Background Legislation pertaining to canine ownership in Ireland maintains a one-health perspective by establishing a minimum standard of care for dogs while safeguarding human health and wellbeing. However, public awareness of this legislation has not been measured. The goals of this study were first, to estimate and compare the level of awareness, among dog owners and non-dog owners, that eight responsibilities of dog owners are prescribed by law in Ireland. Second, to determine if gender modifies differences in awareness between owners and non-owners, and third to determine whether gender itself is independently associated with awareness of the legal specification of these dog ownership responsibilities. Results We conducted a cross-sectional study of 679 University College Dublin employees. Exposure information included participants’ dog ownership status, gender, age, and education level. Among dog owners and non-dog owners, we estimated and compared the prevalences of persons with self-reported awareness that each of eight dog ownership responsibilities are prescribed by law in Ireland: Dog fouling in a public place, the leashing and muzzling of certain breeds, holding a dog license, straying of dogs, safeguarding health and welfare of dogs, dog abandonment, prohibition on tail docking of puppies and the mandatory wearing of identification. The prevalence of awareness was low among both dog owners and non-dog owners with substantial awareness (≥ 80%) of only three responsibilities: Those pertaining to fouling, licensing and muzzling and leashing. Awareness that more than one responsibility was specified by law was also poor with only 17.9% (95% CI: 15.1–20.9%) of participants aware of all eight and dog owners essentially just as likely (54%; 95% CI: 49–58%) to be aware of more than one as non-dog owners. For most dog ownership responsibilities, differences in prevalence (PD) of awareness between owners and non-owners and females and males were trivial (PD < 10%). Similarly for most responsibilities, gender did not modify awareness PDs between owners and non-owners. Conclusions In this well-educated university community, self-reported awareness that these eight responsibilities of dog owners are prescribed by law in Ireland is poor with essentially no difference between dog owners and non-dog owners or males and females. Awareness was higher for those responsibilities which, when not discharged, result in direct negative consequences to humans compared to those that result in direct negative consequences to dogs. It is likely that awareness of the legal status of these eight responsibilities of dog owners among the general public in Ireland is even less than observed in this study.
This article focuses on the new Veterinary Medicines Regulation, which is applicable across all Member States of the European Union, including Ireland, from 28 January 2022. From this date, prophylactic use of antimicrobials (AMs) in groups of animals is banned, metaphylactic use in groups of animals is restricted, and certain AMs are reserved for humans only. In the Irish dairy industry, as elsewhere, successful implementation of the Regulation will require a high level of mastitis control across all herds, and measures to support high standards in antibiotic stewardship. National actions will be critical, to support optimal mastitis control throughout the national herd. For private veterinary practitioners (PVPs), the Regulation will lead to specific prescribing changes, including the requirement to shift from blanket to selective dry cow therapy. Further, prescribing choices will need to be guided by the categorisation for AMs developed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). More broadly, the Regulation requires a fundamental shift in thinking both in terms of AM usage and of the role of the PVP. Given the close association between mastitis control and intramammary AM stewardship, it is imperative that prescribing and mastitis control decisions are made concurrently. A herd health approach will be critical, within a Client-Patient-Practice Relationship as outlined by the Veterinary Council of Ireland. On those farms with sub-optimal mastitis control, mastitis issues need to be sustainably resolved. A detailed farm investigation by the PVP, in partnership with the farmer and other milk quality professionals, is essential, to understand the epidemiology and on-farm drivers of mastitis, to develop farm-specific action plans, and to facilitate ongoing monitoring of progress. It is vital that PVPs provide leadership, with the provision of a holistic, herd health approach to inform both prescribing and mastitis control decisions in herds under their care.
Air pollution has been on continuous rise with increase in industrialization in metropolitan cities of the world. Several measures including strict climate laws and reduction in the number of vehicles were implemented by several nations. The COVID-19 pandemic provided a great opportunity to understand the daily human activities effect on air pollution. Majority nations restricted industrial activities and vehicular traffic to a large extent as a measure to restrict COVID-19 spread. In this paper, we analyzed the impact of such COVID19-induced lockdown on the air quality of the city of New Delhi, India. We analyzed the average concentration of common gaseous pollutants viz. sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). These concentrations were obtained from the tropospheric column of Sentinel-5P (an earth observation satellite of European Space Agency) data. We observed that the city observed a significant drop in the level of atmospheric pollutant’s concentration for all the major pollutants as a result of strict lockdown measure. Such findings are also validated with pollutant data obtained from ground based monitoring stations. We observed that near-surface pollutant concentration dropped significantly by 50% for PM2.5, 71.9% for NO2, and 88% for CO, after the lockdown period. Such studies would pave the path for implementing future air pollution control measures by environmentalists.
Background: To evaluate how an international one-year intensive research training program for addiction medicine physicians contributed to subsequent research involvement and productivity. Methods: We prospectively compared addiction medicine physician fellows admitted to a one-year training program with non-admitted controls, using baseline questionnaire and peer-reviewed publication data. Participants' publication activity was assessed from fellowship application date onwards using biomedical databases (e.g., PubMed, Embase). Results: Between July 2014 and June 2020, which is six years of cohorts, 56 (39 women) physicians, both fellows (n = 25) and non-admitted applicants (n = 31), were observed and included in the study, contributing 261 person-years of observation. At baseline, in the fellows' cohort: 76% of participants (19/25) reported past research involvement, 24% (6/25) had one or more advanced graduate degrees (e.g., MPH), and the median number of peer-reviewed, first author publications was one (Interquartile Range [IQR] = 0-2). At baseline, in the controls' cohort: 84% of participants (26/31) reported past research involvement, 39% (12/31) had one or more advanced graduate degrees, and the median number of peer-reviewed, first author publications was zero. The physicians' training included internal medicine (n = 8), family medicine (n = 33), psychiatry (n = 5) and others (n = 4). At follow up, there was a significant difference between fellows (n = 25) and controls (n = 31) in total number of publications (Rate Ratio [RR] = 13.09, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 5.01 - 34.21, p < 0.001), as well as first author publications (RR = 5.59, 95% CI, 2.23 - 14.06, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In the six-year observation period, fellows' productivity indicates undertaking this fellowship was associated with significant research outputs in comparison to controls, signaling successful training of addiction physicians to help recruit addiction medicine physicians to participate in addiction research.
Understanding the nature and scope of existing social capital is essential to building the resilience of people living in vulnerable urban settings. This paper explores the question of how aid organisations can better utilise social capital to build the resilience of communities in slums. It specifically examines the relationship between social capital and urban vulnerability. The study used a mixed-methods approach to understand the diverse perspectives of social capital and uncover relationships that exist between social capital, absorptive and adaptive coping strategies in Kibera and Kawangware slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The findings show that coping is not a community or a societal issue; people living in slums resort to either absorptive or adaptive coping strategies or a combination of both due to the precariousness of livelihoods in such contexts. Measures of bonding, bridging, and linking social capital in slums are significantly associated with adaptive coping strategies. Families that had more dependents, were taking care of ill members or that had no regular source of income were more likely to resort to withdrawing children from school, begging, selling assets, amongst others. Livelihood studies overlook critical aspects of social capital such as bridges and linkages, which are essential for building the transformative capacities of slum dwellers. Therefore, aid actors should focus on social capital if they are to build the capacities of people living in slums. More attention should be given to the role of local organisations and initiatives in establishing bridges and linkages so as not to undermine communities’ existing capacities and resource base.
Objective To disseminate the portable sequencer MinION in developing countries for the main purpose of battling infectious diseases, we found a consortium called Global Research Alliance in Infectious Diseases (GRAID). By holding and inviting researchers both from developed and developing countries, we aim to train the participants with MinION’s operations and foster a collaboration in infectious diseases researches. As a real-life example in which resources are limited, we describe here a result from a training course, a metagenomics analysis from two blood samples collected from a routine cattle surveillance in Kulan Progo District, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia in 2019. Results One of the samples was successfully sequenced with enough sequencing yield for further analysis. After depleting the reads mapped to host DNA, the remaining reads were shown to map to Theileria orientalis using BLAST and OneCodex. Although the reads were also mapped to Clostridium botulinum, those were found to be artifacts derived from the cow genome. An effort to construct a consensus sequence was successful using a reference-based approach with Pomoxis. Hence, we concluded that the asymptomatic cow might be infected with T. orientalis and showed the usefulness of sequencing technology, specifically the MinION platform, in a developing country.
Background: Angiography and embolization (AE) is a lifesaving, high radiation dose procedure for treatment of abdominal arterial hemorrhage (AAH). Interventional radiologists have utilized pre-procedure CT angiography (CTA) and newer fluoroscopic systems in an attempt to reduce radiation dose and procedure time. Purpose: To study the factors contributing to the radiation dose of AE for AAH and to compare to the reference standard. Materials and methods: This retrospective single-centre observational cohort study identified 154 consecutive AE procedures in 138 patients (median age 65 years; interquartile range 54-77; 103 men) performed with a C-arm fluoroscopic system (Axiom Artis DTA or Axiom Artis Q (Siemens Healthineers)), between January 2010 and December 2017. Parameters analysed included: demographics, fluoroscopy system, bleeding location, body mass index (BMI), preprocedural CT, air kerma-area product (PKA), reference air kerma (Ka,r), fluoroscopy time (FT) and the number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) runs. Factors affecting dose were assessed using Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA and linear regression. Results: Patients treated with the new angiographic system (NS) had a median PKA, median Ka,r, Q3 PKA and Q3 Ka,r that were 74% (p < 0.0005), 66%(p < 0.0005), 55% and 52% lower respectively than those treated with the old system (OS). This dose reduction was consistent for each bleeding location (upper GI, Lower GI and extraluminal). There was no difference in PKA (p = 0.452), Ka,r (p = 0.974) or FT (p = 0.179), between those who did (n = 137) or did not (n = 17) undergo pre-procedure CTA. Other factors significantly influencing radiation dose were: patient BMI and number of DSA runs. A multivariate model containing these variables accounts for 15.2% of the variance in Ka,r (p < 0.005) and 45.9% of the variance of PKA (p < 0.005). Conclusion: Radiation dose for AE in AAH is significantly reduced by new fluoroscopic technology. Higher patient body mass index is an independent key parameter affecting patient dose. Radiation dose was not influenced by haemorrhage site or performance of pre-procedure CTA.
Background Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and is one of the main causes of foodborne outbreaks and infections in the European Union. Pigs are a significant reservoir and are frequently subclinical carriers of this organism. Salmonella can be shed in the faeces allowing infection to spread to other pigs, the environment, transport vehicles, lairages and other areas. Inadvertent spillage of gut contents during the slaughter process also leads to contamination. A pig Salmonella control programme has operated in Ireland since 2002 but many local surveys and an EUMS baseline survey in 2008 continued to indicate high levels of the organism in the pig sector. The objectives of this study were to generate updated information on the prevalence of Salmonella spp, in slaughter pigs and carcasses in Irish abattoirs. Five pigs from each of 164 herds were randomly sampled over a 14-week period during 2016. One sample from each of the five pigs of; caecal content, ileo-caecal lymph nodes and carcass swabs (pre-chill) were collected. The five caeca and lymph node samples from each herd were processed as one pool of caecal samples and one pool of lymph node samples, respectively, while the five carcass swabs were tested as individual samples. All isolates were characterised by serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results In total, 235 Salmonella spp. were isolated from 820 individual carcass swabs, 164 pooled lymph nodes and 164 caecal contents. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 54.3% of the caecal contents and from 31.7% of the ileo-caecal lymph node sample pools. A total of 11.5% of carcass-swab samples yielded Salmonella spp. S . Typhimurium 4,,12:i:1,2 or its monophasic variant 4,,12:i:-: predominated among isolates from all positive samples; accounting for 73% of lymph nodes, 68% of caecal contents and 56% of carcass swab isolates. S. London and S . Derby were the next most common isolated serotypes. Conclusions These results confirm continuing high levels of Salmonella in fattening pigs in Ireland although reductions in carcass contamination compared to previous surveys were noted. A high prevalence of Salmonella in lymph nodes suggests that it remains a significant problem pre slaughter and a challenge to abattoirs in adhering to process hygiene requirements. The high prevalence of monophasic S . Typhimurim 4,,12:i:-: is of serious concern. Therefore, it is important to identify contributing factors in the dissemination of this pathogen in the pork industry in order to minimise the risk of human salmonellosis cases.
Purpose To evaluate the impact of a paediatric radiological protection campaign, implemented in the emergency units of a healthcare provider network in Brazil. This campaign aimed to promote awareness among emergency department physicians, regarding justification of paediatric X-ray referrals for paranasal sinus, chest and CT exams, as a strategy to reduce exposure to ionising radiation. Method Frequency analysis of common paediatric imaging referrals from 19 emergency departments was performed for a 3-year period (2015–2018) to coincide with before, during and after the implementation of the radiation protection campaign. The campaign was multifaceted and involved dissemination of educational materials and imaging referral guidelines along with quarterly meetings with participating centres' leaderships. Additionally, patient dose cards were distributed to patients/carers. The Chi-Square test was used to examine the association between the type of examination and the patient's age group. Exact-Fisher test was performed to check for an association between participant engagement and the existence of the radiation protection committee. Results Referrals reduced by 25% following the campaign with no reports of misdiagnosis. Many referrals in the youngest age groups. In 15 units, a radiological protection committee was created to raise awareness and to create a multi professional team to communicate the risks and benefits of radiological procedure in children. Conclusion The campaign resulted in a substantial reduction in radiological referrals while promoting a radiation protection culture. Simple education initiatives can contribute to savings in both finances and radiation doses, particularly important in radiosensitive cohorts.
Intramammary (IM) antimicrobial sales data are currently the only feasible means to gain broad insights into on-farm usage of antimicrobials (AMs) relevant to mastitis control within the Irish dairy industry. The aim of this study was to update earlier work describing sales data of intramammary antimicrobial usage in the Irish dairy industry in 2020. Previously reported data from 2013 to 2019 is included for reference and 2020 sales data is reported using similar methodology to previously published work in this area. Data on IM AMs sold in Ireland during 2013-2020 were obtained from two sources, believed to represent 99% of all sales of IM AMs in Ireland, and analyses were undertaken to evaluate patterns in IM AM sales. We report an increase in overall sales of both lactating cow (LC) and dry cow (DC) IM AMs. We observed a large increase in the use of DC IM AMs, from 0.95 to 1.13 defined course dose (DCDvet) per cow per year in 2019 and 2020 respectively, as well as evidence of ongoing usage of highest priority critically important AMs, as defined by the World Health Organization. There was also a slight increase in LC use of IM AMs, from 0.43 to 0.44 defined course dose (DCDvet) per cow per year. We believe that our results provide an accurate reflection of IM sales in Ireland in 2020. In common with any study of this type, caution is needed when interpreting national IM AM sales data, noting the potential discrepancies between AM sales and on-farm usage. Nonetheless, the sales pattern described here, most importantly the increased use of DC products and ongoing and increasing use of HP CIA products in both DC and LC therapy raise significant concerns for the Irish dairy industry. This study provides an evidence base to inform current policy discussions, particularly in the context of the new Veterinary Medicines Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2019/6), which comes into force on 28 January 2022.
Background The cattle sector is the most important economic production unit of the Irish farming and agri-food sector. Despite its relevance, there has been limited quantitative information about the structure of differing cattle production types and of the connections between them. This paper addresses this gap by providing, for the first time, an overview of the Irish cattle population structured by enterprise type. Methods & Results We collected data from the cattle register for the period 2015 to 2019 and assigned registered herds to one of 18 different herd types using a recently published herd type classification approach. This allows, for the first time, to exploring changes in enterprise types and subtypes over time, and describing the movements between these subtypes and from these subtypes to slaughter. Conclusions The overview and associated classification presented in this study will form the basis for a number of future comparative studies, including cross-sectoral assessments of profitability, estimation of the extent of animal health losses on Irish cattle farms or structural analysis of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions across production systems.
Myocarditis has been discovered to be a significant complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a condition caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. COVID-19 myocarditis seems to have distinct inflammatory characteristics, which make it unique to other viral etiologies. The incidence of COVID-19 myocarditis is still not clear as a wide range of figures have been quoted in the literature; however, it seems that the risk of developing myocarditis increases with more severe infection. Furthermore, the administration of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine has been associated with the development of myocarditis, particularly after the second dose. COVID-19 myocarditis has a wide variety of presentations, ranging from dyspnea and chest pain to acute heart failure and possibly death. It is important to catch any cases of myocarditis, particularly those presenting with fulminant myocarditis which can be characterized by signs of heart failure and arrythmias. Initial work up for suspected myocarditis should include serial troponins and electrocardiograms. If myocardial damage is detected in these tests, further screening should be carried out. Cardiac magnetic resonance imagining and endomyocardial biopsy are the most useful tests for myocarditis. Treatment for COVID-19 myocarditis is still controversial; however, the use of intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids in combination may be effective, particularly in cases of fulminant myocarditis. Overall, the incidence of COVID-19 myocarditis requires further research, while the use of intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids in conjunction requires large randomized controlled trials to determine their efficacy.
Background Rare diseases (RDs) are often complex, serious, chronic and multi-systemic conditions, associated with physical, sensory and intellectual disability. Patients require follow-up management from multiple medical specialists and health and social care professionals involving a high level of integrated care, service coordination and specified care pathways. Methods and objectives This pilot study aimed to explore the best approach for developing national RD care pathways in the Irish healthcare system in the context of a lack of agreed methodology. Irish clinical specialists and patient/lived experience experts were asked to map existing practice against evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and best practice recommendations from the European Reference Networks (ERNs) to develop optimal care pathways. The study focused on the more prevalent, multisystemic rare conditions that require multidisciplinary care, services, supports and therapeutic interventions. Results 29 rare conditions were selected across 18 ERNs, for care pathway development. Multidisciplinary input from multiple specialisms was relevant for all pathways. A high level of engagement was experienced from clinical leads and patient organisations. CPGs were identified for 26 of the conditions. Nurse specialist, Psychology, Medical Social Work and Database Manager roles were deemed essential for all care pathways. Access to the therapeutic Health Service Professionals: Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech and Language Therapy were seen as key requirements for holistic care. Genetic counselling was highlighted as a core discipline in 27 pathways demonstrating the importance of access to Clinical Genetics services for many people with RDs. Conclusions This study proposes a methodology for Irish RD care pathway development, in collaboration with patient/service user advocates. Common RD patient needs and health care professional interventions across all pathways were identified. Key RD stakeholders have endorsed this national care pathway initiative. Future research focused on the implementation of such care pathways is a priority.
Background Osteochondrosis is a common condition of young horses where there is a failure of endochondral ossification, usually at predisposed sites. The estimated prevalence of osteochondrosis is 33–44%, with radiographic screening of yearlings being used to identify lesions. Radiography has two major limitations: poor sensitivity in detecting cartilaginous lesions and secondly, the exposure of the horse and personnel to ionising radiation. Ultrasonography allows imaging of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone margins and has been shown to be more sensitive in identifying osteochondrosis lesions. However, the ultrasonographic technique for examining joints is operator dependant, resulting in highly variable examinations, thus affecting its reliability and reproducibility as a screening test. Results A prospective observational clinical population study was undertaken involving twenty-two clinically normal weanling thoroughbred horses on-farm, describing a detailed protocol of the ultrasonographic examination technique for on-farm screening of common sites of osteochondral disease in the young horse, namely the carpal, metacarpophalangeal, stifle, tarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints. Conclusion Two veterinary practitioners used the technique to illustrate the repeatability of the protocol. The step-by-step protocol provides a valuable, reliable, repeatable technique for veterinary professionals performing screening ultrasound in the field.
Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a robust neuroinflammatory reaction which, in turn, exacerbates the initial mechanical damage. Pivotal players orchestrating this response are macrophages (Mφs) and microglia. After SCI, the inflammatory environment is dominated by pro-inflammatory Mφs/microglia, which contribute to secondary cell death and prevent regeneration. Therefore, reprogramming Mφ/microglia towards a more anti-inflammatory and potentially neuroprotective phenotype has gained substantial therapeutic interest in recent years. Interleukin-13 (IL-13) is a potent inducer of such an anti-inflammatory phenotype. In this study, we used genetically modified Mφs as carriers to continuously secrete IL-13 (IL-13 Mφs) at the lesion site. Methods Mφs were genetically modified to secrete IL-13 (IL-13 Mφs) and were phenotypically characterized using qPCR, western blot, and ELISA. To analyze the therapeutic potential, the IL-13 Mφs were intraspinally injected at the perilesional area after hemisection SCI in female mice. Functional recovery and histopathological improvements were evaluated using the Basso Mouse Scale score and immunohistochemistry. Neuroprotective effects of IL-13 were investigated using different cell viability assays in murine and human neuroblastoma cell lines, human neurospheroids, as well as murine organotypic brain slice cultures. Results In contrast to Mφs prestimulated with recombinant IL-13, perilesional transplantation of IL-13 Mφs promoted functional recovery following SCI in mice. This improvement was accompanied by reduced lesion size and demyelinated area. The local anti-inflammatory shift induced by IL-13 Mφs resulted in reduced neuronal death and fewer contacts between dystrophic axons and Mφs/microglia, suggesting suppression of axonal dieback. Using IL-4Rα-deficient mice, we show that IL-13 signaling is required for these beneficial effects. Whereas direct neuroprotective effects of IL-13 on murine and human neuroblastoma cell lines or human neurospheroid cultures were absent, IL-13 rescued murine organotypic brain slices from cell death, probably by indirectly modulating the Mφ/microglia responses. Conclusions Collectively, our data suggest that the IL-13-induced anti-inflammatory Mφ/microglia phenotype can preserve neuronal tissue and ameliorate axonal dieback, thereby promoting recovery after SCI.
Background In Ireland, meat by-products (MBP) harvested at knackeries from farmed animals that have not died of an infectious or systemic disease are legally permitted to be fed to dogs in kennels and packs of hounds. There is limited information available on the risks of spreading foodborne bacteria or antimicrobial resistant (AMR) determinants to dogs, their handlers or the associated environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella serovars, Listeria monocytogenes , Campylobacter species , enterococci , their associated AMR determinants and the level of Escherichia coli in samples of MBP from knackeries and associated equipment and kennels. For this purpose, 313 fresh and 208 frozen MBP samples from 22 knackeries, 16 swabs of mincing equipment from two of the knackeries and 138 swabs from kennels adjacent to seven of the knackeries were collected and processed over a 12-month period. Results From the 521 MBP samples analysed, a total of 77 Salmonella (14.8%), 101 L. monocytogenes (19.4%), 12 Campylobacter (2.3%), 271 Enterococcus faecalis (52.0%) and 127 Enterococcus faecium (24.4%) strains were recovered. The 154 analysed environmental samples from kennels and mincing equipment yielded 194 isolates (3 Salmonella , 85 E. coli , 76 E. faecalis and 30 E. faecium .). E. coli was quantifiable in 423 of the 521 MBP samples with log counts per gram ranging between 1 and 6. AMR characterisation of 168 E. coli , enterococci and Salmonella isolates from MBP and environmental samples showed high levels of AMR including multi-drug resistance (MDR) with 63.6%, 9.1%, 29% and 45.8% of E. coli , Salmonella , E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates, respectively showing resistance to three or more antimicrobials (MDR) Conclusions The findings of this survey confirm that MBP from fallen animals contain high levels of zoonotic and AMR-harbouring bacteria that pose a risk of transmission to dogs, their handlers, and the environment.
We present a mathematical model of road cycling on arbitrary routes using the Frenet–Serret frame. The route is embedded in the coupled governing equations. We describe the mathematical model and numerical implementation. The dynamics are governed by a balance of forces of gravity, drag, and friction, along with pedalling or braking. We analyse steady-state speed and power against gradient and curvature. The centripetal acceleration is used as a control to determine transitions between pedalling and braking. In our model, the rider looks ahead at the curvature of the road by a distance dependent on the current speed. We determine such a distance (1–3 s at current speed) for safe riding and compare with the mean power. The results are based on a number of routes including flat and downhill, with variations in maximum curvature, and differing number of bends. We find the braking required to minimise centripetal acceleration occurs before the point of maximum curvature, thereby allowing acceleration by pedalling out of a bend.
Widespread adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is a common and critical component of international strategies to mitigate environmental pollution, climate change and oil dependency. The ability of consumers to assess the total cost of ownership (TCO) of EVs relative to internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) remains an important factor for EV uptake. The TCO of vehicles is not universal across different car segments and user profiles. We analyse and compare the TCO of ICEVs and EVs from 17 car segments across short- and long-term ownership periods, and further advance existing TCO approaches by integrating detailed activity-based driving profiles, taxation, grant structures and pricing. Results show that EV options in the most popular Irish car segments have existing battery EV options with a TCO averaging respectively 26% and 42% less than their equivalent petrol and diesel ICEV options over a 4-year ownership term when the current grant is included. This integrated method for granular TCO evaluation offers important insights for this market and affords scope to investigate how changes in travel patterns, car-segment pricing, taxation, grant policy, fuel costs, and carbon pricing and other transport policies can all affect TCO values over time across a broad range of market offerings.
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