The scalable production of two-dimensional (2D) materials is needed to accelerate their adoption to industry. In this work, we present a low-cost in-line and enclosed process of exfoliation based on high-shear mixing to create aqueous dispersions of few-layer graphene, on a large scale with a Y w ~ 100% yield by weight and throughput of ϕ ~ 8.3 g h ⁻¹ . The in-line process minimises basal plane defects compared to traditional beaker-based shear mixing which we attribute to a reduced Reynolds number, Re ~ 10 ⁵ . We demonstrate highly conductive graphene material with conductivities as high as σ ∼ 1.5 × 10 4 S m ⁻¹ leading to sheet-resistances as low as R s ∼ 2.6 Ω □ ⁻¹ ( t ∼ 25 μm). The process is ideal for formulating non-toxic, biocompatible and highly concentrated ( c ∼ 100 mg ml ⁻¹ ) inks. We utilise the graphene inks for inkjet printable conductive interconnects and lithium-ion battery anode composites that demonstrate a low-rate lithium storage capability of 370 mAh g ⁻¹ , close to the theoretical capacity of graphite. Finally, we demonstrate the biocompatibility of the graphene inks with human colon cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells at high c ∼ 1 mg ml ⁻¹ facilitating a route for the use of the graphene inks in applications that require biocompatibility at high c such as electronic textiles.
Introduction Peer-assisted learning programs have been focused on providing students with competencies to deliver lectures and facilitate workshops, whereas involvement of students as co-developers of educational programmes has been relatively under-described in the literature. Likewise, the use of students as facilitators in simulation-based training and debriefing is also scarce. In this paper, we describe how medical students were co-developers of a novel course on patient safety and how they were trained as student facilitators to conduct simulation-based training and debriefing, as well as workshops. Methods Medical students co-developed a course in patient safety consisting of three simulation-based scenarios and three workshops. The students were educated in relevant patient safety topics. They were trained to become student facilitators to conduct workshops, simulations and debriefings at a patient safety course for medical students. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the course participants´ perception of the learning objectives and the student facilitators following the latest course in 2020. In addition, semi-structured interviews with the student facilitators were conducted to explore their perceptions of being part of the course. Results A total of 92% of the course participants completed the evaluation of the course. The majority of the course participants found that the student facilitators created a safe learning environment and had the necessary skills to teach. The learning objectives for the course were found to be useful. A total of 10 interviews with the student facilitators were conducted. We found that the student facilitators were motivated to teach in the course, as a way of improving their teamwork, leadership qualities and communication skills, as well as their resume. Some of the student facilitators mentioned that they were able to create a safe learning environment, whereas others mentioned a feeling of inadequacy for their teacher role. In addition to developing their teaching skills, they mentioned that they developed their medical expertise, alongside their communication-, collaboration-, leadership- and professional skills. Conclusion This study illustrates how medical students were involved in the co-development, delivery and implementation of a course in patient safety. The evaluation of the course shows that student facilitators succeeded in creating a safe learning environment. The interviews of the student facilitators reveal their various motivations for teaching, in addition to different perceptions of their experience as a student facilitator. Some expressed a positive feeling of being able to establish a safe learning environment, whilst others expressed a feeling of inadequacy when facilitating peers. In addition, the student facilitators indicated that they developed themselves both professionally and personally.
A comprehensive understanding of the “safety” of nuclear reactors is essential for effective and efficient safety management by licensees and regulation by authorities. Nuclear reactors are designed subject to incomplete knowledge of factors that affect their safety. The idea of defence-in-depth has evolved to combat the threat of the unknown; it is implemented by means of technical artefacts, leading to a complex set of technical safety requirements to prevent accidental radioactive releases. Nuclear power plants have thus become systems of technical systems. Similarly, significant human and organizational aspects are involved in nuclear power plant construction and operation; a nuclear power plant is an organization of organizations. Earlier studies have identified the need for holistic understanding of safety and accounting for the technical and organizational aspects simultaneously (Harvey and Stanton, 2014). This paper seeks to clarify the concept of defence-in-depth using the Overall Safety Concept (ORSAC) developed at LUT (Hyvärinen et al., 2016), and the sociotechnical systems view in the nuclear power industry context, extending defence-in-depth thinking to the organizational context in one transparent framework. We show how organizational and technical aspects affect each other in the operation of nuclear power plants. This paper paves the way for systematic modelling of how technical and organizational aspects affect each other.
Pore system in coal is highly heterogeneous, while it is the main occurrence space and transport channel for coalbed methane (CBM). Electric pulse fracturing (EPF) has been considered as an effective approach to improve the coal physical properties for better CBM production. In this work, based on AFM measurement of 40 coal samples collected from Qinshui Basin, we evaluated the physical properties of coal, adsorbed with different cations, after EPF. This was accomplished by first analyzing the breakdown field response process of coal adsorbed with different cations, and then determining the dynamic changes of pore and surface roughness using the watershed method. In the PeakForce QNMTM model, the heterogeneous distribution of the adhesion force with increasing cation valence was quantified. The results show that the ability of medium- and high-rank coals to adsorb cations exhibits in the order of Fe³⁺ > Ca²⁺ > K⁺, attributed to the decrease in the radius of hydrated ions with increasing ionic valence. When the electric field is applied to both ends of coal sample, the plasma channels in coal generate huge energy, resulting in the temperature rise of pore-fracture and throat. Affected by EPF, the porosity of Chengzhuang (CZ) increases from 4.1% to 27.4%, greater than that of Qiyi (QY) from 6.7% to 14.5%. In the surface morphology tests, the surface skewness Rsk of QY adsorbed with different valence cations shifts from positive to negative values, reflecting the change of coal surface height from the right-skewed normal distribution to the left-skewed one. Moreover, the area where the surface height of QY adsorbed cation is below the average value gradually increases with the increase of the chemical valence. For micromechanical properties, the adhesion force of CZ adsorbed with different cations ranges from 0.9 to 20.7 nN, which is less than QY overall. This is mainly due to the weakening of intermolecular forces on the coal surface with the deepening of coalification, resulting in a decrease in adhesion force. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the differences in gas production mechanisms of CBM wells in the same coal seam from different regions.
A smart city is an evolving Internet of Things (IoT) technique that links different digital gadgets via a network, offering several new services to the manufacturing and medical field to commerce. A smart city is an omnipresent and fundamental change that has altered the whole environment using Information Communication Technology (ICT) and sensor-enabled IoT gadgets. Renewable energy storage, the solar, wind, and distributed resources can be better integrated into the grid. The leading theory in the digital domain for improved and broad use of all the situations with high digital media accessibility (i.e., video, sound, words, and pictures), nevertheless it is challenging to talk freely about such small appliances because of resource constraints (starving power and battery capacity), and large quantities of the information. The green communication approach for the smart city (GCA-SC) is proposed in this article. Thus, using saved video streams to solve these difficulties is recommended by Hybrid Adaptation and Power Algorithms and Delay-tolerant Streamed Algorithms. A new architecture is similarly proposed for the smart city network. Empirical findings such as power drainage, battery capacity, latency, and bandwidth are acquired and evaluated. It was reached that, with less effort than Baseline, GCA-SC optimises energy drainage, the battery capacity, variance, power delivery ratio of the IoT compatible gadgets in the smart city environment. The simulation analysis of the proposed GCA-SC method enhances the packet delivery ratio of 39% and throughput of 99 kbps. It reduces the delay by 2.5 s and the standard deviation by −0.9 s.
Periods of economic recession are typically accompanied by the use of cost-cutting actions, such as wage cuts or freezes, increased workloads and reduced training expenditures. While such actions are expected to boost performance, at least in the short-term, their effects on employee attitudes and behaviours at work have been the subject of much research. In this study, we examine how management's use of cost-cutting actions could have a detrimental impact on two aspects of the employment relations climate—the quality of employee–management relations and the level of employees’ trust in management; further, we investigate how these relationships might lead to an increase in employee complaints against their organisations. Using multilevel data from 21,981 employees in 1,923 workplaces, we show that the use of cost-cutting actions violates the psychological contract, which, in turn, contributes to strained relations between employees and management. However, in workplaces where employees are actively involved in decision-making, cost-cutting actions are less likely to have a negative impact. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our study using psychological contract theory.
Adaptive capacity has been described as instrumental for the development of resilience in healthcare. Yet, our theoretical understanding of adaptive capacity remains relatively underdeveloped. This research therefore aims at developing a new understanding of the nature of adaptive capacity by exploring the following research questions: 1. What constitutes adaptive capacity across different healthcare contexts? and 2. What type of enabling factors support adaptive capacity across different healthcare contexts? The study used a novel combination of qualitative methods featuring a metasynthesis of narratives based on empirical research to contribute understanding of adaptive capacity across different healthcare contexts. The findings show that adaptive capacity was found to include four forms: reframing, aligning, coping, and innovating. A framework illustrating the relatedness between the identified forms, in terms of resources, change and enablers, is provided. Based on these findings, a new definition of adaptive capacity for resilience in healthcare is proposed.
In general, bolted connections are exposed to vibrations or repeated over-loads that could lead to self-loosening due to loss of preload. Pre-tensioned bolts in ring flanges are critical parts in Offshore Floating Wind Power Systems, and normally a certain percentage of the installed bolt connections are checked and re-tightened every year. This re-tightening is often done at a high cost and a short weather window due to strong winds and high waves. In this paper, three bolt dimensions (M20, M30 and M42) of the anti-loosening bolt system have been tested. The M30 and M42 bolt systems were preloaded and exposed to transverse oscillating loading, and the loss of preload as a function of load amplitude and number of cycles were measured and compared to standard bolts of HV type, exposed identically. The tested novel bolt system has shown superior capacities to withstand self-loosening, compared to standard bolts.
This study examines the impact of a translanguaging-driven in-service training on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ professional identity re-construction. Grounded in complexity theory, the study is based on pre-, while- and post-training interviews with twelve teachers, their reflective journals, online discussions on LMS CANVAS, video-enhanced observations and the trainer first author's reflective journals. The data sets were analysed adopting grounded theory to induce emerging identities. It was found that each participating teacher developed one of three new identities: a) Translanguaging-Romanticised User, b) Translanguaging-Aware User, and c) Translanguaging-Inspired User. Implications for in-service teacher training are discussed.
In this theoretical article, we argue that discourses of diversity are shifting. In segments of the population in Western countries, the discourses on diversity appear to be shifting from multiculturalism towards narrower monoculturalism, nationalism and prejudice. We here argue that the discursive space to voice such opinions have widened. The liberal left has long been accused of "imposing" values of diversity and multiculturalism on societies, and statements that previously were largely seen as publicly unacceptable (e.g. derogatory language regarding minorities), are now becoming more mainstream (again). Drawing on social identity theory, feeling rules and critical discourse analysis, we highlight how public discourses emphasizing "us" versus "them" are shifting. Claims are highlighted through the case of Brexit, where both campaigns arguably made use of anti-immigration discourses, but where particularly the Leave campaign in general, and sections of the leave campaign in particular, contributed to legitimating negative and derogatory stances towards "oth-ers". The article is a timely contribution to consequential directions in discourses related to monoculturalism, prejudice and definitions of "us" and "them".
The cosmetics industry is expanding, and the quest for novel ingredients to improve and develop innovative products is crucial. Consumers are increasingly looking for natural-derived ingredients in cosmetic products that have been proven to be effective and safe. Macroalgae-derived compounds has growing popularity in skincare products as they are natural, abundant, biocompatible, and renewable. Due to their high biomass yields, rapid growth rates, and cultivation process, they are gaining widespread recognition as potentially sustainable resources better suited for biorefinery processes. This review demonstrates macroalgae metabolites and its industrial applications in moisturizers, anti-aging, skin whitening, hair, and oral care products. These chemicals can be obtained in combination with energy products to increase the value of macroalgae from an industrial perspective with a zero-waste approach by linking multiple refineries. The key challenges, bottlenecks, and future perspectives in the operation and outlook of macroalgal biorefineries was also discussed.
Introduction Clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) is associated with mild cognitive impairments. Symptoms are clustered into positive, negative and disorganization symptoms. The association between specific symptom dimensions and cognitive functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between cognitive functions and positive, negative, and disorganization symptoms. Method 53 CHR subjects fulfilling criteria for attenuated psychotic syndrome in the Structural Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) were assessed for cognitive function. Five cognitive domain z-scores were defined by contrasting with observed scores of a group of healthy controls (n = 40). Principal Components Analyses were performed to construct general cognitive composite scores; one using all subtests and one using the cognitive domains. Associations between cognitive functions and symptoms are presented as Spearman's rank correlations and partial Spearman's rank correlations adjusted for age and gender. Results Positive symptoms were negatively associated with executive functions and verbal memory, and disorganization symptoms with poorer verbal fluency. Negative symptoms were associated with better executive functioning. There were no significant associations between the general cognitive composites and any of the symptom domains, except for a trend for positive symptoms. Conclusion In line with previous research, data indicated associations between positive symptoms and poorer executive functioning. Negative symptoms may not be related to executive functions in CHR the same way as in psychosis. Our results could indicate that attenuated positive symptoms are more related to cognitive deficits in CHR than positive symptoms in schizophrenia and FEP.
Scholars and industry stakeholders have exhibited an interest in identifying the underlying dimensions of viral memes. However, the recipe for creating a viral meme remains obscure. This study makes a phenomenological contribution by examining viral memes, exploring the antecedents (i.e., content‐related factors, customer‐related factors, and media‐related factors), consequences, and moderating factors using a mixed‐method approach. The study presents a holistic framework for creating viral memes based on the viewpoints of customers and industry stakeholders. Four quantitative studies (i.e., a lab experiment, an online quasi‐experiment, an event study, and a brand recall study) validate the theoretical model identified in the qualitative study. The research points to the potential of viral memes in marketing communications to enhance brand recall and brand engagement. The study found that viral memes are topical and highly relatable and are thus well received by the target groups, which increases customer engagement and brand recall. The marketers can adopt the findings of this study to design content for memes that consumers find relevant, iconic, humorous, and spreadable. Furthermore, marketers can use customer‐related factors suggested in the theoretical framework for enhancing escapism, social gratification, and content gratification for their target customers which in turn shall organically increase their reach within their target segments and enhance brand performance in terms of brand recall and brand engagement.
To improve the power production of offshore wind farms, a combined wind turbine and wave energy converters concept is proposed in the present work. This concept is composed of a semi-submersible floating horizontal axis wind turbine and four torus-shaped wave energy converters. The relative heave motion between the tori and the columns on the semi-submersible platform is used to harvest wave energy. A coupled model of this combined concept is established by integrating the aerodynamic loads on blades, hydrodynamic loads on the platform with moorings and the wave energy converters and controller of the wind turbine. Coupled time-domain simulations are carried out to predict the power performance and dynamic responses of this combined concept under various conditions with turbulent wind and irregular waves. The results indicate that the introduced wave energy converters can obviously contribute to the annual power production of the combined concept when compared with an individual floating wind turbine. Moreover, the combined concept has benign dynamic responses under different environmental conditions and plays a positive synergy in improving power production.
Objective To explore the associations between sense of coherence, perceived social support, and demographic and clinical characteristics among survivors ≥80 years treated for curable colorectal cancer. Methods This exploratory, cross-sectional survey investigates 56 individuals surgically treated for stage I-III colorectal cancer between one and five years prior. Statistical analysis permitted exploration of associations between sense of coherence, perceived social support, and demographic- and clinical variables. Results Lower sense of coherence was associated with higher age, limitations in physical function, and the need for homecare nursing. Lower perceived social support was associated with re-admission, higher age at time of surgery, and male gender. No correlations were found between sense of coherence and perceived social support. Conclusion The results are important for healthcare professionals to consider when dealing with older people who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer, especially in the discharge process to facilitate optimal follow-up care and recovery.
Based on the theory of New Economic of Labor Migration (NELM) and Induced Technological Change, this study takes 935 part-time households in the Loess Plateau region as the research object. The study analyzes the current situation of non-agricultural labor transfer and agricultural production, and describes the intrinsic relationship and mechanism of the action between non-agricultural labor transfer, factor allocation and farmland output-rate. The direct and indirect effects of non-agricultural labor transfer on unit farmland output are tested empirically through the mediating effect model and the moderating effect model, and the effectiveness of the mechanism of action is further tested using the moderated mediation model (Bootstrap). The empirical results show that non-agricultural labor transfer has significant and negative impact on farmland output. Moreover, labor-substituting factor inputs play a partially mediating role between non-agricultural labor transfer and farmland output-rate, with a mediating effect size of − 1.552, accounting for 53.073 % of the total effect. The findings also demonstrate that higher the proportion of slope cropland, the smaller the positive effect of labor substitute factor input on farmland output. Similarly, non-agricultural labor transfer has a significant and negative effect on farmland output for low-part-time peasants and cash crops, the negative effect on peasants participating in farmland transfer is not significant, and a larger negative effect on distant working peasants. Based on the above findings, this paper puts forward targeted policy recommendations for optimizing the allocation of agricultural factors and improving agricultural production efficiency, aiming to provide a theoretical basis and decision-making reference for ensuring abundant grain production and agricultural harvest in the Loess Plateau region, lifting peasants out of poverty and increasing their income, and realizing the rural revitalization strategy.
The one-point and two-point power spectral densities of the wind velocity fluctuations are studied using the observations from an offshore mast at Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, for a wide range of thermal stratifications of the atmosphere. A comparison with estimates from the FINO1 platform (North Sea) is made to identify shared spectral characteristics of turbulence between different offshore sites. The sonic anemometer measurement data at 6, 18, and 45 m a.m.s.l. (above mean sea level) are considered. These heights are lower than at the FINO1 platform, where the measurements were collected at heights between 40 and 80 m. Although the sonic anemometers are affected by transducer-flow distortion, the spectra of the along-wind velocity component are consistent with those from FINO1 when surface-layer scaling is used, for near-neutral and moderately diabatic conditions. The co-coherence of the along-wind component, estimated for vertical separations under near-neutral conditions, matches remarkably well with the results from the dataset at the FINO1 platform. These findings mark an important step toward more comprehensive coherence models for wind load calculation. The turbulence characteristics estimated from the present dataset are valuable for better understanding the structure of turbulence in the marine atmospheric boundary layer and are relevant for load estimations of offshore wind turbines. Yet, the datasets recorded at Vindeby and FINO1 cover only the lower part of the rotor of state-of-the-art offshore wind turbines. Further improvements in the characterisation of atmospheric turbulence for wind turbine design will require measurements at heights above 100 m a.m.s.l.
We present first results on finite system size corrections to the equation of state, trace anomaly, and speed of sound for two model systems: 1) free, massless scalar theory and 2) quenched QCD with periodic boundary conditions (PBC). We further present work-in-progress results for quenched QCD with Dirichlet boundary conditions.
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