# University of Tyumen

• Tyumen, Russia
Recent publications
Heavy and extra-heavy oil are generating considerable interest in terms of replacing light oil role in the next few years. Nowadays, various enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods are under development for an effective exploration and oil refining of unconventional oil sources. Electrical methods are among the most commonly discussed types of EOR techniques. Despite this interest, no one as far as we know has studied the effectiveness and mechanisms of electromagnetic (EM) heating influence on heavy oil conversion. It is common knowledge that heavy oils often contain stable paramagnetic centers, which potentially can serve as at least signaling species to follow the EOR upgrading degree. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, pulsed and high-frequency (high-field, with 3.4 T detection magnetic field) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were exploited to investigate the EM heating influence on Bazhenov formation heavy oil by subjecting it to 50 Hz (0.75 T) electromagnetic field in laboratory conditions. The obtained samples were analyzed by a set of physico-chemical methods including SARA analysis (S: Saturates, A: Aromatics, R: Resins, A: Asphaltenes), gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS) in addition to pulsed and conventional (cw) EPR spectroscopy. SARA analysis has shown an increase in the content of asphaltenes from 1.2 ± 0.3 wt% in the initial oil to 1.4 ± 0.4, 1.4 ± 0.3, 1.3 ± 0.2, 1.3 ± 0.5 wt% in the samples obtained at 10, 20, 30 and 40 min respectively. Interestingly, this content has drastically dropped to 0.2 ± 0.05 and 0.3 ± 0.02 wt% in the samples obtained at 50 and 60 min of EM heating. Analogically for resins content change which has firstly increased from 1.5 ± 0.5 wt% in the initial oil to 1.9 ± 0.5, 2.6 ± 0.6, 3.0 ± 0.2, 3.0 ± 0.6 wt% in the samples obtained at 10, 20, 30 and 40 min respectively. Then this content has decreased to 0.5 ± 0.05 and 1.0 ± 0.04 wt% in the samples obtained at 50 and 60 min of EM heating. The content of saturated and aromatic compounds has been found to reach 99.3 ± 0.6 wt% in the sample obtained at 50 min comparing to 97.3 ± 1.1 wt% in the initial oil. Moreover, the GCMS data have showed a significant increase in the content of normal alkanes, which resulted from the processes of oil high molecular compounds fractions conversion as a consequence of alkyl substituents elimination. Our data points towards the idea that the investigated oil sample EPR signal intensity and their spectroscopic characteristics do not change with the EM heating either in the X- or W-band frequencies. g|| and g⊥ were found equal to 2.0024 and 2.0015 respectively at 3357 and 3358 mT for the initial sample and the obtained sample after 60 min of EM heating. Similar results (g|| = 2.0004 and g⊥ = 1.9991) were obtained for these samples at 3360 and 3362 mT. The findings of this study can help for better understanding of the mechanisms ruling the impact of electromagnetic heating on enhancing oil recovery.
Solar heating of freshwater lakes covered with ice is an important geophysical problem that has attracted researchers for many years. The main experimental and theoretical results concern solar heat accumulation in water under the ice and convective heat transfer in deep lakes. At the same time, the model of radiative transfer both in light-scattering ice and in water is too simplified and insufficient for a correct description of heat transfer, including ice melting. The present work largely compensates for this deficiency. For the first time, it is shown that a thick layer of ice begins to melt at the ice-water interface, mainly due to solar heating of the ice rather than heat flux from warmer water. The results of calculations for mountain lakes like Ngoring Lake in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau are presented. The computational data are in good agreement with the published field observations.
Circumpolar Indigenous populations continue to experience dramatic health inequities when compared to their national counterparts. The objectives of this study are first, to explore the space given in the existing literature to the concepts of cultural safety and cultural competence, as it relates to Indigenous peoples in Circumpolar contexts; and second, to document where innovations have emerged. We conducted a review of the English, Danish, Norwegian, Russian and Swedish Circumpolar health literature focusing on Indigenous populations. We include research related to Alaska (USA); the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavik and Labrador (Canada); Greenland; Sápmi (northmost part of Sweden, Norway, and Finland); and arctic Russia. Our results show that the concepts of cultural safety and cultural competence (cultural humility in Nunavut) are widely discussed in the Canadian literature. In Alaska, the term relationship-centred care has emerged, and is defined broadly to encompass clinician-patient relationships and structural barriers to care. We found no evidence that similar concepts are used to inform service delivery in Greenland, Nordic countries and Russia. While we recognise that healthcare innovations are often localised, and that there is often a lapse before localised innovations find their way into the literature, we conclude that the general lack of attention to culturally safe care for Sámi and Greenlandic Inuit is somewhat surprising given Nordic countries’ concern for the welfare of their citizens. We see this as an important gap, and out of step with commitments made under United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. We call for the integration of cultural safety (and its variants) as a lens to inform the development of health programs aiming to improve Indigenous in Circumpolar countries.
As humanity improves its use of technologies that can replace parts of a biological organism with ones containing mechanical or electronic components, it raises important legal and political issues. For example, the successful implantation of devices in human bodies could lead to the emergence of new cognitive and motor abilities, thereby resulting in the creation of a new class of people. Undoubtedly, this new class of people with extraordinary abilities would require a legal and governmental response. However, the question that arises is what legal rights might be given to these people, considering that they are more similar to machines than to men or women. The following legal aspects are of the utmost importance: the legal rights and responsibilities of cyborgs; the regulation of access to neuroprosthetic devices by third parties; and the limitation of the illegal use of the damaging capabilities of cyborgs. This article examines a number of laws and regulations from various jurisdictions in the United States, the European Union, South Korea and China that apply to cyborg technologies, with a particular focus on a legal doctrine that applies to neuroprostheses.
Let $$\{X_n: n\in {{\mathbb {N}}}\}$$ be a linear process with density function $$f(x)\in L^2({{\mathbb {R}}})$$. We study wavelet density estimation of f(x). Under some regular conditions on the characteristic function of innovations, we achieve, based on the number of nonzero coefficients in the linear process, the minimax optimal convergence rate of the integrated mean squared error of density estimation. Considered wavelets have compact support and are twice continuously differentiable. The number of vanishing moments of mother wavelet is proportional to the number of nonzero coefficients in the linear process and to the rate of decay of characteristic function of innovations. Theoretical results are illustrated by simulation studies with innovations following Gaussian, Cauchy and chi-squared distributions.
Purpose. The article is devoted to the dynamics of theoretical understanding of connecting elements and the development of corresponding terminology in the Russian linguistic tradition. The research analyzes classic works of the founders of traditional Russian grammar as well as the latest linguistic works. Results. The study reveals three main levels of terminology which is applied to connecting units and related to their very nature: connecting units play an important role in creating the coherence of oral and written speech, and therefore are studied in the linguistics of discourse and text; connecting units are used in the organization of simple and complex sentence, and therefore are studied in syntax; connecting units are special lexical units that receive morphological characteristics. In general, we can say that in the 20th century the part-of-speech paradigm moved to syntactic and textual ones. First linguists tried to determine the place of connecting elements among the classes of words (parts of speech), but since the middle of the 20th century the idea of the priority of syntactic function over morphological characteristic has been increasingly expressed. This tendency was clearly manifested in discursive linguistics studying coherent texts and integrating very heterogeneous phenomena on the basis of common functions. Conclusion. Despite some inconsistency of the modern Russian terminology describing connecting elements it identifies their semantic-grammatical and functional originality.
This paper reports the geochemical, structural, and textural properties of evaporite minerals (gypsum) interbedded with from the Early Paleogene diatomite and clastics exposed in the diatomite quarry in the Kamyshlov town quarry, Trans-Urals region (Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia). This article is the first to reveal the occurrence of these atypical minerals in local sediments for the Trans-Urals region, dating from the Paleocene to the Early Eocene. The investigated aggregates included gypsum, anhydrite, and diatomite. Gypsum crystallization occurred rapidly in the low-density non-lithified stratum of the seafloor sediment under warm conditions. Gypsum elemental composition reflects its genesis in a low bio-productivity environment strongly influenced by the influx of highly mineralized groundwater. Terrigenous influx (coarse-grained quartz and fine clay fractions) is high. As a result, radial-fibrous stellate gypsum crystals formed in the fissures that penetrated the diatomite stratum. Geochemical indicators, such as Sr/Ba ratios, show that the salinity of the watershed was variable at the onset of evaporitic conditions. Chronologically, gypsum formation is dated to the beginning of the transgressive cycle (early Eocene, the end of the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)) or to the end of post-PETM sedimentation.
In this paper, we propose the mathematical formulation of the problem on injection of a cold gas into a porous medium accompanied by the formation of gas hydrate. The mathematical formulation of the problem is an initial-boundary-value problem for a system of nonlinear partial differential equations expressing the laws of conservation of mass and energy supplemented by the conditions of mass and heat balance on the moving boundary of phase transitions. Within the framework of the rectilinear parallel approximation, we construct approximate analytical solutions with a temperature jump at the boundary where the gas hydrate appears. These solutions describe the relationship between the coordinate of the boundary of phase transition and the parameters of the injected gas and the porous medium.
We report on the novel heterometallic quaternary selenide EuCeCuSe3, the fabrication of which has been a challenge until this work. The structure of the reported selenide was elucidated from the powder X-ray diffraction data, which revealed the formation of EuCeCuSe3 with excellent yield (96.7%) accompanied with a minor fraction of CeSe2 (3.3%), and was best solved in orthorhombic space group Pnma with the BaLaCuS3 structural type. Thus, the crystal structure of the title compound completes the row of the heterometallic quaternary selenides EuRECuSe3 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y), of which the cerium-based derivative exclusively belongs to the BaLaCuS3 structural type. The distortion of the CuSe4 polyhedron was compared for the whole series of EuRECuSe3 compounds using the τ4-descriptor for four coordinated ions, which revealed the highest degree of distortion for the Ce³⁺-containing selenide, followed by the La³⁺-based derivative. Furthermore, the crystallographic and geometrical parameters of the reported selenide were discussed in comparison to the Ce³⁺-based sulfides SrCeCuS3 and EuCeCuS3. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure, a phonon spectrum and elastic constants for the crystal of EuСeCuSe3 were also performed. The types and wavenumbers of fundamental modes were determined and the involvement of ions participating in the phonon modes was assessed. The experimental IR spectrum of the reported selenide was interpreted and found to be in agreement with the calculated spectrum. The experimental direct band gap of EuCeCuSe3 was measured to be 1.36 eV that is consistent with the concept of its origin due to interband transitions between orbitals emerging mainly from 4f (valence band) and 5d (conduction band) levels of the Eu²⁺ cation. The dependence of the Young's modulus on the direction demonstrates the anisotropy of the elastic properties, while the Vickers hardness for EuCeCuSe3 was calculated to be 5.2 GPa. Finally, the title compound is paramagnetic above 4 K.
The presented article places special attention to road safety on the street-road network (SRN). In particular, the section of SRN in Tyumen, located between Moscovskiy and Chervishevskiy tracts and ring road is being considered. The Research of the variability of road traffic accidents (RTA) for the last three calendar years and an assessment of the causes of RTA were carried out. The hotbed of accidents on the considered part of SRN were determined, whereby indicators of relative accident rate of the sections are identified. In order to improve the level of road safety, the authors propose individual measures to solve specific problems in separately considered categories and sections of SRN, which will allow the implementation of proposed measures universally with maximum efficiency. The results are assessed in terms of economic efficiency and reduction of socio-economic effect by means of existing normative legal framework. The proposed measures are considered sufficiently effective in improving safety and preventing RTA occurrence, and the unification of the proposed measures allows to use them everywhere on SRN of different cities. The cost recovery of the presented measures funded from the state budget, which are based on saving from reducing the number of RTA (when using these measures it is about 17.95%) reaches on the 6th year of maintenance of SRN.
In the construction process in the Far North and the Arctic, not only the durability of the materials used is of great importance, but their impact on the environment as well. The use of expanded clay concrete for the construction of monolithic load-bearing structures ensures not only reduction in the pressure exerted on weak and permafrost soils due to its lower density, but also reduction on heat transfer to the soils when the air temperature rises. There may be situations associated with early freezing of the concrete mixture when working in conditions of negative temperatures. The research results presented in this paper show that expanded clay concrete is capable of further hardening and full restoration of its project strength after thawing even after previous early freezing. The process of concrete hardening after thawing may be significantly accelerated by the use of complex plasticizing and anti-freezing additives.
Modern methods of lithological research allow obtaining results in digital form. This increases the objectivity, accuracy, reliability of data on rocks and makes possible their further computer processing and modeling. The article studies the issue of analyzing the composition and properties of rocks using digital photographs of the core sample. Existing techniques shall be considered. A scheme for the automated assessment of porosity and fracture parameters based on photographs of petrographic thin sections shall be proposed: 1) semi-automatic selection of voids by color; 2) automatic selection of cracks based on geometric features; 3) estimation of parameters of absolute porosity, total length and average width of cracks. To highlight voids, color filtering was applied with interactive input of the values of the classification attributes. Allocation of cracks from the general mass of voids was carried out according to the characteristics of the shape and area. The value of the absolute porosity was estimated as the ratio of the area of the selected voids to the total area of the photography. To determine the average width and total length of the cracks, the inscribed rectangle approximation was used. The scheme is implemented using algorithms of the OpenCV library, integrated into a custom software application. Convergence of the results of using the application with the results of a non-automated expert assessment for the parameter of porosity 80%, fracturing 70%. Estimation errors refer to cases of low color contrast of voids and mineral skeleton and segmentation of fracture lines in the original photographs. When using the application, a significant increase in speed and a decrease in the labor intensity of a specialist’s work was obtained. This allows us to recommend the developed application for express analysis of photographs of core thin sections.
On the example of the circumpolar zone of the Arctic region of YNAO the article considers the innovation policy in oil and gas production, which is an integral part of the socio-economic policy of the Russian Federation. It shows the main general priorities of development of the innovation economy and oil and gas production companies, including the introduction of new energy-efficient technological solutions, increased investment in science and production.KeywordsEnergy efficiency in transportationTechnologyOil and gas sectorEconomic and mathematical analysisHard-to-recover oil reserves
Here, we report experimental data comparing the geochemical behaviors of soluble organic matter (bitumoid) of the Bazhenov suite rocks heat-treated in a 50-mT constant magnetic field and without a magnetic field under the same conditions. Significant differences in geochemical characteristics such as n-C23/24, n-C25/26, n-C26/27, OEP and CPI were documented. Differences were also detected in the naphthene fraction content of the samples heated in the magnetic field and without, and the difference probability for this geochemical parameter was 87%. In 4 of 5 cases, the naphthene fraction was detected to decline in the samples heat-treated in the magnetic field. By discussing the study results, we made a recommendation for use of magnetic catalysts combined with thermal treatments to enhance oil recovery from high-viscosity oil reservoirs. In addition, we took a brief look at natural magnetic, electromagnetic and electric fields and suggested a hypothesis about the impact of natural geomagnetic fields on the geochemical evolution of petroleum but this hypothesis requires a thorough check.
The features of decoding ethnospecific codes of metaphorization in the literature of the peoples of the North are considered on the material of A. Nerkagy’s story “The White Moss”. This article is intended to reveal certain “algorithms of speech behavior” embedded in the language, the principles of mythologization and metaphorical objectification of the real world, to reveal more deeply the structure of understanding a literary text. The relevance of the study is due to the need to search for new tools to identify ethnospecific cultural models that determine the vision of the world of representatives of a particular national community, structuring the field of expressiveness of a literary text. Attention is paid to the formation mechanisms of figurative meanings, when the dynamics of the narrative, which is not bright at first glance, is compensated by a careful detailing of the description of a northerner life, which is achieved through the actualization of the sacred elements of the symbolic picture of the world. So, for A. Nerkagy’s creativity, mythological codes of imagery become ethnospecific: bird, wolf, stone, fire, time, water, man. The personification of objects of nature and the perception of the world through the prism of one’s own body are traced. Each of the listed semantic elements is an element of metaphor, metonymy. The symbolic image is indivisible; it is based not just on an associative component, but on a ritual, a myth.
Issues related to the material and personnel aspects in the initial period of the formation of secondary specialized educational institutions in Tyumen in the 1920—1930s are considered. Attention is paid to the study of the process of creating a network of educational institutions, areas of student training are identified, and data on the dynamics of the number of students are given. The analysis results of the material base of technical schools formation are presented. The problems that students had to face in the learning process were identified. An assessment of the material and technical conditions of educational activities is made. The authors dwell on the study of the staff of secondary specialized educational institutions of the city. Attention is paid to the analysis of the level of education and qualifications of teachers. The material working conditions of the teaching staff are investigated. The authors note a certain dynamics in solving the material and personnel problems of technical schools in the period under study, despite the fact that the existing opportunities of educational institutions were significantly inferior to the needs of the population in obtaining professional education. The conclusion is made about the degree of provision of educational institutions of the city with teaching and administrative personnel. The impact of this problem on the quality of student training is assessed.
The article is devoted to the architecture typology of historical wooden buildings in cities and rural settlements of the Tobolsk province. The research results can be used for studying related topics in the field of restoration and reconstruction of historical and architectural heritage. The research materials were iconographic data, books, articles and dissertations on the topic. Approaches include the field surveys, measurements and photographs of objects. As a result, the analytical material allows identifying the main types of wooden residential buildings late in the 19th and early 20th centuries in terms of their constructive and space-planning solutions. Definitions are given to the objects at issue, examples of the architectural typology of wooden historical buildings in the Tobolsk province late in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Purpose: The Arctic territories of Russia are mostly situated on the permafrost soils, which greatly complicate the service and construction of wastewater systems in urban areas. Design: Options are proposed for the thermal and technical calculation of pipeline sections of the pressure and gravity domestic sewage system to ensure an effective energy saving while maintaining reliability of the system operation. Research findings: Diagrams are suggested to quickly and accurately determine the thermal insulation parameters and ways to maintain positive wastewater temperatures during their transportation in a cold season. Practical implications: The obtained data can be used to select the most energy-efficient and reliable design solution. Originality / value: Recommendations on the thermal analysis will help to draw the right engineering decision in designing sewerage networks in northern conditions.
Carbon porous materials obtained through KOH activation of a furfural + hydroquinone + urotropine mixture were applied as adsorbent for the remediation of methylene blue (MB). The impact of porous structure with special attention to pore size distribution along with well-known pore volume and specific surface area on the remediation of MB was well investigated and elucidated. Findings obtained revealed that pore size distribution plays a crucial role in the liquid-phase adsorption of organic dyes like MB. By varying the synthesis mode parameters, in particular, the activating agent/precursor mass ratio, with the composition and initial components ratios remaining unchanged, samples with different pore size distribution were obtained. It was found that the material predominantly containing pores with an average equivalent diameter of ~ 3.5 nm appears to be the efficient MB adsorbent. The resulting highly porous carbon materials demonstrated high MB adsorption capacity (up to 2555 mg/g). Furthermore, to fully elucidate the adsorption mechanisms occurring on the obtained materials, a comprehensive mathematical processing of experimental data was performed out using the known kinetic and diffusion models (pseudo-first- and pseudo-second order, and intraparticle diffusion), as well as adsorption equilibrium isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich). It can be concluded that the porous carbon materials obtained and described in the present work are effective adsorbents for the removal of MB and may possess great potential for the treatment of dye-containing wastewater.
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• Organic and Ecological Chemistry
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• Laboratory of Plant Ecophysiology and Experimental Phytoecology
• Institute of Environmental and Agricultural Biology (X-Bio)
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