We demonstrate that a topological nodal ring system driven by an off-resonant laser can be tuned between the semimetal phase and the insulator phases, including Weyl semimetal, semi-Dirac semimetal, and normal insulator phases. The controlling parameters are the disorder induced energy shift and the driving laser frequency. We further show that there exists a close correlation between the low energy spectrum and the low frequency conductivity. From the frequency dependence of conductivity components, one can deduce the anisotropic energy dispersion along different directions. This result offers a convenient optical method to tune and characterize electronic properties of nodal ring systems.
Researchers have reported limitations with research governance processes across Australia. This study aimed to streamline research governance processes across a local health district. Four basic principles were applied to remove non-value-adding and non-risk-mitigating processes. Average processing times were reduced from 29 to 5 days and end-user satisfaction was improved, all within the same staffing levels.
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have been widely used as catalysts due to their high specific surface area, large fraction of uncoordinated surface atoms, and high charge carrier mobility. Moiré superlattice emerges in 2D layered materials with twist angle or lattice mismatch. By manipulating the moiré superlattice structure, 2D layered materials present modulated electronic band structure, topological edge states, and unconventional superconductivity which are tightly associated with the performance of catalysts. Hence, engineering moiré superlattice structures are proposed to be an important technology in modifying 2D layered materials for improved catalytic properties. However, currently, the investigation of moiré superlattice structure in a catalytic application is still in its infancy. This perspective starts with the discussion of structural features and fabrication strategy of 2D materials with moiré superlattice structure. Afterward, the catalytic applications, including electrocatalytic and photocatalytic applications, are summarized. In particular, the promotion mechanism of the catalytic performance caused by the moiré superlattice structure is proposed. Finally, the perspective is concluded by outlining the remaining challenges and possible solutions for the future development of 2D materials with moiré superlattice structure towards the catalytic applications.
Introduction International and national guidelines highlight the need for general practitioner involvement during and after active cancer treatment and throughout long-term follow-up care. This paper aimed to evaluate patients’ acceptance of radiation oncology shared follow-up care using the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability (TFA). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at two cancer care centres in the Illawarra Shoalhaven region of Australia. A sample of patients scheduled for a radiation oncology follow-up consultation in 2021 were sent a 32-point self-complete paper-based survey. Data were analysed using descriptive, parametric and non-parametric statistical analysis. This paper followed the Checklist for Reporting of Survey Studies (CROSS). Results Of the 414 surveys returned (45% response rate), the acceptance for radiation oncology shared cancer follow-up care was high (80%). Patients treated with only radiotherapy were 1.7 times more likely to accept shared follow-up care than those treated with multiple modalities. Patients who preferred follow-up care for fewer than three years were 7.5 times more likely to accept shared care than those who preferred follow-up care for five years. Patients who travelled more than 20 minutes to their radiation oncologist or to the rural cancer centre were slightly more likely to accept shared care than those who travelled less than twenty minutes to the regional cancer centre. A high understanding of shared care (Intervention Coherence) and a positive feeling towards shared care (Affective Attitude) were significant predictive factors in accepting shared radiation oncology follow-up care. Conclusion Health services need to ensure patient preferences are considered to provide patient-centred cancer follow-up care. Shared cancer follow-up care implementation should start with patients who prefer a shorter follow-up period and understand the benefits of shared care. However, patients’ involvement needs to be considered alongside other clinical risk profiles and organisational factors. Future qualitative research using the TFA constructs is warranted to inform clinical practice change.
Objectives: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine non-pharmacological interventions for helping people with dementia who experience feeding difficulties in order to improve their nutritional status. Methods: The articles were searched using PsycINFO, Medline, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane. Two independent investigators critically appraised eligible studies. The PRISMA guidelines and checklist were used. The possibility of risk of bias was assessed using a tool to assess the quality of randomised control trials (RCT) and non-RCT studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted as a method of synthesis. The Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan 5.4) was used for meta-analysis. Results: The systematic review and meta-analysis included seven publications. Six interventions were identified and categorised as: eating ability training for people with dementia, staff training and feeding assistance and support. The meta-analysis found evidence of the effect of eating ability training on feeding difficulty, quantified by the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia scale (EdFED) with a weighted mean difference of -1.36 (95% confidence interval: -1.84 to -0.89, p < 0.001) and on self-feeding time. A spaced retrieval intervention showed a positive effect on EdFED. The systematic review discovered that while feeding assistance had a positive effect on feeding difficulty, staff training had no effect. According to the meta-analysis, these interventions had no effect on improving the nutritional status of people with dementia. Conclusions: None of the included RCTs met the Cochrane risk-of-bias criteria for randomised trials. This review found that direct training for people with dementia and indirect feeding support from care staff resulted in fewer mealtime difficulties. More RCT studies are needed to determine the efficacy of such interventions.
Since the war in Ukraine has begun, Russia has used population transfers as one of its tactics of war with over 3.6 million Ukrainian citizens now in Russia. These are acts that both Ukrainian authorities and other governments including the United States have claimed are forced deportations. This pattern reflects a longer history the Soviet Union frequently used similar population transfers as forms of collective punishment against potentially rebellious populations, and the Russian government used similar tactics in both Chechnya and Syria. But in this case, we have better evidence of these movements as they occur. Forced deportations and transfers are defined both as war crimes—under the Fourth Geneva Convention and Additional Protocol II and Article 8 of the Rome Statute—and as crimes against humanity under Article 7 of the Rome Statute. Therefore, as forced deportations constitute both war crimes and crimes against humanity, there are a number of mechanisms by which individual Russian perpetrators of these acts can be held accountable. These include, with the Ukrainian government’s acceptance of its jurisdiction, the International Criminal Court. But such accountability mechanisms also exist at the individual state level through universal jurisdiction and Magnitsky sanctions legislation.
The conducting boundary states of topological insulators appear at an interface where the characteristic invariant ℤ2 switches from 1 to 0. These states offer prospects for quantum electronics; however, a method is needed to spatially-control ℤ2 to pattern conducting channels. It is shown that modifying Sb2Te3 single-crystal surfaces with an ion beam switches the topological insulator into an amorphous state exhibiting negligible bulk and surface conductivity. This is attributed to a transition from ℤ2 = 1 → ℤ2 = 0 at a threshold disorder strength. This observation is supported by density functional theory and model Hamiltonian calculations. Here we show that this ion-beam treatment allows for inverse lithography to pattern arrays of topological surfaces, edges and corners which are the building blocks of topological electronics.
Introduction: Previous research has suggested that vanishing white matter disease (VWMD) astrocytes fail to fully differentiate and respond differently to cellular stresses compared to healthy astrocytes. However, few studies have investigated potential VWMD therapeutics in monoculture patient-derived cell-based models. Methods: To investigate the impact of alterations in astrocyte expression and function in VWMD, astrocytes were differentiated from patient and control induced pluripotent stem cells and analyzed by proteomics, pathway analysis, and functional assays, in the absence and presence of stressors or potential therapeutics. Results: Vanishing white matter disease astrocytes demonstrated significantly reduced expression of astrocyte markers and markers of inflammatory activation or cellular stress relative to control astrocytes. These alterations were identified both in the presence and absence of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid stimuli, which is used to simulate viral infections. Pathway analysis highlighted differential signaling in multiple pathways in VWMD astrocytes, including eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2) signaling, oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondrial function, the unfolded protein response (UPR), phagosome regulation, autophagy, ER stress, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, glycolysis, tRNA signaling, and senescence pathways. Since oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were two of the key pathways affected, we investigated whether two independent therapeutic strategies could ameliorate astrocyte dysfunction: edaravone treatment and mitochondrial transfer. Edaravone treatment reduced differential VWMD protein expression of the UPR, phagosome regulation, ubiquitination, autophagy, ER stress, senescence, and TCA cycle pathways. Meanwhile, mitochondrial transfer decreased VWMD differential expression of the UPR, glycolysis, calcium transport, phagosome formation, and ER stress pathways, while further modulating EIF2 signaling, tRNA signaling, TCA cycle, and OXPHOS pathways. Mitochondrial transfer also increased the gene and protein expression of the astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in VWMD astrocytes. Conclusion: This study provides further insight into the etiology of VWMD astrocytic failure and suggests edaravone and mitochondrial transfer as potential candidate VWMD therapeutics that can ameliorate disease pathways in astrocytes related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and proteostasis.
Abstract The harmful effects of close inbreeding have been recognized for centuries and, with the rise of Mendelian genetics, was realized to be an effect of homozygosis. This historical background led to great interest in ways to quantify inbreeding, its depression effects on the phenotype and flow‐on effects on mate choice and other aspects of behavioral ecology. The mechanisms and cues used to avoid inbreeding are varied and include major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and the peptides they transport as predictors of the degree of genetic relatedness. Here, we revisit and complement data from a Swedish population of sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) showing signs of inbreeding depression to assess the effects of genetic relatedness on pair formation in the wild. Parental pairs were less similar at the MHC than expected under random mating but mated at random with respect to microsatellite relatedness. MHC clustered in groups of RFLP bands but no partner preference was observed with respect to partner MHC cluster genotype. Male MHC band patterns were unrelated to their fertilization success in clutches selected for analysis on the basis of showing mixed paternity. Thus, our data suggest that MHC plays a role in pre‐copulatory, but not post‐copulatory partner association, suggesting that MHC is not the driver of fertilization bias and gamete recognition in sand lizards.
Models of the response of mangrove forests and saltmarshes to sea-level rise are needed to inform coastal decision making. Zero-dimensional models that simulate evolution of a point are foundational for developing spatially explicit landscape models projecting coastal wetland extents under future sea-level rise scenarios. However, both zero-dimensional and spatially explicit landscape models have suffered from insufficient calibration and inadequate validation. In this study, a zero-dimensional model framework was parameterised using real data from four sub-sites exhibiting varying rates of mineral and organic matter addition and autocompaction. The model was calibrated to correspond to tidal parameters at each sub-site and validation was undertaken across three timescales to assess model efficacy. Short-term validation encompassed the period over which measurements of surface elevation gain were determined using a network of surface elevation tables (~20 years); medium-term validation encompassed the period when higher resolution colour aerial photography was available (~35 years); and long-term validation focussed on the period of landscape evolution occurring since the mid-Holocene. The model performed well at the medium to long-term scale and was within the range of variability arising from surface elevation table measurements. This study demonstrates the critical need for site-specific data, a crucial component that is undervalued, often insufficiently resourced to generate useful data, and commonly addressed by extrapolating parameters generated from elsewhere. Validation has provided the necessary confidence for further model development at the landscape scale that will account for processes operating both vertically and laterally, such as shoreline erosion and tidal creek extension.
The recent pandemic resulted in significant changes in workplaces that saw people come to live and work differently. What was previously experienced and understood to be the ‘workplace’, along with associated work practices, has shifted and the construct of the workplace has become multiple as more people work remotely. We propose that these changes have also shifted practices of working, providing significant insights into how learning may be happening, not in ‘workplaces’ but rather in reformed ‘sites’ of work. To explore changed work and learning practices in sites of work, we adopt the Theory of Practice Architectures to explore how workers in managing roles learned to practise their work differently in newly formed sites of work. This article provides evidence from semi-structured interviews with 12 managers during the changes wrought during the pandemic in Australia using the ‘Interview to the double’ approach. We highlight how the managers understood their changes in work and shows empirically how the concept of ‘workplace learning’ requires a reconceptualization of learning that rejects a focus on learning as defined by process and instead adopts a practice-based definition of learning as ‘coming to practice differently’.
This paper presents a performance comparison of heterostructure surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors for the application of Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. The comparison is performed and compared with the existing literature based on the performance parameters in terms of several prisms such as BaF2, BK7, CaF2, CsF, SF6, and SiO2, several adhesion layers such as TiO2, Chromium, plasmonic metals such as Ag, Au, and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides materials such as BP, Graphene, PtSe2 MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2. To study the performance of the heterostructure SPR sensor, the transfer matrix method is applied, and to analyses, the electric field intensity near the graphene-sensing layer contact, the finite-difference time-domain approach is utilized. Numerical results show that the heterostructure comprised of CaF2/TiO2/Ag/BP/Graphene/Sensing-layer has the best sensitivity and detection accuracy. The proposed sensor has an angle shift sensitivity of 390°/refractive index unit (RIU). Furthermore, the sensor achieved a detection accuracy of 0.464, a quality factor of 92.86/RIU, a figure of merit of 87.95, and a combined sensitive factor of 85.28. Furthermore, varied concentrations (0–1000 nM) of biomolecule binding interactions between ligands and analytes have been observed for the prospects of diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Results demonstrate that the proposed sensor is well suited for real-time and label-free detection particularly SARS-CoV-2 virus detection.
The recent increase in silicosis cases in several countries casts doubt on dust control practices and their effectiveness in preventing respirable crystalline silica (RCS) exposure. Apart from silicosis, RCS may lead to other illnesses, health-related quality of life losses for workers and their families, and economic losses for companies. Thus, this systematic literature review examined the effectiveness of interventions employed to prevent exposure to RCS and increase the use of dust control measures. The review used keywords related to dust control interventions to search seven databases. Search results were screened and extracted for synthesis. The narrative synthesis showed the extent of research investment in China. In several designs and combinations, the interventions utilized water, surfactant, foam, and air currents to reduce dust exposure. These interventions offer varying degrees of dust control effectiveness against RCS and respirable dust. Although evidence indicates that interventions significantly decrease dust concentration levels, the control measures in place may not effectively prevent workplace overexposure to RCS. The review found that education and training interventions are employed to improve dust controls and respiratory protective equipment (RPE) use. Also, marketing strategies promote the use of RPE. These interventions can increase the frequency of use of RPE and the adoption of best practice dust control measures. Interventions increase knowledge, awareness, and attitudes about RPE usage and generate positive perceptions while reducing misconceptions. However, the benefits obtained from an intervention may diminish after its implementation, indicating that the interventions may not continually motivate workers to adopt control measures or use RPE.
Background Submaximal fitness tests (SMFT) are a pragmatic approach for evaluating athlete’s physiological state, due to their time-efficient nature, low physiological burden and relative ease of administration in team sports settings. While a variety of outcome measures can be collected during SMFT, exercise heart rate (HRex) is the most popular. Understanding the measurement properties of HRex can support the interpretation of data and assist in decision making regarding athlete’s current physiological state and training effects. Objectives The aims of our systematic review and meta-analysis were to: (1) establish meta-analytic estimates of SMFT HRex reliability and convergent validity and (2) examine the moderating influence of athlete and protocol characteristics on the magnitude of these measurement properties. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search with MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases for studies published up until January 2022 since records began. Studies were considered for inclusion when they included team sports athletes and the reliability and/or convergent validity of SMFT HRex was investigated. Reliability statistics included the group mean difference (MD), typical error of measurement (TE) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) derived from test–retest(s) designs. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) describing the relationship between SMFT HRex and a criterion measure of endurance performance was used as the statistic for convergent validity. Qualitative assessment was conducted using risk of bias assessment tool for non-randomised studies. Mixed-effects, multilevel hierarchical models combined with robust variance estimate tests were performed to obtain pooled measurement property estimates, effect heterogeneity, and meta-regression of modifying effects. Results The electronic search yielded 21 reliability (29 samples) and 20 convergent validity (29 samples) studies that met the inclusion criteria. Reliability meta-analysis indicated good absolute (MD = 0.5 [95% CI 0.1 to 0.9] and TE = 1.6 [95% CI 1.4 to 1.9] % points), and high relative (ICC = 0.88 [95% CI 0.84 to 0.91]) reliability. Convergent validity meta-analysis indicated an inverse, large relationship (r = − 0.58 [95% CI − 0.62 to − 0.54]) between SMFT HRex and endurance tests performance. Meta-regression analyses suggested no meaningful influence of SMFT protocol or athlete characteristics on reliability or convergent validity estimates. Conclusions Submaximal fitness test HRex is a reliable and valid proxy indicator of endurance performance in team sport athletes. Athlete and SMFT protocol characteristics do not appear to have a meaningful effect on these measurement properties. Practitioners may implement SMFT HRex for monitoring athlete’s physiological state by using our applied implications to guide the interpretation of data in practice. Future research should examine the utility of SMFT HRex to track within-athlete changes in aerobic capacity, as well as any further possible effects of SMFT protocols design elements or HRex analytical methods on measurement properties. Registration Protocol registration can be found in Open Science Framework and available through https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/9C2JV.
Universities are increasingly focused on preparing graduates with strong disciplinary and interdisciplinary skills to increase student employability. In accounting education however, the development of employability skills remains a concern among graduates and employers. One strategy for enhancing employability is to engage students in industry-based experiences through work-integrated learning (WIL). This paper introduces a novel, industry-led WIL experience embedded in an Australian university’s accounting and financial planning curriculum and investigates students’ perceptions of employability skills developed through this intervention. In this WIL experience, industry professionals workshopped multidisciplinary skills and provided feedback to students following a simulated work-based scenario. Data was analysed from student surveys and reflections and showed that students perceived this approach as effective for developing employability skills such as teamwork and communication and for aligning theory to praxis. This paper supports endorsing alternative WIL models and industry collaborations in accounting education to enhance graduate employability skills.
In this paper, a novel hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm using Particle-Swarm-Optimization-trained machine learning and Flying Squirrel Search Optimization (PSO_ML-FSSO) has been proposed to obtain the optimal efficiency for solar PV systems. The proposed algorithm was compared with other well-known methods viz. Perturb & Observer (P&O), Incremental Conductance (INC), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Cuckoo Search Optimization (CSO), Flower Pollen Algorithm (FPA), Gray Wolf Optimization (GWO), Neural-Network-trained Machine Learning (NN_ML), Genetic Algorithm (GA), and PSO-trained Machine Learning. The proposed algorithm was modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink environment under different operating conditions, for example, with step changes in temperature, solar irradiance, and partial shading. The proposed algorithm improved the efficiency up to 0.72% and reduced the settling time up to 76.4%. The findings of the research highlight that PSO_ML-FSSO is a potential approach that outperforms all other well-known algorithms tested herein for solar PV systems.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
1 Northfields Avenue, 2522, Wollongong, NSW, Australia
Head of institution
Professor Paul Wellings