Background Although cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repair of the anterior and middle skull base defect by endonasal endoscopic surgery (EES) presents one of the more difficult challenges, it has shown high success rates with less morbidity. Our objective is to evaluate the outcomes of transnasal endoscopic repair of CSF leak regarding success rate, impact on olfaction, and sinonasal function. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the CSF leak repair outcomes related to the site, size of the defect, surgical techniques, and the materials that been used through Smell Identification Test (SIT), 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), Perioperative Sinus Endoscopy score (POSE), and Lund-MacKay Scoring (LM) of CT scan. Results Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the study; 12 out of 21 were females with a higher prevalence of traumatic causes of 61.9%. Different techniques and materials were used for the repair with a success rate recorded at 90.5% after the first closure attempt. The mean standard deviation (SD) scores postoperatively (after 6 months) was markedly decreased in SNOT 22 with mean (SD) 5.55 ± 3.6, slightly increase in POSE (mean ± SD = 0.43 ± 0.6), and slightly decrease in SIT (mean ± SD =10.31 ± 4.7) and LM (mean ± SD = 0.57 ± 0.7). Conclusion Transnasal endoscopic CSF leak repair is an effective technique for skull base defect closure with a high success rate and no valuable morbidity to sinonasal function other than mild hyposmia in patients where nasoseptal (NSF) and septal flap have been used. Trial registration The study was approved by the institutional review board and ethics committee of (The Arab Board of Health Specializations) with order no. (453) on 1April 2018.
Background Traumatic asphyxia, also called masque ecchymotique, Ollivier’s syndrome, and Perthes syndrome, is a rare but serious form of chest trauma described for the first time by Ollivier in 1837. The purpose of this study is to report our experience with two cases of traumatic asphyxia and discuss their management in view of the relevant literature. Results During a 6-year period, the author treated 2 cases of traumatic (crush) asphyxia in a local teaching hospital. The two patients were males, aged 20 and 30 years and were crushed beneath their vehicles. The presenting symptoms and signs were irritability, dyspnea, cervicofacial cyanosis, petechiae, and sub-conjunctival hemorrhages. The second patient suffered multiple rib fractures, hemopneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, vertebral fracture, and paraplegia. Negative surgical exploration for suspected cardiac tamponade was performed in the first case, while the second was managed conservatively. The first patient survived whereas the second succumbed because of the associated injuries. Conclusions Due to its widespread lesions, traumatic asphyxia should be looked upon as a systemic syndrome. Timely accurate diagnosis and supportive treatment save the majority of patients with traumatic asphyxia. In this rare syndrome, death may result from asphyxia secondary to thoracic compression or from the associated injuries.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a viral infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. The infection was reported in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019 and has become a major global concern due to severe respiratory infections and high transmission rates. Evidence suggests that the strong interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and patients' immune systems leads to various clinical symptoms of COVID-19. Although the adaptive immune responses are essential for eliminating SARS-CoV-2, the innate immune system may, in some cases, cause the infection to progress. The cytotoxic CD8 ⁺ T cells in adaptive immune responses demonstrated functional exhaustion through upregulation of exhaustion markers. In this regard, humoral immune responses play an essential role in combat SARS-CoV-2 because SARS-CoV-2 restricts antigen presentation through downregulation of MHC class I and II molecules that lead to the inhibition of T cell-mediated immune response responses. This review summarizes the exact pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the alteration of the immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, we’ve explained the exhaustion of the immune system during SARS-CoV-2 and the potential immunomodulation approach to overcome this phenomenon.
Balanced cell death and survival are among the most important cell development and homeostasis pathways that can play a critical role in the onset or progress of malignancy steps. Anastasis is a natural cell recovery pathway that rescues cells after removing the apoptosis-inducing agent or brink of death. The cells recuperate and recover to an active and stable state. So far, minimal knowledge is available about the molecular mechanisms of anastasis. Still, several involved pathways have been explained: recovery through mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, caspase cascade arrest, repairing DNA damage, apoptotic bodies formation, and phosphatidylserine. Anastasis can facilitate the survival of damaged or tumor cells, promote malignancy, and increase drug resistance and metastasis. Here, we noted recently known mechanisms of the anastasis process and underlying molecular mechanisms. Additionally, we summarize the consequences of anastatic mechanisms in the initiation and progress of malignancy, cancer cell metastasis, and drug resistance.
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with high stability and porosity have gained great attention in bioanalysis due to their potential in improving sensitivity and robustness of assays. Herein, to improve both the stability and the emission intensity of Cu nanoclusters (CuNCs), in situ entrapment strategy of CuNCs into zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) is described. Blue emissive and stable CuNCs was prepared, for the first time, using thiamine hydrochloride as capping agents, and showed strong and stable emission at 440 nm when excited at 375 nm with fluorescence quantum yields 12%. Encapsulation of CuNC into ZIF-8 showed dramatic enhancement of the fluorescence intensity up to 53% fluorescence quantum yield. Furthermore, the CuNCs@ZIF-8 possesses better stability (more than three months) due to protective and confinement effect of MOFs. Upon the addition of tetracycline to CuNCs@ZIF-8 solution, the blue emission intensity was significantly decreased. The fluorescence ratio (Fo/F) against the concentration of tetracycline exhibited a satisfactory linear relationship from 1.0 to 10.0 µM with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.30 µM. The current probe was applied for quantification of tetracycline in drug sample with satisfactory accuracy and precision. Graphical abstract
We consider electronic and optical properties of group III-Nitride monolayers using first-principle calculations. The group III-Nitride monolayers have flat hexagonal structures with almost zero planar buckling, Δ. By tuning the Δ, the strong σ-σ bond through sp2 hybridization of a flat form of these monolayers can be changed to a stronger σ-π bond through sp3 hybridization. Consequently, the band gaps of the monolayers are tuned due to a dislocation of the s- and p-orbitals towards the Fermi energy. The band gaps decrease with increasing Δ for those flat monolayers, which have a band gap greater than 1.0eV, while no noticeable change or a flat dispersion of the band gap is seen for the flat monolayers, that have a band gap less than 1.0eV. The decreased band gap causes a decrease in the excitation energy, and thus the static dielectric function, refractive index, and the optical conductivity are increased. In contrast, the flat band gap dispersion of few monolayers in the group III-Nitride induces a reduction in the static dielectric function, the refractive index, and the optical conductivity. We therefore confirm that tuning of the planar buckling can be used to control the physical properties of these monolayers, both for an enhancement and a reduction of the optical properties. These results are of interest for the design of optoelectric devices in nanoscale systems.
The ability to assess the role of pre-existing damage on the residual (reserve) capacity and reparability of buildings following a damaging event or events is essential to achieving the goal of functional recovery. If performance-based wind design is applied, where limited nonlinear deformations in some elements are allowed under extreme wind events, or if a design earthquake occurs, there are likely to be a significant number of buildings with modest damage (in addition to some with more severe damage, that obviously need to be evaluated and repaired). For tall concrete buildings that utilize structural coupled (core) walls as the primary lateral force-resisting system, coupling beams are the main fuses that limit force demands on other elements and actions and provide a reliable mechanism for energy dissipation during extreme events, and thus, are most likely to impact building performance in future events and to require repair. Therefore, tests were conducted on eight coupling beams, seven reinforced concrete (RC) beams and one W-shaped steel-reinforced concrete (SRC) beam, subjected to simulated windstorm loading protocols that introduced modest nonlinear deformations followed by a standard seismic loading protocol to large inelastic deformations. The test variables included aspect ratio, presence of an RC floor slab, type of wind loading protocol, level of detailing, and type of concrete coupling beam (RC vs SRC). The findings indicated that the limited damage due to the prior wind demands did not impact strength, axial growth, rotation capacity, and failure mode of the beams under the seismic loading protocol; however, a significant reduction in the initial stiffness of all beams and a minor reduction in energy dissipation capacity of the conventionally reinforced beams were observed.
Microbiostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Bajwan Formation (Chattian) from the Kirkuk Oil Field (K. 160), Kirkuk area, Northeastern Iraq, are investigated. Thirty-one species from 17 genera of large benthic foraminifera in addition to non-foraminifera fossils such as Gastropods, Bivalves, and Echinoid fragments, Bryozoan, Coral, and Algae are recognized from the studied well. Based on the recognized large benthic foraminifera, it is subdivided into two biozones: Praerhapydionina delicate–Peneroplis evolutus Assemblage zone and Praerhapydionina delicate–Archaias kirkukensis Assemblage zone. Both suggest Late Oligocene (Chattian) age. The recognized biozones were correlated with comparatively well-known biozones from other parts of the Tethys region which showed a good comparison between the biostratigraphic zones established in this study with other studies. The biotic associations identified in this study suggest that this association thrived in tropical-to-subtropical environments, generally found in a restricted to shallower water depth, with normal water salinity environment ranges from 34 to 50‰, under mesotrophic-to-oligotrophic conditions.
One of the popular metaheuristic search algorithms is Harmony Search (HS). It has been verified that HS can find solutions to optimization problems due to its balanced exploratory and convergence behavior and its simple and flexible structure. This capability makes the algorithm preferable to be applied in several real-world applications in various fields, including healthcare systems, different engineering fields, and computer science. The popularity of HS urges us to provide a comprehensive survey of the literature on HS and its variants on health systems, analyze its strengths and weaknesses, and suggest future research directions. In this review paper, the current studies and uses of harmony search are studied in four main domains. (i) The variants of HS, including its modifications and hybridization. (ii) Summary of the previous review works. (iii) Applications of HS in healthcare systems. (iv) And finally, an operational framework is proposed for the applications of HS in healthcare systems. The main contribution of this review is intended to provide a thorough examination of HS in healthcare systems while also serving as a valuable resource for prospective scholars who want to investigate or implement this method.
Abstract Sixteen samples collected for a biostratigraphic study of the Naopurdan Group in the Sulaimani Area to determine the age of its strata. The study succession is located within the Zagros High Fold and Thrust Belt. The lithology of the succession here is composed of marlstone, shale, siltstone, sandstone, marly limestone and a limestone bed. Hence, for the first time this limestone bed describes in detail; it is 4 m bed of brown, stiff, Alveolinidae-nummulitic limestone. It bears a frequent number of large benthic and planktic foraminiferas that are concentrated within the limestone bed. It is detected within the Naopurdan succession from Chwarta, Sulaimani area, Kurdistan Region/northeastern Iraq. The determined fossil assemblages in the bed includes both benthic and planktic foraminiferas. The identified-benthic foraminiferas are: Alveolina (Glomalveolina) levis, Alveolina elliptica, Alveolina aragonensis, Alveolina solida, Nummulites fabianii, Nummulites, Assilina spira and Assilina exponens. While the identified-planktic foraminiferas are: Acarinina (Globorotalia) esnaensis, Globigerinatheka mexicana, Globigerina venezuelana, Globigerinatheka kugleri, Globigerinatheka index, Catapsydrax martini, Subbotina triloculinoides and Subbotina triangularis. The biostratigraphic zonation of the succession confirms the Lutetian age/middle Eocene. It lies into the A. elliptica, Assillinoides exponens, Nummulites globulus Assemblage Zone and G. kugleri, G. index, G. venezuelana Assemblage Zone. This study demonstrates that the lithology of this limestone/condensed section is equivalent to the Avanah Formation of the Zagros Low Fold and Thrust Belt since they have similar lithology and fossil contents. This condensed section has not previously described within the fine clastics of the Naopurdan Group.
In this study, we have presented two new alternative definitions corresponding to the basic definitions of the discrete delta and nabla fractional difference operators. These definitions and concepts help us in establishing a relationship between Riemann-Liouville and Liouville-Caputo fractional differences of higher orders for both delta and nabla operators. We then propose and analyse some convexity results for the delta and nabla fractional differences of the Riemann-Liouville type. We also derive similar results for the delta and nabla fractional differences of Liouville-Caputo 18128 type by using the proposed relationships. Finally, we have presented two examples to confirm the main theorems.
Considering that most studies depend on theoretical equations to determine the minimum reinforcement ratio, only a few studies on this ratio are available. Therefore, a more defined limit should be suggested to design codes by performing additional investigations and experimental studies on this limit. This study examines the behavior of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams with low reinforcing steel ratios to establish a limit for the lowest flexural reinforcement ratio that will ensure ductility. Experiments were performed on 12 reinforced HSC beams with a concrete compressive strength of 99 MPa, which were divided into three categories depending on their size. Each category comprised four beam reinforcement ratios (0%, 0.13%, 0.33%, and 0.65%), and two main parameters (beam size and reinforcement ratio) were investigated. Furthermore, to ensure flexural failure at the middle-span, adequate web reinforcing was used in all the beams and tested under a four-point load until they exhibited failure. Based on regression analysis, an equation was proposed for the rupture modulus of reinforced beams. The findings suggest that, in addition to the yielding strength of the reinforcements and the compressive strength of the concrete, the depth of the beams should be considered when computing the minimum flexural reinforcement of beams.
The usage of the green synthesis method to produce nanoparticles (NPs) has received great acceptance among the scientific community in recent years. This, perhaps, is owing to its eco-friendliness and the utilization of non-toxic materials during the synthesizing process. The green synthesis approach also supplies a reducing and a capping agent, which increases the stability of the NPs through the available phytochemicals in the plant extractions. The present study describes a green synthesis method to produce nano-silica (SiO 2 ) NPs utilizing Rhus coriaria L. extract and sodium metasilicate (Na 2 SiO 3 .5H 2 O) under reflux conditions. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is added to the mixture to control the pH of the solution. Then, the obtained NPs have been compared with the chemically synthesized SiO 2 NPs. The structure, thermal, and morphological properties of the SiO 2 NPs, both green synthesized and chemically synthesized, were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Also, the elemental compassion distribution was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In addition, the zeta potential, dynamic light scatter (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the stability, thermal properties, and surface area of the SiO 2 NPs. The overall results revealed that the green synthesis of SiO 2 NPs outperforms chemically synthesized SiO 2 NPs. This is expected since the green synthesis method provides higher stability, enhanced thermal properties, and a high surface area through the available phytochemicals in the Rhus coriaria L. extract.
Intraspecific genetic diversity study is a helpful tool for genetic improvement and germplasm conservation initiatives. In this context, the current study analyzed the population genetic diversity and structure of 89 accessions collected from 11 populations in four different northern Iraqi provinces using conserved DNA-derived polymorphism (CDDP) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) molecular markers. CDDP and ISSR revealed 105 and 179 polymorphic bands, respectively, with an average of 10.50 bands per primer for CDDP and 8.52 fragments per primer for ISSR. All the primers exhibited polymorphic information content values greater than 0.50. Shannon’s information index (0.43) and expected heterozygosity (0.28) were both the highest in the KNOX-1 primer. Based on CDDP, ISSR, and CDDP + ISSR data, dendrogram analysis of populations revealed the presence of two genetic clusters, which were subsequently sub-clustered. The slight similarity between the geographic distribution of Q. aegilops populations and their clustering pattern was stated. The genetic dissimilarity among populations ranged from 0.13 to 0.34 for CDDP, 0.11 to 0.39 for the ISSR, and 0.13 to 0.36 for the CDDP + ISSR combination. In the model-based structure analysis, both markers and their combinations showed a similar clustering trend, with two major genetic clusters. A moderate relationship was observed between the structure and cluster patterns in terms of the distribution of populations within the clusters. The highest fixation index values (0.43 for CDDP markers and 0.39 for ISSR markers) were recorded by the second cluster. The analysis of molecular variance revealed high genetic variation within regions than between them, as well as significant gene exchange between regions. The Sulaimani-Sharbazher (SSH) and Erbil-Shaqlawa (ESH) populations had the highest values of Shannon’s information index (0.36 for SSH and 0.35 for ESH, according to CDDP data) and expected heterozygosity (0.23 for SSH and 0.24 for ESH, according to ISSR data). There was a significant association between CDDP and ISSR dissimilarity matrices. The supplied data can be used by producers and scientists to improve the preservation and rational use of wild Q. aegilops populations. By selecting a small number of individuals from diverse populations, ex and in situ conservation may be an appropriate method for adequately capturing the total genetic diversity.
Liquefaction has caused many catastrophes during earthquakes in the past. When an earthquake is occurring, saturated granular soils may be subjected to the liquefaction phenomenon that can result in significant hazards. Therefore, a valid and reliable prediction of soil liquefaction potential is of high importance, especially when designing civil engineering projects. This study developed the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) in combination with the optimization algorithms, i.e., the grey wolves optimization (GWO), differential evolution (DE), and genetic algorithm (GA) to predict the soil liquefaction potential. Afterwards, statistical scores such as root mean square error were applied to evaluate the developed models. The computational results showed that the proposed RBFNN-GWO and LSSVM-GWO, with Coefficient of Determination (R²) = 1 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0, produced better results than other models proposed previously in the literature for the prediction of the soil liquefaction potential. It is an efficient and effective alternative for the soil liquefaction potential prediction. Furthermore, the results of this study confirmed the effectiveness of the GWO algorithm in training the RBFNN and LSSVM models. According to sensitivity analysis results, the cyclic stress ratio was also found as the most effective parameter on the soil liquefaction in the studied case.
Background The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has had a major impact on world health over the last 2 years. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, particularly concerning variants, may affect the virus’s pathogenicity, transmissibility, and vaccines potency. Both delta and the omicron variants have been designated by WHO as variants of concern. Methods and results In this study, molecular techniques such as qPCR, conventional PCR, and sequencing were used to identify the first SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant that circulated in Iraq in January 2022. Bioinformatics and computational tools like phylogenetic analysis, predicted physical and chemical properties, stability, and molecular docking of the spike protein were used to compare the omicron with the delta variants. We found the receptor binding domain (RBD) and spike protein in omicron contain a greater number of hydrophobic amino acids compared to delta variant. We discovered a disorder–order conversion in RBD regions of the omicron variant, and this change may be important in terms of the effect of disordered residues/regions on spike protein stability and interaction with human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Docking studies show that the omicron variant requires less energy to engage with ACE2, contributing to its higher binding affinity with human ACE2, consistent with more contagious transmission. Conclusion This is the first molecular study of the circulated omicron and delta variants in Iraq, showing that the omicron variant in Iraq had a higher affinity for ACE2 than the delta variant, which may lead to higher transmissibility.
The development of pharmaceutical analytical techniques is one of the most crucial steps in drug development and quality control. The pharmaceuticals serve their intent only if their content is labeled, free from impurities, and are administered in an appropriate amount. Thus, an accurate, selective, low-cost, and fast analytical tool is highly required. Carbon nanodots (CDs), as emerging luminescent nanomaterials in analytical applications, play a significant role in offering low detection limit, superior selectivity, high sensitivity, low-cost precursors, biocompatible, and facile preparation protocols. Recently, many papers have been reported on the quantification and detection of various active pharmaceutical ingredients using CDs. Owing to the luminescence of CDs, a big concern is given to fluorescence-based probes. This review article highlights the physical and chemical properties of CDs, their synthesis approaches, surface functionalization, detection mechanisms, and several detection platforms, such as fluorescence, electrochemical, electrochemiluminescence, colorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance for pharmaceutical analysis based on CDs.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
Sulaimani-Kirkuk Main Road, P.O.Box: 334 Sulaimani-IRAQ, As Sulaymānīyah, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
Head of institution
Assistant Prof. Dr. Ridha Hassan Hussein
+964 (0)748 060 6226