University of Wyoming
  • Laramie, WY, United States
Recent publications
Understanding the occurrence modes of mercury in coal is important as its release poses long-term adverse effects on the environment and human health during coal production and utilization. However, the matter still remains a subject of controversy due to differing results from direct and indirect analyses, which suggest various possible modes of occurrence for mercury in coal. Additionally, the experimental measurement of Hg concentration presents challenges, further contributing to the complexity of the issue. A comprehensive investigation of experiments and molecular simulations is conducted herein. Electron probe microanalysis and elemental mapping analysis show that elemental Hg is concentrated in framboidal pyrites while absent in organic matter. To understand the occurrence modes of mercury in inorganic and organic materials at the atomic level, molecular simulations are performed for Hg2+ adsorption and retention in MMT, pyrite, and kerogen slit nanopores. It is found that the inorganic MMT and pyrite surfaces have a greater adsorption capacity than the organic kerogen surface (pyrite > MMT > kerogen). The outer-sphere adsorption is mainly observed with at least one monolayer of water molecules exiting between the ion and mineral surfaces. MMT has the highest retention for Hg2+ transport as the self-diffusion coefficient is the smallest among the three slit pores (MMT < pyrite < kerogen). The high adsorption and retention originate from the strong Hg2+-mineral interaction. These results suggest that mercury in coal is most likely associated with inorganic minerals instead of organic matter.
African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are cooperatively breeding highly social hyper-carnivores. The basic social unit is the pack, which in its simplest form revolves around an unrelated dominant pair and their offspring. Group cohesion is central to pack social dynamics, with litters reared collectively, decisions to move made semi-democratically, and hunting occurring collectively—if not collaboratively—over home ranges of several hundred square kilometers. These large ranges coupled with strong Allee effects make this species extinction prone, and urgent conservation actions require a detailed fundamental understanding of the complex inter-pack and inter-individual dynamics that make up the social fabric of this iconic species. In this chapter, we provide an overview of African wild dog social adaptations, particularly about hunting. We present a conceptual framework illustrating the common phases and transitions of a typical hunt, populating descriptions of these phases with examples from different regions and environments within the extant range. Finally, we consider the direct and indirect challenges faced by African wild dogs as they navigate the Anthropocene, including climate impacts and the need to consider complex social dynamics within population management approaches.
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a zoonotic disease agent causing systemic infection in warm-blooded intermediate hosts including humans. During the acute infection, the parasite infects host cells and multiplies intracellularly in the asexual tachyzoite stage. In this stage of the life cycle, invasion, multiplication, and egress are the most critical events in parasite replication. T. gondii features diverse cell organelles to support these processes, including the apicoplast, an endosymbiont-derived vestigial plastid originating from an alga ancestor. Previous studies have highlighted that phytohormones can modify the calcium-mediated secretion, e.g., of adhesins involved in parasite movement and cell invasion processes. The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of different plant hormones on the replication of asexual tachyzoites in a human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) host cell culture. T. gondii replication was measured by the determination of T. gondii DNA copies via qPCR. Three selected phytohormones, namely abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GIBB), and kinetin (KIN) as representatives of different plant hormone groups were tested. Moreover, the influence of typical cell culture media components on the phytohormone effects was assessed. Our results indicate that ABA is able to induce a significant increase of T. gondii DNA copies in a typical supplemented cell culture medium when applied in concentrations of 20 ng/μl or 2 ng/μl, respectively. In contrast, depending on the culture medium composition, GIBB may potentially serve as T. gondii growth inhibitor and may be further investigated as a potential treatment for toxoplasmosis.
Changing workplace dynamics have led employers to increasingly adopt electronic monitoring technologies so supervisors can observe and ensure employee compliance and productivity—outcomes the monitoring literature has long supported. Yet, employee productivity depends on strong leader–member social exchange, and the relational consequences of electronic monitoring for supervisor and employee are not well understood. To help resolve this tension within the monitoring literature and add understanding in regard to the effects of electronic monitoring on employee productivity, we use social exchange theory to examine the implications of electronic monitoring for the supervisor–employee exchange relationship. We theorize that electronic monitoring facilitates (rather than inhibits) production deviance and inhibits (rather than facilitates) task performance by undermining the exchange of social benefits and, consequently, eroding leader–member social exchange. Yet, we also hypothesize that supervisors who give performance monitoring data back to employees in a developmental way (i.e., developmental feedback) compensate for the loss of certain social benefits, and, thereby, buffer the negative relational consequences of electronic monitoring. Across an experimental online study and a field study, we find converging support for our predictions and rule out alternative explanations. This research provides timely insights into how to effectively use electronic monitoring without promoting unintended consequences.
A new species of Aleiodes Wesmael in the gastritor Thunberg species-group is described and illustrated. The new species, Aleiodes ceres Shimbori sp.n. , occurs in Southern Brazil and Argentina. It is a potential biological control agent of caterpillars in the genus Spodoptera Guenée, namely S. cosmioides (Walker), S. eridania (Stoll), and S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith), which are serious pests on major crops including maize and soybean. The position of the new species within Aleiodes is discussed in relation to existing proposals of subdivisions of the genus into species-groups. In agreement with recent publications, the gastritor species-group is treated as separate from the circumscriptus Nees /bicolor Spinola group, as evidence suggests the latter is absent in the New World. We also propose the provisional shakirae Shimbori & Shaw species-group, to accommodate a clade of Neotropical species with geometrid hosts and morphological features similar to the gastritor and circumscriptus groups. A key to Neotropical species in the gastritor group and similar species is provided, except for species recently named without a morphological description.
Adults with ADHD may engage in two distinct but related social-cognitive processes: positive illusory bias (PIB) and self-handicapping (SH). A theoretical basis for these mechanisms in ADHD is provided through the self-worth theory of achievement motivation. These mechanisms may initially serve a self-protective function, but ultimately lead to negative outcomes. However, research in this area is limited, and most of what is known about PIB and SH is not specific to adults with ADHD. We conducted a scoping review of the extant literature of PIB and SH among adults with ADHD. Eight studies were reviewed (six PIB and two SH). Results suggest that adults with ADHD may be more likely to engage in PIB and SH than their non-ADHD peers, and that engaging in these patterns may lead to worsened outcomes over time. The findings are limited by a small number of studies with varying sampling, operational definitions, and measures. Recommendations for research and clinical work are provided, including considering various ways to operationalize PIB and SH, investigating the impact of PIB and SH on assessment reporting style (i.e., under- versus over-reporting), and considering the role of PIB and SH in the treatment of ADHD in adults.
Jennie Duberstein In 2023, the American Ornithological Society (AOS) ­introduced a Conservation Practitioner Award, which recognizes individuals or groups of biologists at any stage of their career for outstanding work in government agencies (from municipal, state, provincial, federal, or international levels) or nongovernmental organizations to ­further the conservation of birds. This award acknowledges the ­planning, on-the-ground, or day-to-day work of ­dedicated professionals addressing avian conservation issues at a local or regional scale. Jennie Duberstein is the winner of the inaugural 2023 AOS Conservation Practitioner Award. Jennie Duberstein is the Coordinator of the Sonoran Joint Venture, one of 25 Migratory Bird Joint Ventures (JVs) across North America and one of just two that span the U.S. and Mexico. As the Sonoran JV coordinator, Dr. Duberstein is responsible for partnership-building for birds and habitat conservation across the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico. She has directed environmental education programs, developed community-based conservation projects in the U.S.–Mexico border region, developed and taught courses and workshops on bird identification, ecotourism, and bird monitoring, and studied species including Double-crested Cormorant and wading birds in Sonora and Yellow-billed Cuckoos in Arizona. Dr. Duberstein is a ­conservation social scientist who has been a leader in advancing equity, diversity, and inclusion in bird conservation. She is also very engaged in education and outreach and has been a long-time camp leader for fledgling young birders, directing field courses, summer camps, and conferences, and generally helping to connect young birders with opportunities and each other.
Purpose With the documented educational inequities that Indigenous children experience evidenced by disproportionate representation in special education and lower graduation rates, there is a need to better understand the backgrounds, training, professional perspectives, and clinical practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) serving this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a survey with SLPs from the Mountain West and High Plains region of the United States who serve Indigenous children to understand current patterns and to inform practices that SLPs can apply in addressing educational inequities. Method SLPs from the Mountain West and High Plains completed an online survey that gathered information about background, training, professional perspectives, and clinical practices. Results Three hundred thirty-three SLPs completed the survey. Results revealed that respondents, for the most part, understood educational disparities that Indigenous children experience, and they valued Indigenous dialects of English and Indigenous languages. Patterns in practice revealed strong reliance on standardized measures for assessment and a small percentage of respondents using bidialectal or narrative-based strategies. Conclusions Very few respondents had training on serving Indigenous children and families, yet they had overall awareness of educational disparities experienced by this group. Respondents reported challenges with developing relationships and overcoming access barriers. Their clinical practices were not as tailored to the language and learning needs of Indigenous children, especially when compared to practices recommended in two recent scoping reviews. The Indigenous Connectedness Framework, the abundance model, and Indigenous pedagogies are presented as ways to initiate change and meaningful engagement with Indigenous families and communities. Supplemental Material
Snowdrifts formed by wind transported snow deposition represent a vital component of the earth surface processes on Arctic tundra. Snow accumulation on steep slopes particularly at the margins of rivers, coasts, lakes, and drained lake basins (DLBs) comprise a significant water storage component for the ecosystem during spring and summer snowmelt. The tundra landscape is in constant change as lakes drain, substantially altering the surface morphology that partially controls how snow drifts and accumulates throughout the cold seasons. Here, we combine field measurements, remote sensing observations, and snow modeling to investigate how lake drainage affects snow redistribution at Inigok on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska, where the snow movement is controlled by wind. Field observations included measurements of snow depth using ground penetrating radar and probe. We mapped mid‐July snow cover and modeled snow redistribution before and after drainage simulation for 33 lakes (∼30 km ² ) in our study area (∼140 km ² ). Our results show the advantage of using a wide range of snow depth measurements on frozen lakes, DLBs, and upland to validate the snow modeling in order to capture the variability inherent in the landscape. The lake drainage simulation suggests an increase in snow storage of up to ∼24% at DLBs compared to extant lakes, ∼35% considering only snowdrifts (assumed as ≥ 1 m depth), and ∼4% considering the whole study area. This increase in snow accumulation could significantly impact the landscape when it melts, including wildlife, vegetation, biogeochemical processes, and potential natural hazards like snow‐dam outburst floods.
We have developed a flexible undergraduate curriculum that leverages the place‐based research of environmental microbiomes to increase the number of Indigenous researchers in microbiology, data science and scientific computing. Monitoring Environmental Microbiomes (MEM) provides a curriculum and research framework designed to integrate an Indigenous approach when conducting authentic scientific research and to build interest and confidence at the undergraduate level. MEM has been successfully implemented as a short summer workshop to introduce computing practices in microbiome analysis. Based on self‐assessed student knowledge of topics and skills, increased scientific confidence and interest in genomics careers were observed. We propose MEM be incorporated in a scalable course‐based research experience for undergraduate institutions, including tribal colleges and universities, community colleges and other minority serving institutions. This coupled curricular and research framework explicitly considers cultural perspectives, access and equity to train a diverse future workforce that is more informed to engage in microbiome research and to translate microbiome science to benefit community and environmental health.
Umbrella species and other surrogate species approaches to conservation provide an appealing framework to extend the reach of conservation efforts beyond single species. For the umbrella species concept to be effective, populations of multiple species of concern must persist in areas protected on behalf of the umbrella species. Most assessments of the concept, however, focus exclusively on geographic overlap among umbrella and background species, and not measures that affect population persistence (e.g. habitat quality or fitness). We quantified the congruence between the habitat preferences and nesting success of a high‐profile umbrella species (greater sage‐grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus , hereafter ‘sage‐grouse’), and three sympatric species of declining songbirds (Brewer's sparrow Spizella breweri , sage thrasher Oreoscoptes montanus and vesper sparrow Pooecetes gramineus ) in central Wyoming, USA during 2012–2013. We used machine‐learning methods to create data‐driven predictions of sage‐grouse nest‐site selection and nest survival probabilities by modeling field‐collected sage‐grouse data relative to habitat attributes. We then used field‐collected songbird data to assess whether high‐quality sites for songbirds aligned with those of sage‐grouse. Nest sites selected by songbirds did not coincide with sage‐grouse nesting preferences, with the exception that Brewer's sparrows preferred similar nest sites to sage‐grouse in 2012. Moreover, the areas that produced higher rates of songbird nest survival were unrelated to those for sage‐grouse. Our findings suggest that management actions at local scales that prioritize sage‐grouse nesting habitat will not necessarily enhance the reproductive success of sagebrush‐associated songbirds. Measures implemented to conserve sage‐grouse and other purported umbrella species at broad spatial scales likely overlap the distribution of many species, however, broad‐scale overlap may not translate to fine‐scale conservation benefit beyond the umbrella species itself. The maintenance of microhabitat heterogeneity important for a diversity of species of concern will be critical for a more holistic application of the umbrella species concept.
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of instruction order on the speech production response when adopting higher effort speaking styles, specifically loud and clear speech. Method: Speech intensity, lip aperture range, and speech rate data were collected from 24 talkers who repeated the utterance "Buy Bobby a puppy" using habitual, clear, and loud speech. Participants were assigned in quasi-random fashion to one of two groups: a Clear-Loud Group (11 participants; order: habitual-clear-loud) or a Loud-Clear Group (13 participants; order: habitual-loud-clear). Results: Talkers in the Clear-Loud Group exhibited higher speech intensity during the loud style compared with those who performed the Loud-Clear Group. Furthermore, talkers in the Clear-Loud Group retained the increases lip aperture range and reductions in speech rate associated with the clear style when producing the loud style. Conversely, talkers in the Loud-Clear Group exhibited significant increases in lip aperture range between the habitual and loud styles and between the loud and clear styles. Additionally, the Loud-Clear Group exhibited a reduction in speech rate only during the clear style, as no differences in speech rate were observed between the habitual and loud styles. Conclusions: These findings may suggest that producing a higher effort style leads to carry-over effects in subsequent styles. Future research should investigate factors that moderate the degree of order effects for both research and clinical purposes. For instance, if generalizable, the compounding carry-over effects may prove advantageous for certain clinical populations.
Thermoregulatory performance can be modified through changes in various subordinate traits, but the rate and magnitude of change in these traits is poorly understood. We investigated flexibility in traits that affect thermal balance between black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) acclimated for six weeks to cold (-5˚C) or control (23˚C) environments (n=7 per treatment). We made repeated measurements of basal and summit metabolic rates via flow-through respirometry and of body composition using quantitative magnetic resonance of live birds. At the end of the acclimation, we measured thermal conductance of the combined feathers and skins. Cold-acclimated birds had a higher summit metabolic rate, reflecting a greater capacity for endogenous heat generation, and an increased lean mass. However, birds did not alter their thermal conductance. These results suggest that chickadees respond to cold stress by increasing their capacity for heat production rather than increasing heat retention, an energetically expensive strategy.
Researchers can use data visualization techniques to explore, analyze, and present data in new ways. Although quantitative data are visualized most often, recent innovations have brought attention to the potential benefits of visualizing qualitative data. In this article, the authors demonstrate one way researchers can use networks to analyze and present ethnographic interview data. The authors suggest that because many respondents know one another in ethnographic research, networks are a useful tool for analyzing the implications of respondents’ familiarity with one another. Moreover, respondents often share familiar cultural references that can be visualized. The authors show how visualizing respondents’ ties in conjunction with their shared cultural references sheds light on the different systems of meaning that respondents within a field site use to make sense of the social phenomena under investigation.
Lisa Sorenson Stanley Senner The American Ornithological Society (AOS) Schreiber Award honors extraordinary conservation-related scientific contributions by an individual or small team. Contributions from throughout the world and over any time period are eligible for this award, including applied research, restoration, and educational actions that conserve birds or preserve significant bird habitats; scientific examination of the principles of avian conservation and application of new insights into species restoration; and scientific evaluation, guidance, creation, and oversight of avian recovery programs or habitat reserve and restoration programs. The award is named for Ralph Schreiber, a prominent figure in American ornithology known for his enthusiasm, energy, and dedication to research and conservation, particularly of seabirds. The AOS is awarding two Ralph W. Schreiber Awards in 2023, one to Lisa Sorenson and one to Stanley Senner. Lisa Sorenson is the executive director of BirdsCaribbean and an Adjunct Associate Professor at Boston University, Massachusetts. Dr. Sorenson has increased awareness, appreciation, and conservation of the Caribbean region’s unique avifauna through research, conservation, and public engagement programs for Caribbean island residents and beyond. Building from her PhD research on the behavioral ecology of White-cheeked Pintails in the Bahamas, Dr. Sorenson’s efforts over 35 years include capacity building; outreach and education; fostering an active network of Caribbean conservationists; and conveyance of conservation methods, community and youth education, and science to Caribbean audiences. Her leadership while vice president (VP) and president of the Society for Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds (now BirdsCaribbean) from 2005 to 2012, and more recently as its executive director (2012–present), has inspired, motivated, and energized island residents and others to contribute to island conservation efforts. Dr. Sorenson has tremendous skill in bringing people together from different island cultures, obtaining funding (>$3 million since 1997), and encouraging and mentoring many to become involved in bird conservation. Historically, much of the research on island birds was conducted by visitors from North America, often with little local involvement, thus limiting the opportunity for growth of indigenous conservation and capacity. Dr. Sorenson’s leadership has helped to overcome challenges in the region by addressing the need to train Caribbean nationals and empower local partners, teachers, and communities to carry out their own science, education, monitoring, and conservation. Since 1997, she has facilitated the delivery of more than 150 international and local training workshops, reaching more than 5,000 people. Dr. Sorenson has been a champion of increasing appreciation of the region’s endemic and migratory birds and the value of nature through the joy and fun of birding and bird education programs. This has, in turn, resulted in greater community engagement in actions to monitor, restore, and conserve threatened species and habitats, and it has yielded more young people pursuing careers in conservation. Dr. Sorenson has received 5 awards for her work in the region, including a Partners in Flight Leadership Award. She has also authored or coauthored numerous bird education resources, including school curricula and monitoring manuals for the region, as well as publications in peer-reviewed journals. The diverse Caribbean conservation initiatives, programs, and activities initiated, inspired, and facilitated by Dr. Sorenson’s leadership include the West Indian Whistling-Duck and Wetlands Conservation Project, BirdSleuth Caribbean, Caribbean Waterbird Census, Caribbean Birding Trail, Caribbean Endemic Bird Festival, Caribbean Seabird Conservation, and Caribbean Landbird Monitoring Network. Dr. Sorenson has been an AOS Elective Member since 1998 and an AOS Fellow since 2011. She helped organize the 2022 joint American Ornithological Society and BirdsCaribbean Conference in San Juan, Puerto Rico, serving on numerous committees.
Background: The medicinal plants of the Cucurbitaceae family, such as Solena heterophylla Lour. fruits, have significant ethnobotanical value and are readily accessible in North East India. Aim: We conducted a study on Solena heterophylla Lour. fruits to evaluate their anti-diabetic activity in vivo, standardize their HPTLC, and profile their metabolites using LC-QTOF-MS. We aimed to explore the molecular mechanism behind their effects on oxidative stress and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: Firstly, the ethyl acetate fraction of Solena heterophylla Lour. fruits was standardized using Cucurbitacin B as a standard marker by conducting HPTLC evaluation. Next, we delved into analyzing metabolite profiling. In addition, the standardized fraction was utilized in an experimental study to investigate the molecular mechanism of action in an in-vivo high-fat diet and a low dose of streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Result: We have reportedly identified 52 metabolites in the ethyl acetate fraction of Solena heterophylla (EASH). In the in vitro tests, it has been observed that this extract from plants possesses notable inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Solena heterophylla fruits with high levels of Cucurbitacin B (2.29% w/w) helped lower FBG levels in animals with EASH treatment. EASH treatment reduced HbA1c levels and normalized liver lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. SGOT, SGPT, and SALP serum enzyme levels also returned to normal. Conclusion: Based on the current evaluation, it was found that EASH exhibited encouraging hypoglycemic effects in diabetic rats induced by a low dose of STZ and high-fat diet, which warrants further investigation.
Psychology researchers have historically neglected variables related to sex, gender, and sexual orientation, leading to the erasure of sex, gender, and sexual orientation in research, which limits the generalizability of psychological findings. We argue that these important variables need to be considered more consistently by researchers across psychology subdisciplines. In Study 1 we found that 15.1% of a large MTurk sample (i.e., 8500+) identified as a sexual or gender minority (SGM; e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer [LGBTQ+]). In addition, data from Study 1 showed that our youngest cohort (i.e., aged 18-25 years) reported significantly higher rates of LGBTQ+ identification (22.7%) than our oldest cohort (i.e., 65-84 years; 1.3%), suggesting that endorsement of these idnetities is increasing. Next, in Study 2 we found that psychology researchers (N = 135) tended to rate expansive sex, gender, and sexual orientation demographic variables as important in general, but were much less likely to report actually using these variables in their own studies. Moreover, younger faculty and faculty who identified as women rated these variables as more important than their colleagues. Based on our findings, we conclude that psychology researchers should use expansive sex, gender, and sexual orientation items in their studies, report these demographic variables consistently, and analyze their data by these important variables when possible. Because a substantial and growing proportion of individuals identify as LGBTQ+, and because SGM identity is related to additional life stressors, it is imperative to better understand these individuals. Various resources are offered and challenges are discussed.
While community synchrony is a key framework for predicting ecological constancy, the interplay between community synchrony and ecological invasions remains unclear. Yet the degree of synchrony in a resident community may influence its resistance and resilience to the introduction of an invasive species. Here we used a generalizable mathematical framework, constructed with a modified Lotka-Volterra competition model, to first simulate resident communities across a range of competitive strengths and species' responses to environmental fluctuations, which yielded communities that ranged from strongly synchronous to compensatory. We then invaded these communities at different timesteps with invaders of varying demographic traits, after which we quantified the resident community's susceptibility to initial invasion attempts (resistance) and the degree to which community synchrony was altered after invasion (resiliency of synchrony). We found that synchronous communities were not only more resistant but also more resilient to invasion than compensatory communities, likely due to stronger competition between resident species and thus lower cumulative abundances in compensatory communities, providing greater opportunities for invasion. The growth rate of the invader was most influenced by the resident and invader competition coefficients and the growth rate of the invader species. Our findings support prioritizing the conservation of compensatory and weakly synchronous communities which may be at increased risk of invasion.
Biodiversity continues to decline despite protected area expansion and global conservation commitments. Biodiversity losses occur within existing protected areas, yet common methods to select protected areas ignore post‐implementation threats that reduce effectiveness. We develop a framework for protected area planning with ongoing anthropogenic threats, considering planners who account for threats to species within protected areas and planners who consider costly threat‐mitigating activities. Accounting for threats and implementing threat‐mitigating activities increases benefits from protected areas without increasing budgets. Threat information can be valuable even without enforcement, especially on landscapes with randomly distributed threats. Benefits from including threat information and the ability to enforce are largest when human threats peak in areas of high species richness and lowest where human threats are negatively associated with species richness. Because acquiring information on threats and using threat‐mitigating activities are costly, our findings guide decision‐makers regarding in which settings to pursue these steps in planning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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3,780 members
Bryan Shader
  • Department of Mathematics
Vladimir Alvarado
  • Department of Chemical Engineering
Evan Johnson
  • Department of Kinesiology and Health
Berit Bangoura
  • Department of Veterinary Sciences
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