CT imaging alone. Results may have clinical relevance especially for patients with residual tumor burden.
Background In radiomic studies, several models are often trained with different combinations of feature selection methods and classifiers. The features of the best model are usually considered relevant to the problem, and they represent potential biomarkers. Features selected from statistically similarly performing models are generally not studied. To understand the degree to which the selected features of these statistically similar models differ, 14 publicly available datasets, 8 feature selection methods, and 8 classifiers were used in this retrospective study. For each combination of feature selection and classifier, a model was trained, and its performance was measured with AUC-ROC. The best-performing model was compared to other models using a DeLong test. Models that were statistically similar were compared in terms of their selected features. Results Approximately 57% of all models analyzed were statistically similar to the best-performing model. Feature selection methods were, in general, relatively unstable (0.58; range 0.35–0.84). The features selected by different models varied largely (0.19; range 0.02–0.42), although the selected features themselves were highly correlated (0.71; range 0.4–0.92). Conclusions Feature relevance in radiomics strongly depends on the model used, and statistically similar models will generally identify different features as relevant. Considering features selected by a single model is misleading, and it is often not possible to directly determine whether such features are candidate biomarkers.
Background Monoclonal antibodies acting on the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or its receptor have changed migraine preventive treatment. Those treatments have led to reconsidering the outcomes of migraine prevention. Available data mostly considered benefits in terms of relative efficacy (percent or absolute decrease in monthly migraine days [MMDs] or headache days compared with baseline). However, not enough attention has been paid to residual MMDs and/or migraine-related disability in treated patients. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the relative and absolute efficacy of erenumab. Methods ESTEEMen was a collaborative project among 16 European headache centers which already performed real-life data collections on patients treated with erenumab for at least 12 weeks. For the present study, we performed a subgroup analysis on patients with complete data on MMDs at baseline and at weeks 9-12 of treatment. Starting from efficacy thresholds proposed by previous literature, we classified patients into 0-29%, 30-49%, 50-74%, and ≥75% responders according to MMD decrease from baseline to weeks 9-12 of treatment. For each response category, we reported the median MMDs and Headache Impact test-6 (HIT-6) scores at baseline and at weeks 9-12. We categorized the number of residual MMDs at weeks 9-12 as follows: 0-3, 4-7, 8-14, ≥15. We classified HIT-6 score into four categories: ≤49, 50-55, 56-59, and ≥60. To keep in line with the original scope of the ESTEEMen study, calculations were performed in men and women. Results Out of 1215 patients, at weeks 9-12, 381 (31.4%) had a 0-29% response, 186 (15.3%) a 30-49% response, 396 (32.6%) a 50-74% response, and 252 (20.7%) a ≥75% response; 246 patients (20.2%) had 0-3 residual MMDs, 443 (36.5%) had 4-7 MMDs, 299 (24.6%) had 8-14 MMDs, and 227 (18.7%) had ≥15 MMDs. Among patients with 50-74% response, 246 (62.1%) had 4-7 and 94 (23.7%) 8-14 residual MMDs, while among patients with ≥75% response 187 (74.2%) had 0-3 and 65 (25.8%) had 4-7 residual MMDs. Conclusions The present study shows that even patients with good relative response to erenumab may have a clinically non-negligible residual migraine burden. Relative measures of efficacy cannot be enough to thoroughly consider the efficacy of migraine prevention.
Background In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During ECMO therapy, anticoagulation is crucial to prevent device-associated thrombosis and device failure, however, it is associated with bleeding complications. In COVID-19, additional pathologies, such as endotheliitis, may further increase the risk of bleeding complications. To assess the frequency of bleeding events, we analyzed data from the German COVID-19 autopsy registry (DeRegCOVID). Methods The electronic registry uses a web-based electronic case report form. In November 2021, the registry included N = 1129 confirmed COVID-19 autopsy cases, with data on 63 ECMO autopsy cases and 1066 non-ECMO autopsy cases, contributed from 29 German sites. Findings The registry data showed that ECMO was used in younger male patients and bleeding events occurred much more frequently in ECMO cases compared to non-ECMO cases (56% and 9%, respectively). Similarly, intracranial bleeding (ICB) was documented in 21% of ECMO cases and 3% of non-ECMO cases and was classified as the immediate or underlying cause of death in 78% of ECMO cases and 37% of non-ECMO cases. In ECMO cases, the three most common immediate causes of death were multi-organ failure, ARDS and ICB, and in non-ECMO cases ARDS, multi-organ failure and pulmonary bacterial ± fungal superinfection, ordered by descending frequency. Interpretation Our study suggests the potential value of autopsies and a joint interdisciplinary multicenter (national) approach in addressing fatal complications in COVID-19.
Extracellular vesicle (EV) secretion is a highly conserved evolutionary trait in all organisms in the three domains of life. The packaging and release of EVs appears to be a bulk-flow process which takes place mainly under extreme conditions. EVs participate in horizontal gene transfer, which supports the survival of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. In higher eukaryotes, almost all cells secrete a heterogeneous population of EVs loaded with various biomolecules. EV secretion is typically higher in cancer microenvironments, promoting tumor progression and metastasis. EVs are now recognized as additional mediators of autocrine and paracrine communication in health and disease. In this context, proteins and RNAs have been studied the most, but extracellular vesicle DNA (EV-DNA) has started to gain in importance in the last few years. In this review, we summarize new findings related to the loading mechanism(s), localization, and post-shedding function of EV-DNA. We also discuss the feasibility of using EV-DNA as a biomarker when performing a liquid biopsy, at the same time emphasizing the lack of data from clinical trials in this regard. Finally, we outline the potential of EV-DNA uptake and its interaction with the host genome as a promising tool for understanding the mechanisms of cancer evolution.
The Global Campaign against Headache, as a collaborative activity with the World Health Organization (WHO), was formally launched in Copenhagen in March 2004. In the month it turns 18, we review its activities and achievements, from initial determination of its strategic objectives, through partnerships and project management, knowledge acquisition and awareness generation, to evidence-based proposals for change justified by cost-effectiveness analysis.
Background The multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor pazopanib is approved for the treatment of advanced soft-tissue sarcoma and has also shown activity in other sarcoma subtypes. However, its clinical efficacy is highly variable, and no reliable predictors exist to select patients who are likely to benefit from this drug. Patients and methods We analysed the molecular profiles and clinical outcomes of patients with pazopanib-treated sarcoma enrolled in a prospective observational study by the German Cancer Consortium, DKTK MASTER, that employs whole-genome/exome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing to inform the care of young adults with advanced cancer across histology and patients with rare cancers. Results Among 109 patients with available whole-genome/exome sequencing data, there was no correlation between clinical parameters, specific genetic alterations or mutational signatures and clinical outcome. In contrast, the analysis of a subcohort of 62 patients who underwent molecular analysis before pazopanib treatment and had transcriptome sequencing data available showed that mRNA levels of NTRK3 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, p = 0.021), IGF1R (HR = 1.82, p = 0.027) and KDR (HR = 0.50, p = 0.011) were independently associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Based on the expression of these multi-receptor tyrosine kinase genes, i.e. the features NTRK3-high, IGF1R-low and KDR-high, we developed a pazopanib efficacy predictor that stratified patients into three groups with significantly different PFS (p < 0.0001). Application of the pazopanib efficacy predictor to an independent cohort of patients with pazopanib-treated sarcoma from DKTK MASTER (n = 43) confirmed its potential to separate patient groups with significantly different PFS (p = 0.02), whereas no such association was observed in patients with sarcoma from DKTK MASTER (n = 97) or The Cancer Genome Atlas sarcoma cohort (n = 256) who were not treated with pazopanib. Conclusion A score based on the combined expression of NTRK3, IGF1R and KDR allows the identification of patients with sarcoma and with good, intermediate and poor outcome following pazopanib therapy and warrants prospective investigation as a predictive tool to optimise the use of this drug in the clinic.
Background Ripretinib, a broad-spectrum KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor A switch-control tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of adult patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor as ≥ fourth-line therapy. We present the efficacy and safety of ripretinib in patients with KIT-altered metastatic melanoma enrolled in the expansion phase of the ripretinib phase I study. Patients and methods Patients with KIT-altered metastatic melanoma were enrolled and treated with ripretinib at the recommended phase II dose of 150 mg once daily in 28-day cycles. Investigator-assessed responses according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 were carried out on day 1 of cycles 3, 5, 7, every three cycles thereafter, and at a final study visit. Results A total of 26 patients with KIT-altered metastatic melanoma (25 with KIT mutations, 1 with KIT-amplification) were enrolled. Patients had received prior immunotherapy (n = 23, 88%) and KIT inhibitor therapy (n = 9, 35%). Confirmed objective response rate (ORR) was 23% [95% confidence interval (CI) 9%-44%; one complete and five partial responses] with a median duration of response of 9.1 months (range, 6.9-31.3 months). Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 7.3 months (95% CI 1.9-13.6 months). Patients without prior KIT inhibitor therapy had a higher ORR and longer mPFS (n = 17, ORR 29%, mPFS 10.2 months) than those who had received prior KIT inhibitor treatment (n = 9, ORR 11%, mPFS 2.9 months). The most common treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) of any grade in ≥15% of patients were increased lipase, alopecia, actinic keratosis, myalgia, arthralgia, decreased appetite, fatigue, hyperkeratosis, nausea, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome. There were no grade ≥4 treatment-related TEAEs. Conclusions In this phase I study, ripretinib demonstrated encouraging efficacy and a well-tolerated safety profile in patients with KIT-altered metastatic melanoma, suggesting ripretinib may have a clinically meaningful role in treating these patients.
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are promising agents for diverse biomedical applications such as drug and gene delivery, bioimaging, and cancer treatment. Upon in vivo application, AuNRs quickly interact with cells of the immune system. On the basis of their strong intrinsic phagocytic activity, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are specifically equipped for the uptake of particulate materials such as AuNRs. Therefore, understanding the interaction of AuNRs with PMNs is key for the development of safe and efficient therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the uptake, intracellular processing, and cell biological response induced by AuNRs in PMNs. We show that uptake of AuNRs mainly occurs via phagocytosis and macropinocytosis with rapid deposition of AuNRs in endosomes within 5 min. Within 60 min, AuNR uptake induced an unfolded protein response (UPR) along with induction of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 α (IREα) and features of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This early response was followed by a pro-inflammatory autocrine activation loop that involves LOX1 upregulation on the cell surface and increased secretion of IL8 and MMP9. Our study provides comprehensive mechanistic insight into the interaction of AuNRs with immune cells and suggests potential targets to limit the unwanted immunopathological activation of PMNs during application of AuNRs.
Importance: Since the 1990s, reporting guidelines have developed that uniformly require authors to report a measure of precision (confidence intervals [CIs]) in addition to effect size. Objective: To investigate the time trend of statistical inference and statistical reporting style in abstracts of major cancer journals. Design, setting, and participants: This cross-sectional study reviewed all abstracts published between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2020, in 10 high-ranking cancer journals (Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Cancer Discovery, Cancer Cell, JAMA Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Molecular Cancer, Journal of Thoracic Oncology, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, and Trends in Cancer) using a previously validated computerized algorithm to search the PubMed database. For the time trend analyses, 2 journals with only a few years of existence (JAMA Oncology and Trends in Cancer) were excluded. Exposures: Calendar year, journal, and type of abstract (randomized clinical trial or other). Main outcomes and measures: Proportions of abstracts containing CIs, P values without CIs, and qualitative expressions of statistical significance only were compared over time among journals. Results: Overall, 24 034 of 42 509 abstracts (56.5%) contained statistical inference. Reporting of CIs increased over time in 5 of 8 journals. From 2016 to 2020, the most prevailing statistical reporting style was the presentation of CIs (3070 of 4895 [62.7%]). However, the proportion of abstracts reporting statistical inference based solely on the terms significant or nonsignificant was still 1195 of 4895 (24.4%) during this period and was most prevalent among basic science-oriented cancer journals (eg, 63 of 66 [95.5%] in Cancer Cell). A higher prevalence of CI reporting was associated with reporting of results from randomized clinical trials and the requirement to report according to guidelines (eg, 522 of 574 [90.9%] in Lancet Oncology). Conclusions and relevance: These findings suggest that the reporting style of statistical inference in abstracts of major cancer journals has improved over time. A requirement in journals' instructions for authors to present statistical inference in accordance with reporting guidelines and the implementation of these guidelines in submitted manuscripts on the part of journal editors may improve reporting.
Background and purpose: Flow diversion is an effective treatment for aneurysms of the ICA with compression-related neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms, especially when treatment is initiated early after symptom onset and aneurysm occlusion is complete. However, non-negligible complication rates have been reported. Our aim was to identify risk factors for morbidity/mortality and incomplete aneurysm occlusion. Materials and methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a previous publication, which included all patients treated with flow diversion for an unruptured aneurysm of the ICA with compression-related symptoms. Results: Fifty-four patients with 54 aneurysms (48 women, 88.9%; mean age, 59.2 [SD, 15.9] years; range, 21-86 years) treated with flow diversion were included. We observed morbidity and mortality rates of 7.4% and 3.7%. Increasing age (OR per decade, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.23-8.49; P = .02) and dual-antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.16-165.97; P = .04) were significantly associated with morbidity/mortality. After a median follow-up of 13.3 [SD, 10.5] months, the rates of complete aneurysm occlusion, neck remnant, and aneurysm remnant were 74%, 14%, and 12%. Incomplete occlusion at follow-up was less frequently observed in aneurysms treated with additional coil embolization (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.01-0.86; P = .04). Conclusions: Although a promising treatment for compressive ICA aneurysms, flow diversion carries a relevant risk for complications and incomplete aneurysm occlusion. Our results may help identify patients in which flow diversion may not be the ideal treatment method. Additional coil embolization increased the likelihood of complete aneurysm occlusion at follow-up.
Zusammenfassung Einleitung Die interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit war und ist insbesondere in der Gegenwart – bedingt durch den enormen Wissensfortschritt in der Medizin – von herausragender Bedeutung. Die Diagnostik und Therapie von benignen und malignen Knochentumoren stellt alle beteiligten Fachdisziplinen aufgrund der Seltenheit dieser Tumoren häufig vor Herausforderungen. Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, die Bedeutung der Interdisziplinarität in der Diagnosefindung von Knochentumoren herauszuarbeiten. Methoden Es handelt sich um eine Übersichtsarbeit zur Bedeutung der Interdisziplinarität bei der Diagnostik von Knochentumoren. Aufgrund der nur umschriebenen Literatur zu diesem Thema veranschaulichen wir anhand von Fallbeispielen die Notwendigkeit der interdisziplinären Zusammenarbeit. Ergebnisse und Diskussion Dieser Artikel verdeutlicht, dass eine interdisziplinäre klinisch-radiologische Betrachtung von „leave-me-alone lesions“ und eine klinisch-radiologisch-pathologische Korrelation von biopsierten Knochentumoren erfolgen muss. Alle Befunde müssen im Rahmen einer gemeinsamen interdisziplinären Konferenz in ein diagnostisches Gesamtbild eingefügt werden, sodass nicht selten die Diagnose am Ende interdisziplinär erarbeitet wird. Schlussfolgerung Für den „Kliniker“ ist es unabdingbar zu wissen, dass die Diagnose eines Knochentumors oft nicht allein durch den Pathologen gestellt werden kann und zwingend der interdisziplinären Zusammenarbeit bedarf.
Objectives: Liver transplantation (LT) is associated with high stress on the cardiovascular system. Ruling out coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important part of evaluation for LT. The aim of our study was to assess whether CT-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) allows for differentiation of hemodynamically significant and non-significant coronary stenosis in patients evaluated for LT. Methods: In total, 201 patients undergoing LT evaluation were included in the study. The patients received coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) to rule out CAD and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) to further evaluate coronary lesions found in CCTA if a significant (≥ 50 % on CCTA) stenosis was suspected. CT-FFR was computed from CCTA datasets using a machine learning-based algorithm and compared to ICA as a standard of reference. Coronary lesions with CT-FFR ≤ 0.80 were defined as hemodynamically significant. Results: In 127 of 201 patients (63%), an obstructive CAD was ruled out by CCTA. In the remaining 74 patients (37%), at least one significant stenosis was suspected in CCTA. Compared to ICA, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CT-FFR measurements were 71% (49-92%), 90% (82-98%), 67% (45-88%), and 91% (84-99%), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was 85% (85-86%). In 69% of cases (52 of 75 lesions), additional analysis by CT-FFR correctly excluded the hemodynamic significance of the stenosis. Conclusions: Machine learning-based CT-FFR seems to be a very promising noninvasive approach for exclusion of hemodynamic significant coronary stenoses in patients undergoing evaluation for LT and could help to reduce the rate of invasive coronary angiography in this high-risk population. Key points: • Machine learning-based computed tomography-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) seems to be a very promising noninvasive approach for exclusion of hemodynamic significance of coronary stenoses in patients undergoing evaluation for liver transplantation and could help to reduce the rate of invasive coronary angiography in this high-risk population.
Objective: To investigate prevalence and MRI phenotype of retinoblastoma-associated orbital cellulitis. Additionally, this study aimed to identify postlaminar optic nerve enhancement patterns differentiating between inflammation and tumor invasion. Design: A monocenter cohort study assessed the prevalence of orbital cellulitis features on MRI in retinoblastoma patients. A multicenter case-control study compared MRI features of the retinoblastoma-associated orbital cellulitis cases with retinoblastoma controls. Subjects: A consecutive retinoblastoma patient cohort of 236 patients (311 eyes) was retrospectively investigated. Subsequently, 30 retinoblastoma cases with orbital cellulitis were compared with 30 matched retinoblastoma controls without cellulitis. Methods: In the cohort study, retinoblastoma MRI scans were scored on presence of inflammatory features. In the case-control study MRI scans were scored on intraocular features and postlaminar optic nerve enhancement patterns. Postlaminar enhancement patterns were compared with histopathologic assessment of postlaminar tumor invasion. Interreader agreement was assessed and exact tests with Bonferroni-correction were adopted for statistical comparisons. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of retinoblastoma-associated orbital cellulitis on MRI was calculated. Frequency of intra-ocular MRI features were compared between orbital cellulitis cases and controls. Sensitivity and specificity of postlaminar optic nerve patterns for detection of postlaminar tumor invasion was assessed. Results: The MRI prevalence of retinoblastoma-associated orbital cellulitis was 6.8% (16/236). Retinoblastoma with orbital cellulitis showed significantly more tumor necrosis, uveal abnormalities (inflammation, hemorrhage and necrosis), lens luxation (all P < 0.001), and a larger eye size (P = 0.012). The inflammatory pattern of optic nerve enhancement (strong enhancement similar to adjacent choroid) was solely found in orbital cellulitis cases, of which none (0/16) showed tumor invasion on histopathology. Of patients with invasive pattern enhancement, 50% (5/10) showed tumor invasion on histopathology. Considering these different enhancement patterns, i.e. suggestive for either inflammation or tumor invasion, increased specificity for detection of postlaminar tumor invasion within the context of orbital cellulitis from 32% (95%CI:16-52%) to 89% (95%CI:72-98%). Conclusions: Retinoblastoma cases presenting with orbital cellulitis show MRI findings of a larger eye size, extensive tumor necrosis, uveal abnormalities, and lens luxation. MRI contrast enhancement patterns within the postlaminar optic nerve can differentiate between tumor invasion and inflammatory changes.
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1,281 members
Jan Buer
  • Institute of Medical Microbiology
Hannes Klump
  • Institute of Transfusion Medicine
Amir Mahabadi
  • Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine
Benjamin Alexander Kansy
  • Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic
Hufelandstr. 55, 45122, Essen, NRW, Germany
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