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    ABSTRACT: The importance of the cytoskeleton in mounting a successful immune response is evident from the wide range of defects that occur in actin-related primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Studies of these PIDs have revealed a pivotal role for the actin cytoskeleton in almost all stages of immune system function, from hematopoiesis and immune cell development, through to recruitment, migration, intercellular and intracellular signaling, and activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. The major focus of this review is the immune defects that result from mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene (WAS), which have a broad impact on many different processes and give rise to clinically heterogeneous immunodeficiencies. We also discuss other related genetic defects and the possibility of identifying new genetic causes of cytoskeletal immunodeficiency.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Immunological Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm's tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic tools have been developed to efficiently engineer T-cell specificity and enhance T-cell function. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) use the antibody variable segments to direct specificity against cell surface molecules. T-cell receptors (TCR) can redirect T cells to intracellular target proteins, fragments of which are presented in the peptide-binding groove of HLA molecules. A recent clinical trial with CAR-modified T cells redirected against the B-cell lineage antigen CD19 showed dramatic clinical benefit in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. Similarly, impressive clinical responses were seen in melanoma and synovial cell carcinoma with TCR-modified T cells redirected against the melanocyte lineage antigen MART-1 and the testis-cancer antigen NY-ESO-1. However, on and off-target toxicity was associated with most of these clinical responses, and fatal complications have been observed in some patients treated with gene modified T cells. This review will discuss factors that might contribute to toxic side effects of therapy with gene modified T cells, and outline potential strategies to retain anticancer activity while reducing unwanted side effects.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 27 June 2013; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.34.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Gene therapy
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Top publications last week by reads

New England Journal of Medicine 10/2014; 371(15):1407-1417. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1404588
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Annual Conference of the British-Society-for-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy; 05/2014
2 Reads