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ABSTRACT: Many word forms map onto multiple meanings (e.g., “ace”). The current experiments explore the extent to which adults reshape the lexical–semantic representations of such words on the basis of experience, to increase the availability of more recently accessed meanings. A naturalistic web-based experiment in which primes were presented within a radio programme (Experiment 1; N=1800) and a lab-based experiment (Experiment 2) show that when listeners have encountered one or two disambiguated instances of an ambiguous word, they then retrieve this primed meaning more often (compared with an unprimed control condition). This word-meaning priming lasts up to 40min after exposure, but decays very rapidly during this interval. Experiments 3 and 4 explore longer-term word-meaning priming by measuring the impact of more extended, naturalistic encounters with ambiguous words: recreational rowers (N=213) retrieved rowing-related meanings for words (e.g., “feather”) more often if they had rowed that day, despite a median delay of 8hours. The rate of rowing-related interpretations also increased with additional years’ rowing experience. Taken together these experiments show that individuals’ overall meaning preferences reflect experience across a wide range of timescales from minutes to years. In addition, priming was not reduced by a change in speaker identity (Experiment 1), suggesting that the phenomenon occurs at a relatively abstract lexical–semantic level. The impact of experience was reduced for older adults (Experiments 1, 3, 4) suggesting that the lexical–semantic representations of younger listeners may be more malleable to current linguistic experience.
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ABSTRACT: Long-period quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of solar flares are a class apart from shorter period events. By involving an external resonator, the mechanism they call upon differs from traditional QPP models, but has wider applications. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of spatially resolved QPPs, with periods around 10 minutes, observed in the X-ray spectrum primarily at energies between 3 and 25 keV. Complementary observations obtained in Hα and radio emission in the kHz to GHz frequency range, together with an analysis of the X-ray plasma properties provide a comprehensive picture that is consistent with a dense flaring loop subject to periodic energization and thermalization. The QPPs obtained in Hα and type III radio bursts, with similar periods as the QPPs in soft X-rays, have the longest periods ever reported for those types of data sets. We also report 1–2 GHz radio emission, concurrent with but unrestricted to the QPP time intervals, which is multi-structured at regularly separated narrowband frequencies and modulated with ∼18 minute periods. This radio emission can be attributed to the presence of multiple "quiet" large-scale loops in the background corona. Large scale but shorter inner loops below may act as preferential resonators for the QPPs. The observations support interpretations consistent with both inner and outer loops subject to fast kink magnetohydrodynamic waves. Finally, X-ray imaging indicates the presence of double coronal sources in the flaring sites, which could be the particular signatures of the magnetically linked inner loops. We discuss the preferential conditions and the driving mechanisms causing the repeated flaring.
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ABSTRACT: A novel experimental method is presented to determine the optical efficiency and the loss channels of a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC). Despite strong promise, LSCs have not yet reached their full potential due to various mechanisms affecting the device's optical efficiency. Among those loss channels, escape cone and non-unity quantum yield losses are generally the most dominant. To further advance the field of LSCs, it is vital to understand the impact of each independently. So far, researchers have only characterized the total loss in LSCs. Here, an experimental method is proposed to separate the contribution from each individual loss channel. The experimental apparatus is the same as used for quantum yield measurements of fluorophores in solid samples. Therefore, the setup is commonly available to research groups already involved in LSC research. The accuracy of this method is demonstrated by comparing the experimental results with Monte-Carlo ray tracing. Our experimental method can have a strong impact on LSC research as it offers a means to unveil the loss channels of LSCs in addition to the optical efficiency.
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