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- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enhanced understanding of how students’ self-confidence is influenced benefits educational practice and motivational theories. For 1523 students in 12 secondary schools in England, science self-confidence was predicted by various factors: current self-confidence (self-concept) was most strongly predicted by received praise, current grades, and interest in science; self-confidence for future attainment (self-efficacy) was most strongly predicted by current grades and perceived utility of science. For both measures of self-confidence, reported subject-comparisons (science being harder than other subjects) predictively associated with under-confidence, while reported utility predictively associated with over-confidence. Under-confident students reported consistently lower than other students, highlighting that under-confidence may ultimately be motivationally detrimental.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper explores city dweller aspirations for cities of the future in the context of global commitments to radically reduce carbon emissions by 2050; cities contribute the vast majority of these emissions and a growing bulk of the world's population lives in cities. The particular challenge of creating a carbon reduced future in democratic countries is that the measures proposed must be acceptable to the electorate. Such acceptability is fostered if carbon reduced ways of living are also felt to be wellbeing maximising. Thus the objective of the paper is to explore what kinds of cities people aspire to live in, to ascertain whether these aspirations align with or undermine carbon reduced ways of living, as well as personal wellbeing. Using a novel free associative technique, city aspirations are found to cluster around seven themes, encompassing physical and social aspects. Physically, people aspire to a city with a range of services and facilities, green and blue spaces, efficient transport, beauty and good design. Socially, people aspire to a sense of community and a safe environment. An exploration of these themes reveals that only a minority of the participants' aspirations for cities relate to lowering carbon or environmental wellbeing. Far more consensual is emphasis on, and a particular vision of, aspirations that will bring personal wellbeing. Furthermore, city dweller aspirations align with evidence concerning factors that maximise personal wellbeing but, far less, with those that produce low carbon ways of living. In order to shape a lower carbon future that city dwellers accept the potential convergence between environmental and personal wellbeing will need to be capitalised on: primarily aversion to pollution and enjoyment of communal green space.
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