University of Twente
  • Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
Recent publications
A combination of the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) and the elastic properties of star shaped 8-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (8-arm PEG) was used to design in-situ forming hydrogels. Hydrogels were prepared by the enzymatic crosslinking of a partially tyramine modified 8-arm PEG and a tyramine conjugated HA using horseradish peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogels of the homopolymer conjugates and mixtures thereof were rapidly formed within seconds under physiological conditions at low polymer and enzyme concentrations. Elastic hydrogels with high gel content (≥95%) and high storage moduli (up to 22.4 kPa) were obtained. An in vitro study in the presence of hyaluronidase (100 U/mL) revealed that with increasing PEG content the degradation time of the hybrid hydrogels increased up to several weeks, whereas hydrogels composed of only hyaluronic acid degraded within 2 weeks. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) incorporated in the hybrid hydrogels remained viable as shown by a PrestoBlue and a live-dead assay, confirming the biocompatibility of the constructs. The production of an extracellular matrix by re-differentiation of encapsulated human chondrocytes was followed over a period of 28 days. Gene expression indicated that these highly elastic hydrogels induced an enhanced production of collagen type II. At low PEG-TA/HA-TA ratios a higher expression of SOX 9 and ACAN was observed. These results indicate that by modulating the ratio of PEG/HA, injectable hydrogels can be prepared applicable as scaffolds for tissue regeneration applications.
Tidal marshes and mangroves are increasingly valued for nature-based mitigation of coastal storm impacts, such as flooding and shoreline erosion hazards, which are growing due to global change. As this review highlights, however, hazard mitigation by tidal wetlands is limited to certain conditions, and not all hazards are equally reduced. Tidal wetlands are effective in attenuating short-period storm-induced waves, but long-period storm surges, which elevate sea levels up to several meters for up to more than a day, are attenuated less effectively, or in some cases not at all, depending on storm conditions, wetland properties, and larger-scale coastal landscape geometry. Wetlands often limit erosion, but storm damage to vegetation (especially mangrove trees) can be substantial, and recovery may take several years. Longer-term wetland persistence can be compromised when combined with other stressors, such as climate change and human disturbances. Due to these uncertainties, nature-based coastal defense projects need to adopt adaptive management strategies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science, Volume 15 is January 2023. Please see for revised estimates.
Living microtissues are used in a multitude of applications as they more closely resemble native tissue physiology, as compared to 2D cultures. Microtissues are typically composed of a combination of cells and materials in varying combinations, which are dictated by the applications’ design requirements. Their applications range wide, from fundamental biological research such as differentiation studies to industrial applications such as cruelty-free meat production. However, their translation to industrial and clinical settings has been hindered due to the lack of scalability of microtissue production techniques. Continuous microfluidic processes provide an opportunity to overcome this limitation as they offer higher throughput production rates as compared to traditional batch techniques, while maintaining reproducible control over microtissue composition and size. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current approaches to engineer microtissues with a focus on the advantages of, and need for, the use of continuous processes to produce microtissues in large quantities. Finally, an outlook is provided that outlines the required developments to enable large-scale microtissue fabrication using continuous processes.
This paper presents an investigation of complex mode shape analysis caused by non-linear damping. Nowadays, most academics are accustomed to complex mode shapes, which are a characteristic of most axisymmetric structures. The topic was deeply investigated during the 1980s, sparking the sharpest debates about their physical existence or not. However, after nearly three decades, one question still stands, do we know all about complex mode shapes? This paper takes the dust off this topic again and explores how complex eigenvectors arise when the percentage frequency separation between two mode shapes is the same order of magnitude as the percentage damping. The difference between the past and present investigations relates to the non-linear damping that might arise from joint dynamics under various vibration amplitudes. Hence, the new research question is about the investigation of amplitude-dependent damping on the modal complexity. Why bother? There are several engineering applications in both space and aerospace where axisymmetric structures and joint dynamics can impair the numerical analysis that is currently performed. This paper does not offer any solutions but does expand the research on an unsolved challenge by identifying the questions posed.
The degree-based entropy Id(G) of a graph G on m>0 edges is obtained from the well-known Shannon entropy −∑i=1np(xi)logp(xi) in information theory by replacing the probabilities p(xi) by the fractions dG(vi)2m, where {v1,v2,…,vn} is the vertex set of G, and dG(vi) is the degree of vi. We continue earlier work on Id(G). Our main results deal with the effect of a number of graph operations on the value of Id(G). We also illustrate the relevance of these results by applying some of these operations to prove a number of extremal results for the degree-based entropy of trees and unicyclic graphs.
Background A procedure for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection was developed to overcome drawbacks associated with the current standard-of-care SLNB. However, residual SPIO nanoparticles can result in void artefacts at follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We present a grading protocol to quantitatively assess the severity of these artefacts and offer an option to minimise the impact of SPIO nanoparticles on diagnostic imaging. Methods Follow-up mammography and MRI of two patient groups after a magnetic SLNB were included in the study. They received a 2-mL subareolar dose of SPIO (high-dose, HD) or a 0.1-mL intratumoural dose of SPIO (low-dose, LD). Follow-up mammography and MRI after magnetic SLNB were acquired within 4 years after breast conserving surgery (BCS). Two radiologists with over 10-year experience in breast imaging assessed the images and analysed the void artefacts and their impact on diagnostic follow-up. Results A total of 19 patients were included (HD, n = 13; LD, n = 6). In the HD group, 9/13 patients displayed an artefact on T1-weighted images up to 3.6 years after the procedure, while no impact of the SPIO remnants was observed in the LD group. Conclusions SLNB using a 2-mL subareolar dose of magnetic tracer in patients undergoing BCS resulted in residual artefacts in the breast in the majority of patients, which may hamper follow-up MRI. This can be avoided by using a 0.1-mL intratumoural dose.
Integrated valves enable automated control in microfluidic systems, as they can be applied for mixing, pumping and compartmentalization purposes. Such automation would be highly valuable for applications in organ-on-chip (OoC) systems. However, OoC systems typically have channel dimensions in the range of hundreds of micrometers, which is an order of magnitude larger than those of typical microfluidic valves. The most-used fabrication process for integrated, normally open polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves requires a reflow photoresist that limits the achievable channel height. In addition, the low stroke volumes of these valves make it challenging to achieve flow rates of microliters per minute, which are typically required in OoC systems. Herein, we present a mechanical ‘macrovalve’ fabricated by multilayer soft lithography using micromilled direct molds. We demonstrate that these valves can close off rounded channels of up to 700 µm high and 1000 µm wide. Furthermore, we used these macrovalves to create a peristaltic pump with a pumping rate of up to 48 µL/min and a mixing and metering device that can achieve the complete mixing of a volume of 6.4 µL within only 17 s. An initial cell culture experiment demonstrated that a device with integrated macrovalves is biocompatible and allows the cell culture of endothelial cells over multiple days under continuous perfusion and automated medium refreshment.
Modern immersive multisensory communication systems can provide compelling mediated social communication experiences that approach face-to-facecommunication. Existing methods to assess the quality of mediated social communication experiences are typically targeted at specific tasks or communication technologies. As a result, they do not address all relevant aspects of social presence (i.e., the feeling of being in the presence of, and having an affective and intellectual connection with, other persons). Also, they are typically unsuitable for application to social communication in virtual (VR), augmented (AR), or mixed (MR) reality. We propose a comprehensive, general, and holistic multi-scale (questionnaire-based) approach, based on an established conceptual framework for multisensory perception, to measure the quality of mediated social communication experiences. Our holistic approach to mediated social communication (H-MSC) assessment comprises both the experience of Spatial Presence (i.e., the perceived fidelity, internal and external plausibility, and cognitive, reasoning, and behavioral affordances of an environment) and the experience of Social Presence (i.e., perceived mutual proximity, intimacy , credibility, reasoning, and behavior of the communication partners). Since social presence is inherently bidirectional (involving a sense of mutual awareness) the multiscale approach measures both the internal ('own') and external ('the other') assessment perspectives. We also suggest how an associated multiscale questionnaire (the Holistic Mediated Social Communication Questionnaire or H-MSC-Q) could be formulated in an efficient and parsimonious way, using only a single item to tap into each of the relevant processing levels in the human brain: sensory, emotional, cognitive, reasoning, and behavioral. The H-MSC-Q can be sufficiently general to measure social presence experienced with any (including VR, AR, and MR) multi-sensory (visual, auditory, haptic, and olfactory) mediated communication system. Preliminary validation studies confirm the content and face validity of the H-MSC-Q. In this paper, we focus on the underlying concepts of the H-MSC-Q. We make the initial draft questionnaire available to the community for further review, development, and validation. We hope it may contribute to the unification of quality measures for mediated social communication.
To create an integrated transport system that can compete with and reduce private car usage, we need a better understanding of the transport and user characteristics that relate to people's intentions to use shared and public transport at a mobility hub. For this purpose, this paper describes the results of a survey surrounding the case study of Leyenburg, The Hague in which a scenario of integrating shared mobility at an existing public transport stop is proposed. This study investigates the intention to use shared modes and public transport in a multimodal transport network and the factors and user characteristics that affect this intention. As digital technologies become important in the integration of modalities by offering digital planning and payment options, concerns regarding digital exclusion in transport services are growing. In this paper we developed a digital skills measure to reflects one's ability to perform tasks that are inherent to the digital services seen in the transport sector. Using an ordinal logistics regression analysis, the study has found that the intention to use shared transport is higher for people who are younger, have a high level of education and a high level of digital skills. In addition, having prior experience with shared transport in the past year and currently using multiple means of transportation during the trip are positively affecting the intention to use shared transport. The intention to combine shared transport with the bus or tram during a trip is similar to the intention to use shared transport and is related to similar characteristics, except for education. The intention to use the bus or tram is found to be mainly related to current transport usage and trip-specific factors and not to other user characteristics. For transport providers, the results provide evidence that offering shared motor scooters and bicycles would be an attractive option for young and highly-educated users who intend to combine the use of shared and public transport.
Due to the high cost of the large-scale measurement of heavy metals, the use of statistical land models and techniques is one of the proper ways to study their distribution and level of pollution. The study area, is agricultural lands of south Tehran in Iran. Municipal wastewater is often used for irrigation agricultural lands under surface irrigation method. To study the distribution of heavy metals including copper, nickel, and lead, the ordinary kriging method in the GIS environment was used. In addition, one-dimensional HYDRUS modeling of water flow and heavy metals in the soil environment was simulated up to a depth of 50 cm for 210 days and the concentration of heavy metals in the depth was simulated. Distribution of lead element in soil surface with spherical model showed that its variation was in the range of 20–70 mg/kg. These values were 50–60 mg/kg for copper and 30 mg/kg for nickel. Investigation of heavy metal concentrations in soil profiles using the HYDRUS-1D model showed that the major accumulation of heavy metals occurred in the surface layer of soil at a depth of 0–15 cm that was higher than the permissible level.
We partly confirm a Brualdi-Solheid-Turán type conjecture due to Nikiforov, which is a spectral radius analogue of the well-known Erdős-Sós Conjecture that any tree of order t is contained in a graph of average degree greater than t−2. We confirm Nikiforov's Conjecture for all brooms and for a larger class of spiders. For our proofs we also obtain a new Turán type result which might turn out to be of independent interest.
In recent years, involuntary celibates who identify as “Incels” have received considerable public attention because of their misogynistic online discourse and their tie to a string of violent acts motivated by hatred of women. Yet, surprisingly no prior quantitative research has examined whether unwanted celibacy – a subjective psychological experience characteristic of, but not exclusive, to Incels – is associated with misogynistic attitudes among men. The current study (N = 349 men) collected self-report data from a convenience sample of Incel and non-Incel men to investigate whether the degree of unwanted celibacy is associated with misogynistic attitudes. Unwanted celibacy was positively associated with hostile attitudes towards women, sexual objectification and rape myths, even after controlling for personality traits such as agreeableness. These novel quantitative results indicate that unwanted celibacy is an important psychological risk factor for misogynistic attitudes.
The role of biofilm in the Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in oil and gas exploitation, and geothermal installations is investigated. Simulated biofilm made of calcium alginate, abiotic sulfide (to mimic SRB metabolic end product H2S), CO2 (to mimic CO2 from SRB dissimilatory sulfate reduction) and simulated brine (3.0 wt% NaCl) are used to simulate the SRB environment. For reference experiments, distilled water is used instead of simulated brine. The electrochemical results show that the simulated biofilm in the reference at 120 min exposure time and in brine experiments neither inhibits nor accelerates corrosion. These results are strongly supported by corrosion kinetic adsorption parameters, statistical T-test, ICP-OES, pH, SEM-EDS and XRD. The results contradict with the existing literature on the role of biofilm and this is likely due to the presence of both H2S and CO2 as simulated SRB metabolites. Despite of this discrepancy, the obtained corrosion rates (0.25 to 1.6 mm/year) in the simulated SRB environment are comparable to published corrosion rates obtained in SRB experiments (0.20 to 1.2 mm/year). The results highlight the novelty of this research and have a direct impact on the role of other microbial metabolites on the corrosion of carbon steel.
We continue the investigation on the spectrum of operators arising from the discretization of partial differential equations. In this paper we consider a three field formulation recently introduced for the finite element least-squares approximation of linear elasticity. We discuss in particular the distribution of the discrete eigenvalues in the complex plane and how they approximate the positive real eigenvalues of the continuous problem. The dependence of the spectrum on the Lamé parameters is considered as well and its behavior when approaching the incompressible limit.
The construction industry is becoming circular, where resources are used in a closed loop. However, no standard method is available for measuring the circularity performance of building components. The Material Circularity Indicator (MCI) is one of the most ambitious methods. However, the MCI is criticized for its reliance on mass flow and the over-optimistic assumption regarding residual value. The research thus aims to adapt the MCI by addressing these limitations by using the economic value (E) as the measurement unit and introducing a new indicator of residual value (R). A residual value calculator is also developed to quantify R. A case study approach is adopted to evaluate the effect of E and R individually. The results show that using E can award materials’ contributions regarding circularity based on their relative value. Furthermore, using R can capture value change and provides different significance to materials input and output considering value difference.
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11,833 members
Michael Nagenborg
  • Department of Philosophy (WIJSB)
Frank Badu Osei
  • Department of Earth Observation Science (EOS)
Jan M. Gutteling
  • Department of Psychology of Conflict, Risk and Safety (PCRS)
Tanya Bondarouk
  • Department of Human Resource Management
Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB, Enschede, Overijssel, Netherlands
Head of institution
Victor van der Chijs
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