University of Strasbourg
  • Strasbourg, France
Recent publications
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivates (O-PAHs) are identified in soils and groundwater of industrialized sites and contribute to the risk for Humans and the Environment. Nevertheless, data are scarce in literature concerning their retention and transfer in soils and no soil - water partition coefficients are available for these compounds. Sorption of two PAHs, fluorene and acenaphthene and two O-PAHs, 9H-fluorenone and dibenzofuran onto two soils with different organic carbon contents was evaluated and compared by determining their sorption isotherms. Effect of ionic strength and liquid to solid ratio, on fluorene and fluorenone sorption was also evaluated. Sorption equilibrium is achieved within less than 24 hr of mixing and linear sorption models best fit the isotherm data. Acenaphthene and dibenzofuran are similarly sorbed onto the soil. KD of fluorene is higher than the one of fluorenone, showing a smaller affinity of fluorenone towards the solid phase. This means that O-PAH could form larger contamination plumes in groundwater than PAHs. Decreasing the L/S ratio from 100 to 50 and 30, increases the sorption of fluorenone onto the soil by 56% and 67% respectively, while the sorption of fluorene is slightly increased. Increasing the ionic strength of the aqueous phase also modifies the sorption of fluorenone, contrary to the sorption of fluorene which is slightly affected.
Predicting information is considered to be an efficient strategy to minimise processing costs by exploiting regularities in the environment, and to allow for adaptation in case of irregularities, i.e. prediction errors. How such errors impact conscious perception is unclear, especially when predictions concern elementary visual features. Here we present results from a novel experimental approach allowing us to investigate the perceptual consequences of violated low-level predictions about moving objects. Observers were presented with two squares moving towards each other with a constant speed, and reported whether they were in contact or not before they disappeared. A compelling illusion of a gap between the squares occurred when the leading edges of those squares contacted briefly. The apparent gap was larger than a physical and stable separation of 2.6 min of arc between the squares. The illusion disappeared only when the contact did not violate extrapolations of the contrast edge between the moving object and the background. The pattern of results is consistent with an early locus of the effect and cannot be explained by decisional biases, guesses, top-down, attentional or masking effects. We suggest that violations of the contrast edge extrapolation in the direction of motion have strong perceptual consequences.
Background Pregnancy and breastfeeding are associated with bone density loss. Fracture occurrence during pregnancy and post-partum, and its determinants, remain poorly known in Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). The aim of this study was to characterize fractures that occurred during pregnancy and post-partum in OI patients. Results We conducted a retrospective multicentric study including a total of 50 previously pregnant OI women from 10 Bone Centers in France. Among these patients, 12 (24%) patients experienced fractures during pregnancy or in the 6 months following delivery, and 38 (76%) did not experience any fracture. The most frequent localizations were: proximal femur (25%), spine (25%), distal femur (12.5%), and pelvis (12.5%). Fractures during pregnancy occurred during the third trimester and post-partum fractures occurred with a mean delay of 2 months following delivery. No fractures occurred during childbirth. We next compared the 12 patients with pregnancy or post-partum fractures with the 38 patients without fractures. Mean age at pregnancy was 32.7 ± 3.1 years-old in the fractured group, vs 29.3 ± 5.0 years-old in the non-fractured group ( p = 0.002). Breastfeeding was reported in 85.7% of patients in the fractured group, vs 47.1% in the non-fractured group ( p = 0.03). All patients with post-partum fractures were breastfeeding. Bone mineral density was significantly lower in patients with pregnancy-related fractures compared with other patients: spine Z-score − 2.9 ± 1.6DS vs − 1.5 ± 1.7DS ( p = 0.03), and total hip Z-score − 2.0 ± 0.7DS vs − 0.5 ± 1.4DS ( p = 0.04). At least one osteoporosis-inducing risk factor or disease other than OI was identified in 81.8% vs 58.6% of fractured vs non-fractured patients (not significant). Fracture during pregnancy or post-partum was not associated with the severity of OI. Bisphosphonates before pregnancy were reported in 16.7% and 21.1% of patients with pregnancy-related fractures and non-fractured patients, respectively (not significant). Conclusions OI management during pregnancy and post-partum should aim for optimal control of modifiable osteoporosis risk factors, particularly in patients with low BMD. Breastfeeding should be avoided.
The use of digital technology is increasing rapidly across surgical specialities, yet there is no consensus for the term ‘digital surgery’. This is critical as digital health technologies present technical, governance, and legal challenges which are unique to the surgeon and surgical patient. We aim to define the term digital surgery and the ethical issues surrounding its clinical application, and to identify barriers and research goals for future practice. 38 international experts, across the fields of surgery, AI, industry, law, ethics and policy, participated in a four-round Delphi exercise. Issues were generated by an expert panel and public panel through a scoping questionnaire around key themes identified from the literature and voted upon in two subsequent questionnaire rounds. Consensus was defined if >70% of the panel deemed the statement important and <30% unimportant. A final online meeting was held to discuss consensus statements. The definition of digital surgery as the use of technology for the enhancement of preoperative planning, surgical performance, therapeutic support, or training, to improve outcomes and reduce harm achieved 100% consensus agreement. We highlight key ethical issues concerning data, privacy, confidentiality and public trust, consent, law, litigation and liability, and commercial partnerships within digital surgery and identify barriers and research goals for future practice. Developers and users of digital surgery must not only have an awareness of the ethical issues surrounding digital applications in healthcare, but also the ethical considerations unique to digital surgery. Future research into these issues must involve all digital surgery stakeholders including patients.
Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are emerging graphene materials showing clear promising applications in the biomedical field. The evaluation of GNR biocompatibility at the immune level is a critical aspect of their clinical translation. Here, we report the ex vivo immune profiling and tracking of GNRs at the single-cell level on eight human blood immune cell subpopulations. We selected ultra-small (GNRs-I-US) and small GNRs (GNRs-I-S), with an average length of 7.5 and 60 nm, respectively. GNRs were functionalized with ¹¹⁵In to trace their cell interactions by single-cell mass cytometry. Both materials are highly biocompatible and internalized by immune cells without inducing significant functional changes. GNRs-I-US interacted to a greater extent with myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and classical monocytes, while GNRs-I-S mainly interacted with mDCs. These results demonstrate that structurally precise GNRs are efficiently internalized by immune cells. In addition, our chemical and methodological single-cell approach can be applied to other cell types using various carbon-based nanomaterials, bringing new insights into their safety and future biomedical applications.
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by human chromosome 21 (HSA21) trisomy. It is characterized by a poorly understood intellectual disability (ID). We studied two mouse models of DS, one with an extra copy of the Dyrk1A gene (189N3) and the other with an extra copy of the mouse Chr16 syntenic region (Dp(16)1Yey). RNA-seq analysis of the transcripts deregulated in the embryonic hippocampus revealed an enrichment in genes associated with chromatin for the 189N3 model, and synapses for the Dp(16)1Yey model. A large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen (82 different screens, including 72 HSA21 baits and 10 rebounds) of a human brain library containing at least 10 ⁷ independent fragments identified 1,949 novel protein–protein interactions. The direct interactors of HSA21 baits and rebounds were significantly enriched in ID-related genes ( P -value < 2.29 × 10 ⁻⁸ ). Proximity ligation assays showed that some of the proteins encoded by HSA21 were located at the dendritic spine postsynaptic density, in a protein network at the dendritic spine postsynapse. We located HSA21 DYRK1A and DSCAM, mutations of which increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 20-fold, in this postsynaptic network. We found that an intracellular domain of DSCAM bound either DLGs, which are multimeric scaffolds comprising receptors, ion channels and associated signaling proteins, or DYRK1A. The DYRK1A-DSCAM interaction domain is conserved in Drosophila and humans. The postsynaptic network was found to be enriched in proteins associated with ARC-related synaptic plasticity, ASD, and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. These results highlight links between DS and brain diseases with a complex genetic basis.
Introduction Magnetic interaction of portable electronic devices (PEDs), such as state-of-the art mobile phones, with cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) has been reported. The aim of the study was to quantify the magnetic fields of latest generation smartwatches and other PEDs and to evaluate and predict their risk of CIED interactions. Methods High resolution magnetic field characterization of five smartwatches (Apple Watch 6/7, Fitbit Sense, Samsung Galaxy 3, Withings Scanwatch) was performed using a novel magnetic field camera. Ex vivo measurements of the minimal safety distance (MSD) at which no mode switch can be observed were performed between 11 PEDs and six representative CIEDs. Results Maximal 1 mT distances ranged between 10 mm (Withings) and 19 mm (Fitbit and AppleWatch), and 1 mT volumes between 6 cm³ (Withings) and 19 cm³ (Fitbit). All these measures were observed only for the back side of the smartwatches. While most smartwatches with measured 1 mT distance < 15 mm posed low ex vivo interaction within a distance of < 10 mm, PEDs such as electronic pens and in-ear-headphones with measured 1 mT distance > 15 mm showed device interaction up to > 15 mm. Linear regression analysis showed a linear relationship of the MSD with 1 mT distance (B coefficient: 0.46; 95 %-CI: 0.25–0.67, p < 0.001). Conclusion Smartwatches are safer compared to other PEDs such as electronic pens or in-ear headphones with regards to CIED interaction. With a standardized magnetic field camera, the risk assessment of CIED interaction of novel PEDs is feasible.
In this study, a series of N-naphthalimide ester derivatives (noted NPIE1-NPIE9) with different substituents were designed as visible light photoinitiators (PIs). These structures exhibited good light absorption properties in the visible range. Photoinitiation abilities of NPIEs were evaluated upon exposure to a light-emitting diode at 405 nm. All the structures demonstrated good performances in free radical polymerization of acrylate monomers. Markedly, the function conversion for acrylate monomers in the presence of NPIE1 was higher than that of the benchmark PI diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phosphine oxide (TPO). Upon exposure to a light-emitting diode at 455 nm, NPIE1 could also initiate the polymerization of acrylate monomers effectively, i.e., the benchmark photoinitiator (TPO) was not efficient for these long irradiation wavelengths. Through the calculations of the N–O bond dissociation energy and the excited state energy, the cleavage of the N–O bond from the singlet state proved to be favorable. Interestingly, CO2 was detected during the polymerization experiments, which indicated that there was a decarboxylation reaction during irradiation. Based on the obtained results, a mechanism of Type Ⅰ PI behavior can be proposed. Due to the good performance, NPIE1 was successfully used in 3D printing experiments. In addition, high thermal stability of NPIEs in monomers was found. This can be a great improvement for elaborating stable formulations.
Dilemmas related to the use of environmental resources concern diverse populations at local or global scales. Frequently, individuals are unable to visualize the consequences of their actions, where they belong in the decision-making line, and have no information about past choices or the time horizon. We design a new one-shot extraction game to capture these dynamic decisions. We present results from a nationwide common pool resource experiment, conducted simultaneously in eleven French cities, involving a total of 2813 participants. We examine, for the first time, the simultaneous impact of several variables on the amount of resource extracted: the local vs. the national scale of the resource, the size of the group (small vs. big), the low vs. high recovery rate of the resource, and the available information. We show that individuals significantly reduce extraction levels in local as compared to national level dilemmas and that providing recommendations on sustainable extraction amounts significantly improves the sustainability of the resource. Overall, women extract significantly less, but care more about preserving the local resource; older participants extract significantly more resources but extract less from the national resource. Our experiment also fulfills a science popularization pedagogical aim, which we discuss.
GPR88 is an orphan G‐protein‐coupled receptor that is considered a potential target to treat neuropsychiatric disorders, including addiction. Most knowledge about GPR88 function stems from knockout mouse studies, and in vivo pharmacology is still scarce. Here we examine the effects of the novel brain‐penetrant agonist RTI‐13951‐33 on several alcohol‐related behaviours in the mouse. In the intermittent‐access‐two‐bottle‐choice paradigm, the compound reduced excessive voluntary alcohol drinking, while water drinking was intact. This was observed for C57BL/6 mice, as well as for control but not Gpr88 knockout mice, demonstrating efficacy and specificity of the drug in vivo. In the drinking‐in‐the‐dark paradigm, RTI‐13951‐33 also reduced binge‐like drinking behaviour for control but not Gpr88 knockout mice, confirming the alcohol consumption‐reducing effect and in vivo specificity of the drug. When C57BL/6 mice were trained for alcohol self‐administration, RTI‐13951‐33 decreased the number of nose‐pokes over a 4‐h session and reduced the number of licks and bursts of licks, suggesting reduced motivation to obtain alcohol. Finally, RTI‐13951‐33 did not induce any place preference or aversion but reduced the expression of conditioned place preference to alcohol, indicative of a reduction of alcohol‐reward seeking. Altogether, data show that RTI‐13951‐33 limits alcohol intake under distinct conditions that require consummatory behaviour, operant response or association with contextual cues. RTI‐13951‐33 therefore is a promising lead compound to evaluate GPR88 as a therapeutic target for alcohol use disorders. More broadly, RTI‐13951‐33 represents a unique tool to better understand GPR88 function, disentangle receptor roles in development from those in the adult and perhaps address other neuropsychiatric disorders. GPR88 is an orphan G‐protein‐coupled receptor considered a potential target to treat brain diseases, but pharmacological tools in vivo are still lacking. We show that the novel brain penetrant agonist RTI‐13951‐33 reduces several alcohol‐related behaviours in the mouse, with no effect in GPR88 knockout animals, and is therefore a promising lead compound to evaluate GPR88 as a therapeutic target for alcohol use disorders. More broadly, RTI13951‐33 is a unique tool to tackle GPR88 function and also address other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Land surface temperature (LST) is an important parameter in the processes of energy exchange and water cycle between the land surface and the atmosphere. The impact of cloud cover leads to spatially incomplete of thermal infrared (TIR)-based LST products, which seriously hinders the applications of LST products in various fields. Several methods have been developed to reconstruct LST under cloudy conditions in previous studies, but there is a lack of an effective method for the reconstruction of cloudy LST at the spatial resolution of Landsat pixel (30 m). In this study, a novel method was proposed to reconstruct LST under cloudy conditions from Landsat 8 data. The LST reconstruction method includes four main steps: (1) identification of cloud-free, cloud-shadow, cloud-obscured, and cloud-covered pixels by integrating the Fmask method with a cloud-shape matching method; (2) calculation of annual temperature cycle (ATC)-based reference LST by fitting an ATC model to all available Landsat 8 LST product during 2013-2020; (3) estimation of LST residual from spatially adjacent similar pixels; and (4) estimation of reconstructed LST in terms of the sum of ATC-based reference LST and LST residual. The performance of the LST reconstruction method was evaluated using Landsat 8 LST images under clear-sky conditions as reference data. The root mean squared error (RMSE) between reconstructed LST and Landsat 8 reference LST ranges from 0.9 K to 2.5 K. The LST reconstruction method was further applied to reconstruct actual Landsat 8 LST images under cloudy conditions. Compared with original Landsat 8 LST images, the spatial distribution of reconstructed LST images is more complete. The pattern of reconstructed LST images reflects the spatial variability of LST well. The accuracy of the LST reconstruction method was validated against in situ LST measurements at six SURFRAD (Surface Radiation Budget Network) sites. The overall bias and RMSE between reconstructed LST and in situ LST at all sites are approximately −0.3 K and 3.5 K, respectively. The LST reconstruction method has great potentials to improve the applications of Landsat LST product in urban thermal environment monitoring and crop water stress monitoring.
In this chapter, we examine how catenanes, rotaxanes, and molecular knots can be considered and were effectively used as chiral building blocks in diverse molecular architectures. We first gave few elements of molecular topology and a definition of topological chirality. Then, we showed that it is topological chirality that made the chirality of some chiral catenanes and molecular knots unique by comparison with other chiral molecules. By contrast, rotaxanes, which are constituted of separable components, display the more common inherent chirality. Finally, the use of catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots as chiral building blocks (although they were not qualified as such in the literature) was reviewed and illustrated by several examples, from seminal to more recent ones. In a word, the concept of topologically chiral building blocks is useful in that it constitutes the basis of topological diastereomerism.
This paper investigates how past experience with banking crises influences an individual’s trust in banks. We combine data on banking crises for the period 1970–2014 with individual data on trust in banks for 52 countries. We find that experiencing a banking crisis diminishes a person’s trust in banks, and that length of the banking crises is negatively related to trust in banks. An individual’s age at the time of the crisis is important, and significant for individuals between 51 and 60 years of age at the time of the banking crisis. Both severe and mild crises diminish trust in banks, but banking crisis with larger impact on the real economy hits also young people’s trust, while less severe banking crises mainly degrade trust of more mature people. The detrimental effect for trust in banks seems to be connected specifically to systemic banking crises. Other types of financial crises incur no significant effect. Overall, our results indicate that banking crises generate previously unrecognized costs for the economy in the form of a lasting reduction of trust in banks.
4D printing has become an exciting sector of 3D printing since its appearance in the 2010 s. This technology consists in adding time as an extra dimension of 3D printing. Different stimuli can be used to modify a 3D object after the printing process such as solvent, temperature, magnetic field, electricity or light. In this paper, a 4D behavior was investigated using Near Infrared (NIR) light in combination with a low amount of NIR organic dyes in-situ embedded in the 3D printed object. As a first step, the influence of several parameters on the photothermal effect generated have been followed such as the NIR dye structure, the NIR dye concentration, the irradiation wavelength, the light irradiance and the polymer matrix. Due to the light-triggered process, the deformation of the 3D printed object could be reversibly achieved in the presence of a NIR organic dye in a few amount of time (20 s). In fact, the photothermal effect in-situ generated in the 3D printed object allowed to reach a temperature above the gel transition temperature (Tg) of the latter. This phenomenon has been highlighted with tensile tests. Indeed, these tests showed the passage of the 3D printed object from a glassy state to a rubbery state upon NIR irradiation. Finally, the photothermal effect produced was used to rapidly bond or repair two parts of a broken 3D printed object.
Background The role of both hormonal contraception and pregnancy on the outcomes of desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is debatable. Materials and methods In the present study, we selected female patients of childbearing age from the prospective ALTITUDES cohort. The primary study endpoint was event-free survival (EFS), with an event defined as relapse or progression. We estimated the risk of events according to the use of hormonal contraception [estrogen–progestin (EP) and progestin] and pregnancy status using multivariate time-dependent models, controlling for major confounders. Results A total of 242 patients (median age, 34.7 years) were included in the present study. The abdominal wall was the most common tumor site (51%). Patients were managed by active surveillance (80%) or surgery (20%). Pregnancy occurred within 24 months before, at the time of, and after DF diagnosis in 33%, 5%, and 10% of the cases, respectively. Exposure to hormonal contraception was documented within 24 months before, at the time of, and after diagnosis in 44%, 34%, and 39% of the cases, respectively. The 2-year EFS was 75%. After adjusting for DF location, tumor size, front-line treatment strategy, and hormonal contraception, we observed an increased risk of events occurring at 24 months after pregnancy [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.09, P = 0.018]. We observed no statistically significant association between the risk of events and current EP exposure (HR = 1.28, P = 0.65), recent EP exposure (within 1-24 months, HR = 1.38, P = 0.39), current progestin exposure (HR = 0.81, P = 0.66), or recent progestin exposure (HR = 1.05, P = 0.91). Conclusions In our study, a recent history of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of progression/relapse in patients with newly diagnosed DF, whereas hormonal contraception did not demonstrate an association with progression/relapse.
The APJ receptor and its two endogenous ligands, apelin and elabela, exert key roles in fetoplacental development. In adult, this system is altered by obesity but no data are available during pregnancy. We measured apelin and elabela levels in maternal plasma and cord blood and quantified placental gene expression of apelin, elabela and APJ in obese and non-obese mothers. We found that obesity reduced apelin level in cord blood without affecting maternal and cord blood elabela levels as well as placental gene expression of this system. Our data suggest that obesity alters fetal apelinemia in humans.
This narrative review aims at providing an update on the management of inherited cerebellar ataxias (ICAs), describing main clinical entities, genetic analysis strategies and recent therapeutic developments. Initial approach facing a patient with cerebellar ataxia requires family medical history, physical examination, exclusions of acquired causes and genetic analysis, including Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). To guide diagnosis, several algorithms and a new genetic nomenclature for recessive cerebellar ataxias have been proposed. The challenge of NGS analysis is the identification of causative variant, trio analysis being usually the most appropriate option. Public genomic databases as well as pathogenicity prediction software facilitate the interpretation of NGS results. We also report on key clinical points for the diagnosis of the main ICAs, including Friedreich ataxia, CANVAS, polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias, Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. Rarer forms should not be neglected because of diagnostic biomarkers availability, disease-modifying treatments, or associated susceptibility to malignancy. Diagnostic difficulties arise from allelic and phenotypic heterogeneity as well as from the possibility for one gene to be associated with both dominant and recessive inheritance. To complicate the phenotype, cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome can be associated with some subtypes of cerebellar ataxia. Lastly, we describe new therapeutic leads: antisense oligonucleotides approach in polyglutamine SCAs and viral gene therapy in Friedreich ataxia. This review provides support for diagnosis, genetic counseling and therapeutic management of ICAs in clinical practice.
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10,074 members
Mathieu Lefebvre
  • Bureau d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée
Cédric Sueur
  • Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC)
Joel Blondiaux
  • Faculté de théologie protestante
Adele Carradò
  • Institut de physique et chimie des matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS)
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Michel Deneken
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