# University of Washington Tacoma

• Tacoma, Washington, United States
Recent publications
Objective: We sought to describe the LGBTQ + related education, training, and clinical practice of independently licensed neuropsychologists in the United States and to identify factors that predict affirmative neuropsychological practices. We hypothesized that LGBTQ + identity, female gender, more recent training, and extent of LGBTQ + education/training would predict use of LGBTQ + practice guidelines. Method: A workgroup of clinical psychologists with experience in LGBTQ + psychology and neuropsychology developed a survey to identify personal and professional factors that predict affirmative neuropsychological testing practices. The survey was distributed through professional organizations and listservs between August and September 2021 with 118 responses meeting inclusionary criteria. Results: The majority of participants identified as heterosexual (70.3%) and cisgender (97.5%), and most (48-63%) received LGBTQ + training post-licensure. Between 19% and 32% of participants reported never completing LGBTQ + specific education. Consistent with our hypotheses, factors predicting affirmative clinical practice behaviors were LGBTQ + education/training, and personal background (sexual minority status, female/feminine gender, and years since degree). Other significant factors included prior experience with LGBTQ + patients and primary patient population (child vs. adult). Qualitative responses indicated varying values, attitudes, and knowledge regarding collection of LGBTQ + information and modification of clinical practice. Conclusions: Neuropsychologists underutilize affirming practices as evidenced by low rates of querying pronouns, knowing whether LGBTQ + health information is available at their institutions, and adjusting evaluation and feedback approaches. We provide specific training and education recommendations to increase knowledge and skills and to address beliefs about LGBTQ + health that can serve to promote affirmative neuropsychological practice.
In recent years, traffic safety researchers have attempted to separate single-vehicle and multi-vehicle crashes when analyzing crash severity, considering the significant differences in the mechanism of occurrence of the two crash types. However, regardless of the number of vehicles involved in a crash, the severity of a crash is defined by the most severe injury outcome sustained by the occupants, not vehicles. Thus, this study evaluated a need for conducting a separate severity analysis for crashes involving a single occupant (SO) and multiple occupants (MO). Ten-year data (2009-2018) of crashes that involved a collision between a single vehicle and a train at the highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs) across the United States was used as a case study. Crashes were grouped based on occupancy level; that is, crashes involving SO were separated from the ones involving MO. As expected, MO crashes had higher injury and fatality rates than SO crashes. Three Multinomial Logit (MNL) models were developed to analyze the crash severity of SO crashes, MO crashes, and total crashes. The study found several differences in associated factors when SO crashes and MO crashes were modeled separately. Overall, combining SO and MO crashes tend to either underestimate or overestimate the actual impact of the predictor variable on a specific crash type. Among the variables, train speed and vehicle speed during crash showed a great difference. The findings provide evidence that the severity analysis of the SO and MO crashes should be performed separately as they have different characteristics.
Black Storytellers and Everyday Liberation addresses the question, “How do Black folx cultivate everyday practices of liberation?” This article details the inception of an ethnographic Black Storytelling research project between 2021 and 2022 that centers the lived experiences of 18 people around the United States. The participants, including myself, collectively explore how various institutions have shaped individual and family identities. As an outcome of this work, I provide analysis that disrupts institutional anti-Black racism (specifically naming schools) and identify ways that we can heal and affirm ourselves through everyday practices. I conclude with a data excerpt in the form of poetic transcription.
Non-targeted analysis (NTA) using high-resolution mass spectrometry allows scientists to detect and identify a broad range of compounds in diverse matrices for monitoring exposure and toxicological evaluation without a priori chemical knowledge. NTA methods present an opportunity to describe the constituents of a sample across a multidimensional swath of chemical properties, referred to as "chemical space." Understanding and communicating which region of chemical space is extractable and detectable by an NTA workflow, however, remains challenging and non-standardized. For example, many sample processing and data analysis steps influence the types of chemicals that can be detected and identified. Accordingly, it is challenging to assess whether analyte non-detection in an NTA study indicates true absence in a sample (above a detection limit) or is a false negative driven by workflow limitations. Here, we describe the need for accessible approaches that enable chemical space mapping in NTA studies, propose a tool to address this need, and highlight the different ways in which it could be implemented in NTA workflows. We identify a suite of existing predictive and analytical tools that can be used in combination to generate scores that describe the likelihood a compound will be detected and identified by a given NTA workflow based on the predicted chemical space of that workflow. Higher scores correspond to a higher likelihood of compound detection and identification in a given workflow (based on sample extraction, data acquisition, and data analysis parameters). Lower scores indicate a lower probability of detection, even if the compound is truly present in the samples of interest. Understanding the constraints of NTA workflows can be useful for stakeholders when results from NTA studies are used in real-world applications and for NTA researchers working to improve their workflow performance. The hypothetical ChemSpaceTool suggested herein could be used in both a prospective and retrospective sense. Prospectively, the tool can be used to further curate screening libraries and set identification thresholds. Retrospectively, false detections can be filtered by the plausibility of the compound identification by the selected NTA method, increasing the confidence of unknown identifications. Lastly, this work highlights the chemometric needs to make such a tool robust and usable across a wide range of NTA disciplines and invites others who are working on various models to participate in the development of the ChemSpaceTool. Ultimately, the development of a chemical space mapping tool strives to enable further standardization of NTA by improving method transparency and communication around false detection rates, thus allowing for more direct method comparisons between studies and improved reproducibility. This, in turn, is expected to promote further widespread applications of NTA beyond research-oriented settings.
Formation of protein knots is an intriguing offshoot of the protein folding problem. Since experimental resolution on knot formation is limited, theoretical methods currently provide the most detailed insights into the knotting process. While suitable for shallow knots, molecular dynamics simulations have faced challenges capturing the formation of deep knots in proteins such as the minimally tied trefoil α/β methyltransferase from Thermotoga maritima (MTTTM). To improve the efficiency of MTTTM knotting in Cα Go-model simulations, mutant variants of the MTTTM Go-model were investigated. Through a structure-based analysis of knotted and unknotted states, four residues (K71, R72, E75, V76) were identified to increase the knotting efficiency from 2% to 83% when their contact energies were doubled and dihedral strength around the knot loop increased. The key features of this model are (i) a C-terminal slipknot intermediate that threads the knot in a highly unstructured intermediate, (ii) the inability to knot in native-like intermediate states, and (iii) a minor population in a long-lived trap that cannot knot. Examination of residue 71-76 contacts provides a small set of potential mutants that can directly test the model's validity. In addition, the knotting optimization process developed here has broad applicability in generating knotting-efficient models of other knotted proteins.
Reliable water service delivery continues to be a complex global issue that is particularly challenging in rural communities. Despite billions of dollars of infrastructure interventions, sustainable water services remain out of reach for millions of people. Professionalized maintenance services have emerged as a service provision strategy to supplement the community-based rural water management approach. This study applies system dynamics modeling to assess the potential impact of scaling up professionalized maintenance services on piped water systems in Kitui County, Kenya. The study results show that over a 10 year simulation, calibrated with 21 months of empirical data and based on a range of key assumptions, delivery of professionalized maintenance services across the county may increase countywide functionality rates from 54% to over 83%, leading to a 67% increase in water production. Furthermore, the increase in preventive maintenance activities and proactive repairs can lead to less frequent major breakdowns and reduction in county government spending on major repairs by over 60%. However, current service fee income from communities accounts for 8% of the total cost of service, necessitating substantial sustained external financing or government subsidies to be financially viable at scale.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the U.S., and emerging evidence indicates that gang-involved youth may be at elevated risk. Yet, little is known about suicidality prevalence among subgroups of gang and non-gang youth due to limited measures of social identity in previous studies. Guided by an intersectional framework, this study examined gang and non-gang differences in suicidality across an array of social identities and tested the effect of gang membership on suicidality within the context of cumulative marginalization. Data come from a statewide, school-based sample of adolescents in the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades (N = 81,080). Chi-square and independent samples t-tests examined group differences in rates of self-reported suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts. Logistic regression models tested the moderating effect of multiple marginalized identities on the gang-suicidality link. Gang-involved youth reported significantly higher suicidality compared to non-gang youth, with between-group disparities observed across singular marginalized identities. However, moderation analyses found that the effect of gang membership on suicidal ideation and planning was less salient in the context of cumulative marginalization. Findings suggest that gang-involved youth represent a unique and diverse population at risk of suicide. At the same time, gang membership may also offer some degree of protection against early stages of suicide for those with a greater number of marginalized identities. Implications for social work science and practice within an intersectional framework are discussed.
Aim Getting professional help in early-mid adolescence can reduce or eliminate harm related to substance use and risky situations. Research was conducted over eighty years ago that increased our understanding of cognitive development in the adolescent period (the concrete stage of development) of life. However, there is a need for a greater understanding of the Fundamental Attribution Error for substance use problems and risky behaviors. The current study identifies developmental and cultural factors that would facilitate or prevent adolescents from seeking support for problems. Method Eighty (80) eleven to thirteen-year-olds were recruited from a middle school in Washington State. A qualitative interpretative design using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used incorporating semi-structured, computer-generated interviews. Results Several overlapping themes that reflected barriers or enablers to seeking help were identified: approachability, confidentiality and trustworthiness, and perceived expertise. Help-seeking was facilitated when adolescents believed that the help source would be honest, would keep the information confidential; interpret the information accurately; were viewed as trustworthy; and possessed expertise in the field of substance use and risky behaviors. Conclusions These findings highlight perceptions that may influence help-seeking for substance use problems and risky behaviors. Mothers were reported to be the most significant supports in life, followed by fathers, then friends and siblings. These supports need further investigation. Further research is needed to determine if help-seeking can be facilitated by improving parent and peer knowledge of risky behaviors and promoting the expertise of health professionals. Additional research is needed into the impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and the Fundamental Attribution Error.
Donald Trump’s hate-filled rhetoric while in office emphasizes long-existing shortcomings of free speech doctrine dealing with various forms of threatening speech. More so, because of his elected position during those speech moments, his speech elevates those concerns to a new level. His disregard for civil discourse has opened the door for a new speech behavior in national politics, one where inciteful, threatening or hateful speech is used more frequently and, as such, is becoming more socially acceptable. Each of those speech moments invokes claims of First Amendment protection. All of them were unimaginable topics 50 years ago and yet, from a legal perspective, all were or would be judged today using principles and legal doctrines crystalized in the 1950s and 1960s. Clearly, these are different times but what, if anything, does that mean for claims to free speech protections? This paper maintains that the answer to the problems inherent in current First Amendment treatment of hate-filled political speech involves two actions. First, the pre-existing doctrines of incitement and true threats need to be updated to make them applicable to current communication formats. Second, the courts must consider the addition of a constitutional category of hate speech.
Introduction Current methods assessing device and surgical treatment efficacy for OSA, such as apnoea hypopnea index (AHI), do not factor in compliance. Clinical effectiveness may be better represented when long-term compliance is incorporated into a mean disease alleviation score (MDA). Here, MDA scores between surgery and device are compared in a high-volume adult OSA clinic. Methods Three hundred and forty-five patients seen over a 13-year period in a high-volume adult OSA clinic staffed by an experienced sleep-trained otolaryngologist and sleep physician were included. Patients were managed with device (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), Mandibular Advancement Splint (MAS) or underwent multilevel airway surgery. Mean disease alleviation was calculated as the product of therapeutic efficacy (change in AHI) and adjusted compliance. Surgical compliance was assumed as one hundred percent. Cardinality matching was utilised to account for differences in patient and disease factors between subgroups. Results Surgically treated patients demonstrated higher MDA than device users (67.3 ± 29.9% vs. 59.4 ± 31.1%, p=0.039), despite higher therapeutic efficacy seen in device users (85.0±24.4% vs. 67.0±29.9%, p<0.001). Surgical patients were younger, had lower comorbidity scores, lower BMI, and suffered worse daytime sleepiness than device users. Cardinality matching for these factors demonstrated similar mean MDA between groups (66% vs 58%, p=0.11). Device users had to utilise >8hrs per night of compliant use to reach a similar MDA to matched surgical patients. Discussion In Adult OSA patients with less-than-ideal CPAP compliance, multilevel airway surgery is an equivalent and effective alternative, based on novel MDA measures.
MQTT, a popular IoT messaging protocol, is frequently associated with numerous vulnerabilities, the majority of which are critical. Many IoT devices that utilize MQTT are susceptible to cyberattacks such as denial-of-service and buffer overflow. In this paper, we unveil a novel Denial of Service (DoS) attack in the MQTT protocol, referred to as Slow Subscribers, which has the potential to cause MQTT brokers to become single points of failure. Unlike existing MQTT DoS attacks, Slow Subscribers can occur on a single compromised node and could potentially disrupt a MQTT broker with minimal subscription permissions. We evaluated the reliability of Mosquitto and NanoMQ, two popular MQTT messaging brokers, to determine the effect of Slow Subscribers. According to the findings of our investigation, NanoMQ outperforms Mosquitto in response to the Slow Subscribers attack at QoS level 0. We also determine that the response to Slow Subscribers at QoS 2 is the worst for both broker implementations. In addition, the results of our experiments indicate that Eclipse Mosquitto achieves a higher rate of reliability than NanoMQ on cloud deployments whereas NanoMQ has proven to be well-suited for edge environments, especially edge IoT devices that require the use of QoS levels 0 and 1. Finally, we propose a Resilient Middleware for Message Queue Telemetry Transport (Remistry) framework that is capable of detecting misconfigurations while providing granular support of resource commitment errors, in particular the out-of-memory (OOM) problems for effectively mitigating the impact of Slow Subscribers attacks on MQTT brokers.
While fjords often have low oxygen concentrations in their deep waters, this research identified seasonal, near-surface hypoxia (≤ 2 mL L-1 or 2.9 mg L-1) through a year-long monthly time series in Clayoquot Sound, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity, and oxygen data were collected monthly in the upper 50 m at three stations in Herbert Inlet from June 2020 to July 2021, marking the first time series of its kind in a Clayoquot Sound fjord. Hypoxic conditions were shallowest (minimum depth of 12 m) and most intensified in summer; near-surface hypoxia was recorded at one or more stations in all months except in winter. Considering that many local marine species, including wild Pacific salmon, experience adverse effects at oxygen concentrations much higher than the hypoxic threshold, we note that 50 to 100% of the upper 50 m of Herbert Inlet consistently presented low oxygen concentrations (defined here as a guideline as ≤ 4.9 mL L-1 or 6.9 mg L-1) during the 14-month study period. Previous observations collected sporadically since May 1959 confirmed the presence of hypoxic conditions in the past. These findings suggest that long-term, multidisciplinary studies are needed to understand and predict the impact of hypoxia and deoxygenation on wild salmon stocks as climate changes.
In this paper, I interrogate the relation between a researcher and the theories that the researcher gets involved with. I use my own trajectory as a computing education researcher as a way to make visible how different conceptions of this relation are shaped through prior encounters with different theories in the human sciences, particularly theories of mind, language, and knowledge. While modernist theories stemming from the Enlightenment that presuppose a disengaged researcher have predominated in CS and CER, theories of mind, language, and knowledge associated with pragmatist and phenomenological philosophical perspectives from the 20 th century challenge these modernist views. Under these newer theoretical perspectives, the researcher is always already involved with theory, even if such theory has withdrawn into the unnoticed background, a background that gives every research study its intelligibility. Recognizing that all researchers are caught in the grip of theory may help in both abandoning theories that no longer serve and staying open to adopt new and emergent theories.
Urban waterfronts around the world, once the location of industry and trade, have transitioned to new uses. This shift raises important questions for the city-regions they serve, particularly concerning the sustainability of alternative uses. The literature on postindustrial waterfront development shows that many aspiring global cities have claimed waterfronts as places of sustainable urban development by promoting sustainable environmental practices, cultural preservation, and public precincts, parks, and esplanades. Critiques of waterfront developments have raised concerns about green gentrification, local displacement, and capture by global elites, all at the expense of social equity and shared economic prosperity. In this paper, we review the literature to investigate approaches to planning sustainable urban waterfronts in a global political economy. We consider five dimensions of sustainability – ecological, cultural, social, economic, and political – to interrogate how redeveloped urban waterfront sites can “work” to better serve their local and regional populations and ecosystems.
Background and objective: Globally, men are at greater risk of mortality and serious physical consequences from COVID-19 infection than women, but are less impacted by the pandemic’s impact on labor force participation and increased childcare responsibilities. Outside of gender identity, however, it is unclear whether men’s beliefs about gender may be related to the kinds of COVID-19-related impacts they report. This study sought to describe the employment, income, and household responsibility-related impacts of the pandemic on a sample of young men in the U.S. and to examine relationships between the men’s gender ideologies and attitudes toward gender equity with self-reported stress impacts of the pandemic. Methods: The data are from an online survey of 481 young men from across the U.S. Measures included scales assessing masculinity ideology, modern sexism, support for traditional divisions of labor by gender, and attitudes toward gender equity. New items developed for this study assessed COVID-19-related changes in employment, household responsibilities, and childcare duties as well as levels of stress. Hierarchical regression examined the relative roles of demographic characteristics, changes in employment and household work, and gender-related attitudes on COVID-related stress. Results: Descriptive findings showed that under 50% of the men in the sample experienced negative COVID-related impacts on employment, but that a majority of the men reported at least some COVID-related stress. Results of the hierarchical regression suggest that higher levels of stress were predicted by having a minori-tized sexual identity, less religiosity, experiencing employment or household responsibility-related changes, and not endorsing modern sexism or a traditional, gendered division of labor. Conclusions: Experiencing COVID-19-related stress was normative in this sample of young men. However, endorsing traditional notions of a gendered division of labor was slightly protective against higher levels of COVID-related stress. These findings add to existing evidence that gender analysis must be a central compo-nent of ongoing COVID-related policy and programming development.
This letter presents a fully-integrated 2-bit CMOS voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) along with a 2-bit buffer, which delivers the highest RF output power among recently reported state-of-the-art to the best of the authors’ knowledge. The proposed 2-bit VCO is designed and fabricated in a $0.18-\mu \text{m}$ CMOS process with a die size of 1.2 mm $\times$ 1.2 mm, which covers four frequency bands of interest. Fine-tuning at each of the four frequency bands is also obtained by utilizing two varactors. The proposed 2-bit VCO delivers a single-ended output power of 6.5/6.8/10.6/12.5 dBm at 0.930/1.157/1.436/1.917 GHz, respectively. This 2-bit VCO can cover frequency ranges of 930–1005, 1046–1157, 1248–1436, and 1540–1917 MHz, thus providing a total frequency bandwidth of 751 MHz. The proposed 2-bit VCO at each frequency band demonstrates −99, −93, −90, and −86 dBc/Hz for phase noise, and −150, −150, −160, and −168 dBc/Hz for figure-of-merit (FOM), respectively.
Critical consciousness has been recognized as a potential promotive factor for positive youth development, yet how its individual components may affect psychological well-being among certain groups of youth remains underexplored. The present study aimed to examine how critical racial reflection was related to self-esteem and depressive symptoms among Asian-origin youth in the United States and whether those relations differed across Asian subgroups. Path analyses were used with 1040 Asian-origin youth (M Age = 17.20 years; 49.13% females) from four Asian ethnic groups. Participants reporting more critical racial reflection reported more depressive symptoms, but not lower self-esteem. The observed relations did not vary across groups. Our findings indicate that interventions aimed at promoting youth's critical reflection may need to address potential mental health issues. These findings highlight the need to examine critical consciousness among Asian-origin youth, a population with longstanding experiences of marginalization but relatively little scholarly attention in related research.
We use an online game with randomized treatments to study gender differences in the impacts of competition and subjective feedback. 5191 participants were randomly selected into 8 groups: players either saw a Top 10 leaderboard or not (competition), and within these, they received no subjective feedback, supportive feedback, rewarding feedback, or "trash talk" (feedback type). Seeing a leaderboard increases the persistence (number of games played) of all players, but only increases the performance (score) of male players. When the leaderboard is combined with supportive feedback, the performance of female players increases as well. This points to important heterogeneities by feedback type and individual characteristics and suggests that personalized feedback may be key for decreasing gender gaps, particularly in competitive settings such as STEM fields.
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