University of South-Eastern Norway
Recent publications
Background The opioid antagonist extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) in the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) is effective in terms of safety, abstinence from opioid use and retention in treatment. However, it is unclear how patients experience and adjust to losing the possibility of achieving an opioid effect. This qualitative study is the first to explore how people with opioid dependence experience XR-NTX treatment, focusing on the process of treatment over time. Methods Using a purposive sampling strategy, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 19 persons with opioid use disorder (15 men, four women, 22–55 years of age) participating in a clinical trial of XR-NTX in Norway. The interviewees had received at least three XR-NTX injections. Qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used. Findings Participants described that XR-NTX treatment had many advantages. However they still faced multiple challenges, some of which they were not prepared for. Having to find a new foothold and adapt to no longer gaining an effect from opioids due to the antagonist medication was challenging. This was especially true for those struggling emotionally and transitioning into the harmful use of non-opioid substances. Additional support was considered crucial. Even so, the treatment led to an opportunity to participate in society and reclaim identity. Participants had strong goals for the future and described that XR-NTX enabled a more meaningful life. Expectations of a better life could however turn into broken hopes. Although participants were largely optimistic about the future, thinking about the end of treatment could cause apprehension. Conclusions XR-NTX treatment offers freedom from opioids and can facilitate the recovery process for people with OUD. However, our findings also highlight several challenges associated with XR-NTX treatment, emphasizing the importance of monitoring emotional difficulties and increase of non-opioid substances during treatment. As opioid abstinence in itself does not necessarily equal recovery, our findings underscore the importance of seeing XR-NTX as part of a comprehensive, individualized treatment approach. Trial registration : Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT03647774, first Registered: Aug 28, 2018.
Under any load disturbances, the microgrid must maintain its voltage and frequency within the standard norms. In an isolated microgrid, under-loading and overloading conditions may emerge if the sequence components of powers are not appropriately shared by the power electronics interfaced distributed generation systems (DGSs). Hence, this paper tends to offer a droop-based control strategy for a three-level neutral point clamped (NPC) inverters-based islanded microgrid that enables supply and maintains power-sharing effectively. The proposed method constitutes enhanced voltage and current controllers, sequence components-based virtual impedance (VI) loop, and frequency restoration loop. With the proposed droop-based control, an equal and proportional power-sharing is achieved. Furthermore, the presented VI loop allows the connected DGs with uneven line impedances to share the positive and negative sequence components of the reactive power under unbalanced loads. Besides, the upgraded voltage controllers in the stationary reference frame ensure that the DG's terminal voltages remain balanced, even when the loads at point of common coupling (PCC) demand uneven currents, while the frequency restoration loop maintains the system frequency very close to the nominal value (i.e., 50 Hz). Various scenarios such as equal and proportional power sharing and multiple numbers of DGs are considered in the study to validate the efficacy of the proposed control scheme. The simulation results are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment to demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested control scheme.
Plasmonics offer unprecedented control over light and stimulate fundamental research and engineering applications in solar energy. The surface plasmon resonance is responsible for both enhanced light scattering and absorption. The plasmon excitations in nanostructures can be tuned to control the hot-carrier emission. The damping dissipation of the kinetic energy of surface plasmons releases heat at nanoscale, which can be used to create high-performance nano-heaters and/or radiators. Spectrally and/or thermally engineered plasmonic nanomaterials attract considerable attention for solar energy application due to their distinct thermoplasmonic properties. In light of these advances, this paper provides a critical review of current research in thermoplasmonics with focus on its physic mechanisms, structure tuning strategies and solar energy applications. Basic mechanism of thermoplasmonics is described from the photothermal conversion and heat transfer physics to thermal-induced processes. Structure tuning strategies including self-tunable plasmons, plasmon coupling strategies and active plasmons with tunable gap distances are then fully discussed in terms of their principles and structures. Based on the flourishing development of novel thermoplasmonic structures, potential applications ranging from solar collector, solar radiator, thermo-photovoltaic, solar desalination and sterilization, solar degradation and catalysis, to solar fuels, and solar fertilizers are additionally highlighted. The advantages of using plasmonics over the conventional technologies are identified, and the areas where important basics involved when the thermoplasmonics bringing into application are stressed throughout the text. Finally, we provide our views on future challenges in solar thermoplasmonics, together with a few suggestions for further developments of this technology. This work would bring new insights and inspire innovative works on designing thermoplasmonics for solar energy application.
The concept of affordances has become central in information systems literature. However, existing perspectives fall short in providing details on the relational aspect of affordances, which can influence actors' perception of them. To increase granularity and specificity in this regard, researchers have suggested that it be supplemented with other concepts or theories. In this article, we argue that the Heideggerian concepts of ‘familiarity’ and ‘referential totality’ are well suited for increasing our understanding of the relational aspects of affordances in information systems research. To explore this idea, we conducted a case study of a project concerning the development of a digital twin (i.e., digital representation of a physical asset) in the Norwegian grid sector. We found that users' familiarity with the digital twin totality enabled them to perceive digital twin affordances, and that without this familiarity, affordances remained latent for the users. Through our study, we offer a nuanced perspective on the relational aspect of affordance perception, contributing to affordance theory in that regard. Further, we contribute to practice and information systems research by providing valuable insights into how digital twins are understood and applied in practice.
This study investigates early childhood education (ECE) teachers’ pedagogical leadership in Norwegian and Finnish centres when they create conditions for learning in teacher-initiated, child-initiated and basic activities. For this purpose, we use theories about pedagogical leadership and classroom leadership. We use shadowing methodology by way of video observation to study the ECE teachers. The results identify three categories related to pedagogical leadership: organising, facilitating core areas and motivating and supporting. Moreover, the results of the study contribute to new knowledge in clarifying the concept of pedagogical leadership as flexible and its usability in leading activities with children in ECE settings.
Background Acute ischemic stroke requires early medical imaging with a computed tomography (CT) scan and immediate thrombolysis treatment. In rural areas, the long distance to the nearest hospital reduce the patients’ probability of receiving medical assistance within the 4.5-h period. The aim of this study was to assess how the service was set-up, and how managers and personnel experience the organisation and value of a rural telemedicine, remote controlled CT stroke service. Methods Ten semi-structured individual interviews and one semi-structured focus group interview were conducted. The sample included 15 participants involved in the telemedicine service in Hallingdal, Norway. The interview guide consisted of questions on the service, experience of working with the service, value and quality, management, and challenges. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to develop a narrative of the findings. Results Findings were categorised into three main categories; value of the service, organisation of the project, and from project to permanent service. Participants perceived the service to be valuable for patients and the local community. The service included task shifting from radiographers and junior doctors to the local paramedics. To enable long- term operation of the service the participants suggested management, coordination, and continuous training as important factors. Conclusions The service was perceived as valuable to the local community, providing a sense of healthcare security and equitability. Management’s involvement, flexibility, and coordination appears to be a key factor for successful implementation and long-term sustainability of the service.
Recreation is a crucial contribution of nature to people, relevant for forest ecosystems. Large carnivores (LCs) are important components of forests, however, their contribution to forest recreational value has not yet been evaluated. Given the current expansion of LC populations, the ongoing forest conservation debate, and the increasing use of nature for recreational purposes, this is a timely study. We used discrete choice experiments and willingness-to-travel to determine people’ preferences for both forest structural characteristics and presence of four LC species in Poland (N = 1097 respondents) and Norway (N = 1005). In both countries, two-thirds of the respondents (termed ‘wildness-positive’) perceived LCs as contributing positively to forest recreational value and preferred to visit old forests with trees of different species and ages and presence of dead wood (i.e. natural forests). Respondents with negative preferences towards LCs preferred more intensively managed forest (‘wildness-negative’); their preferences were stronger than in wildness-positive respondents and in Norway. Preferences towards wild nature were highly polarized and there were hardly neutral people. Our results showed a strong link between preferences for LC presence and forest structure, and reflected the dualism of human-nature relationships. This study highlights the need to consider the contribution of forests and LCs to human recreation services in ecosystem management policies.
Organizational sensemaking is crucial for resource planning and crisis management since facing complex strategic problems that exceed their capacity and ability, such as crises, forces organizations to engage in inter-organizational collaboration, which leads to obtaining individual and diverse perspectives to comprehend the issues and find solutions. This online qualitative survey study examines how Norwegian Sea Rescue Society employees perceived the concept of an organizational crisis and how they sensed their co-workers react to it. The scope was the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, a global event affecting all countries and organizations and responding similarly globally. Data were collected during the Fall of 2020. The instrument of choice was the Internal Crisis Management and Crisis Communication survey (ICMCC). The results showed that the overall sample strongly believed in their organization’s overall resilience level. However, a somewhat vague understanding of roles and responsibilities in a crisis where detected, together with some signs of informal communication, rumor spreading, misunderstanding, frustration, and insecurity. This study contributes to the academic field of organizational research, hence crisis management and sensemaking, and could be valuable to managers and decision-makers across sectors. Increased knowledge about how employees react to a crisis may help optimize internal crisis management planning and utilize robust mitigation and response strategies
Background About 30% of cancer survivors suffer from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) ≥6 months after completion of chemotherapy. This condition, for which treatment options are scarce, comes with limitations in daily life functioning and decreased quality of life. The current study examines the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in comparison to a waiting list condition (WLC) to deal with CIPN. In addition, it examines which factors moderate effects and to what extent the effects differ between guided and unguided ACT intervention. Methods A two-parallel, non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be carried out. Adult cancer survivors who experience painful CIPN for at least 3 months and completed chemotherapy at least 6 months ago will be recruited ( n =146). In the intervention condition, participants will follow an 8-week self-management course containing 6 modules regarding psychoeducation and ACT processes, including therapeutic email guidance. By means of text and experiential exercises, supplemented with illustrations, metaphors, and audio files, people will learn to carry out value-oriented activities in their daily life with pain. Participants will learn new ways of coping with pain, including reducing pain avoidance and increasing pain acceptance. Participants in the WLC will be invited to follow the intervention without therapeutic guidance 5 months after start. Pain interference is the primary outcome, while psychological distress, quality of life, CIPN symptom severity, pain intensity, psychological flexibility, mindfulness skills, values-based living, and pain catastrophizing will serve as secondary outcomes. All outcome measures will be evaluated at inclusion and baseline, early-intervention, mid-intervention, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month post-treatment. Qualitative interviews will be conducted post-treatment regarding experiences, usage, usability, content fit, and satisfaction with the intervention. Discussion This study will provide valuable information on the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention based on ACT versus WLC for chronic painful CIPN patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05371158 . Registered on May 12, 2022. Protocol version: version 1, 24-05-2022
Toddlers contribute to early childhood education and care (ECEC) environments in unique ways in contrast to older children and adults. In this article, we explore early childhood teachers’ stories about toddlers, thinking, and time. We follow a moment with a toddler’s story told with his fingers, and discuss it through teachers’ stories. Our focus is on what ideas about toddlers, time, and thinking these stories produce, and how these ideas affect toddler’s possibilities to contribute to daily life in ECEC. We use Barad’s concepts spacetimematter and temporal diffraction; and Haraway’s concept Capitalocene and storying, to explore toddlers thinking and time in ECEC. We argue that the dominant concept of time in the Capitalocene can produce thoughtlessness, connected to children and children’s opportunities to participate. Through a process of “storying,” we hope to generate more and maybe different knowledge about toddlers, thinking, and time.
Background and objectives Many parents of infants with CHD find it difficult to recognise symptoms of deterioration in their children. Therefore, a personalised decision support application for parents has been developed. This application aims to increase parents’ awareness of their infant’s normal condition, help them assess signs of deterioration, decide who and when to contact health services, and what to report. The aim of this paper is to describe the concept and report results from a usability study. Methods An interprofessional group developed a mobile application called the Heart OBServation app in close collaboration with parents using an iterative process. We performed a usability study consisting of semi-structured interviews of 10 families at discharge and after one month and arranged two focus group interviews with nurses caring for these families. A thematic framework analysis of the interviews explored the usability of features in the application. Usability was assessed twice using the System Usability Scale, and a user log was registered throughout the study. Results The overall system usability score, 82.3 after discharge and 81.7 after one month, indicates good system usability. The features of Heart OBServation were perceived as useful to provide tailored information, increase awareness of the child’s normal condition, and to guide parents in what to look for. To empower parents, an interactive discharge checklist was added. Conclusions The Heart OBServation demonstrated good usability and was well received by parents and nurses. Feasibility and benefits of this application in clinical practice will be investigated in further studies
Under climate change, cold-adapted alpine ecosystems are turning into hotspots of warming. However, the complexity of driving forces of growth, associated biomass gain and carbon storage of alpine shrubs is poorly understood. We monitored alpine growth mechanisms of six common shrub species across contrasting biomes, Mediterranean and tundra, using 257 dendrometers, recording stem diameter variability at high temporal resolution. Linking shrub growth to on-site environmental conditions, we modelled intra-annual growth patterns based on distributed lag non-linear models implemented with generalized additive models. We found pronounced bimodal growth patterns across biomes, and counterintuitively, within the cold-adapted biome, moisture, and within the drought-adapted biome, temperature was crucial, with unexpected consequences. In a warmer world, the Mediterranean alpine might experience strong vegetation shifts, biomass gain and greening, while the alpine tundra might see less changes in vegetation patterns, minor modifications of biomass stocks and rather browning.
Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mental health. The current observer-blinded RCT investigates the sparsely studied efficiency of HIIT in reducing psychotic and non-psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia and complements previous studies by investigating whether symptom reduction following HIIT is associated with, putatively partly mediated by, increased VO 2 max. Methods Participants (outpatients meeting diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia) were randomized to HIIT ( n = 43) or a comparison group performing low-intensity active video gaming (AVG) to control for social interaction ( n = 39). Both interventions consisted of two supervised sessions/week for 12 weeks and a months of follow-up. Effects on overall symptoms and symptom domains [PANSS (0–6 scale), five-factor model] were estimated using mixed-effects models (intention-to-treat, n = 82). Underlying mechanisms were analyzed using moderated mediation analyses ( n = 66). We anticipated that HIIT would reduce overall symptoms, particularly depressive symptoms, more than AVG, and symptom reduction would be associated with, putatively mediated through, improved VO 2 max. Results Depressive symptoms (baseline score 3.97, 95% CI: 3.41, 4.52), were −1.03 points more reduced in HIIT than AVG at post-intervention (95% CI: −1.71, −0.35, p = 0.003), corresponding to a small to moderate effect size ( d = 0.37) and persisting at follow-up. There was a small reduction in overall symptoms, but no significant between-group differences were observed. Change in VO 2 max correlated negatively with the change in depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis showed a significant effect of change in VO 2 max on change in depressive symptoms within HIIT. The total effect was moderated by group, and depressive symptoms were more reduced in HIIT. Direct effects, not mediated through VO 2 max, were non-significant. Indirect effects, mediated through VO 2 max, were non-significant, but the moderated mediation test indicated a non-significant trend of 0.4 points (95% CI: −1.188, 0.087) and a larger reduction in depressive symptoms through VO 2 max in HIIT. Conclusion HIIT reduced depressive symptoms more than AVG, which persisted at follow-up. HIIT may serve as a complementing treatment option targeting these symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia, even before they reach clinical depression. Depressive symptoms are important to prevent, stabilize, and treat due to their negative implications for psychological wellbeing and long-term functional outcome. Reduction in depressive symptoms was associated with improved VO 2 max, and non-significant trends in the data supported that improved VO 2 max may be part of the complex mechanisms underlying the anti-depressive effect of HIIT. Clinical Trial Registration [ www.ClinicalTrials.gov ], identifier [NCT02205684].
Purpose: To investigate the changes in the tear cytokine profile of patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) treated with eyelid warming and to correlate these changes with clinical parameters for dry eye disease (DED). Methods: Seventy patients with MGD were included and treated with the warming of eyelids. Of these, 61 still used the treatment three months after baseline, while 48 completed the whole treatment period of six months. The concentrations of 39 cytokines in the tear fluid were measured at baseline and after three and six months of treatment. All participants were examined with tests for DED, including tear film break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface staining (OSS), and the self-reporting Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Changes in cytokine concentrations were assessed from baseline to three months, from three to six months, and from baseline to six months. Correlation analyses were performed between changes in the cytokine concentrations and changes in TBUT, OSS, and OSDI during the same time intervals. Results: No significant changes were found in the concentrations of the 39 cytokines during any of the three treatment intervals. However, several correlations were detected between changes in the level of cytokines and OSS from baseline to three months of treatment. Decreasing concentrations of granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2/CXCL6, mean effect 2.36, p=0.042), interleukin 10 (IL-10, mean effect 1.04, p=0.045), and IL-16 (mean effect 1.36, p=0.035) were associated with decreasing OSS. Decreasing concentrations of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, mean effect -2.98, p=0.024), IL-8 (IL-8/CXCL8, mean effect -1.35, p=0.026), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, mean effect -2.44, p=0.033) were related to increasing OSS. Conclusions: Warming of eyelids did not change the concentration of cytokines in the tear fluid of patients with MGD significantly. However, alterations in the level of several cytokines were associated with changes in the OSS. This finding indicates a close connection between tear cytokines and OSS in MGD patients treated with eyelid warming.
Among the “idolatrous” Pomeranians, the horse was considered a sacred animal that was kept in a major temple and used by priests in the exercise of their spiritual power. In order to diminish the influence of the Pomeranian priesthood upon the upper and lower classes, the German clergy sometimes desacralized the sacred horse. This study will analyze the missionaries’ tactic to reduce the faith of the Pomeranians in ancient superstitions such as divination and thus convince them to accept baptism voluntarily and not to organize raids against Christians. The analysis will provide a much deeper insight into the beliefs of the Slavic communities on the Baltic Sea in the ecclesiastical circles of the twelfth century. It will show that the horse was a key tool in Pomeranian society used in divination to decide about the most relevant public matters, including military campaigns.
Teachers worldwide are challenged to adjust their teaching to meet students’ needs for deeper learning. The lack of mutual understanding among researchers, policymakers and teachers tends to blur the discussion on how to enhance deeper learning through teaching, which further challenges teachers in making changes in their classroom practices. This qualitative observation study aims to explore how five skilled and experienced Norwegian teachers facilitate 10–16-year-old students’ potential deeper learning in whole-class teaching. The teachers are videotaped four times during a school year, and observations show how teachers enhance or undermine students’ active involvement, facilitate or hinder positive learning environments, support or impede deeper understanding, and stimulate or inhibit metacognitive reflection. The observations are discussed within a framework of the literature and research on how deeper learning is understood and promoted. The findings indicate how teachers’ facilitation of a supportive learning environment is essential to actively involve students in the classroom interactions and dialogue needed to promote deeper content understanding and metacognitive reflection. We explore the potential for deeper learning within whole-class teaching and argue that such potential arises when teachers facilitate collective, reciprocal, supportive, cumulative and purposeful classroom interactions. Nevertheless, we acknowledge the importance of employing varied teaching practices to further address students’ need for deeper learning. The study presents examples of whole-class teaching practices framed by theory and the earlier research on deeper learning, which may contribute to the concretization of policy changes in support of deeper learning in education.
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2,366 members
Salman Nazir
  • Department of Maritime Operations
Edda Johansen
  • Department of Nursing and Health Sciences
Knut E Aasmundtveit
  • Department of Microsystems
Muhammad Nadeem Akram
  • Department of Electrical Engineering, IT and Cybernetics
Jørn Henrik Sønstebø
  • Department of Natural Sciences and Environmental Health
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