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    ABSTRACT: Physical inactivity is responsible for 5.3 million deaths annually worldwide. To measure physical activity energy expenditure, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method is the gold standard. However, questionnaires and accelerometry are more widely used. We compared physical activity measured by accelerometer and questionnaire against total (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) estimated by DLW. TEE, PAEE (TEE minus resting energy expenditure) and body composition were measured using the DLW technique in 25 adolescents (16 girls) aged 13 years living in Pelotas, Brazil. Physical activity was assessed using the Actigraph accelerometer and by self-report. Physical activity data from accelerometry and self-report were tested against energy expenditure data derived from the DLW method. Further, tests were done to assess the ability of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) to predict variability in TEE and to what extent adjustment for fat and fat-free mass predicted the variability in TEE. TEE varied from 1,265 to 4,143 kcal/day. It was positively correlated with physical activity (counts) estimated by accelerometry (rho = 0.57; p = 0.003) and with minutes per week of physical activity by questionnaire (rho = 0.41; p = 0.04). An increase of 10 minutes per day in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) relates to an increase in TEE of 141 kcal/day. PAEE was positively correlated with accelerometry (rho = 0.64; p = 0.007), but not with minutes per week of physical activity estimated by questionnaire (rho = 0.30; p = 0.15). Physical activity by accelerometry explained 31% of the vssariability in TEE. By incorporating fat and fat-free mass in the model, we were able to explain 58% of the variability in TEE. Objectively measured physical activity significantly contributes to the explained variance in both TEE and PAEE in Brazilian youth. Independently, body composition also explains variance in TEE, and should ideally be taken into account when using accelerometry to predict energy expenditure values.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to report outcomes of the UK service level delivery of MEND (Mind,Exercise,Nutrition...Do it!) 5-7, a multicomponent, community-based, healthy lifestyle intervention designed for overweight and obese children aged 5-7 years and their families. Repeated measures. Community venues at 37 locations across the UK. 440 overweight or obese children (42% boys; mean age 6.1 years; body mass index (BMI) z-score 2.86) and their parents/carers participated in the intervention. MEND 5-7 is a 10-week, family-based, child weight-management intervention consisting of weekly group sessions. It includes positive parenting, active play, nutrition education and behaviour change strategies. The intervention is designed to be scalable and delivered by a range of health and social care professionals. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was BMI z-score. Secondary outcome measures included BMI, waist circumference, waist circumference z-score, children's psychological symptoms, parenting self-efficacy, physical activity and sedentary behaviours and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables. 274 (62%) children were measured preintervention and post-intervention (baseline; 10-weeks). Post-intervention, mean BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.5 kg/m(2) and 0.9 cm, while z-scores decreased by 0.20 and 0.20, respectively (p<0.0001). Improvements were found in children's psychological symptoms (-1.6 units, p<0.0001), parent self-efficacy (p<0.0001), physical activity (+2.9 h/week, p<0.01), sedentary activities (-4.1 h/week, p<0.0001) and the proportion of parents and children eating five or more portions of fruit and vegetables per day (both p<0.0001). Attendance at the 10 sessions was 73% with a 70% retention rate. Participation in the MEND 5-7 programme was associated with beneficial changes in physical, behavioural and psychological outcomes for children with complete sets of measurement data, when implemented in UK community settings under service level conditions. Further investigation is warranted to establish if these findings are replicable under controlled conditions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · BMJ Open
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    ABSTRACT: The concept that early growth has long-term biological effects is based on extensive studies in animals dating from the 1930s. More recently, compelling evidence for a long-term influence of early growth on later health has also emerged in humans. Substantial data now support the hypothesis that 'accelerated', or too fast infant growth, increases the propensity to obesity, glucose intolerance, raised blood pressure, dyslipidaemia and endothelial dysfunction, the clustering of risk factors which predispose to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). The association between infant growth and these risk factors is strong, consistent, shows a dose-response effect, and is biologically plausible. Moreover, experimental data from prospective randomized controlled trials strongly support a causal link between infant growth and later cardiovascular risk. These observations suggest, therefore, that the primary prevention of CVD should begin from as early as the first few months of life. The present review considers this evidence, the underlying mechanisms involved, and its implications for public health.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · World review of nutrition and dietetics
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