Inclusion of rural youth is of great importance to facilitate nutritional security and make the food chain more sustainable. A positive attitude is necessary for active participation in agricultural activities. This case study was an attempt to check the attitude of rural youth regarding sustainable farming and its contributing factors. The study was carried out in the Punjab province of Pakistan and a transverse research design was used for this quantitative study. An interview schedule was used for getting the face-to-face response of rural youth. To make the unknown population of rural youth in Punjab, the Fisher formula was used and a sample of 413 was selected from purposely selected three districts of Punjab. After recording data, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive Statistics was used to explain the response of rural youth for the decision on the base of data. Only 53 young farmers said that they have never been part of the formal education system and maximum number of farmers was close to 24 years of age or more than that. Rural youth of Punjab is lacking in non-formal education for acquiring or maintaining their skills & interests. Unemployment and having limited farm income are the biggest challenges that rural youth is facing. Rural youth show a strong inclination towards opting for sustainable farming alongside the availability of a supportive network. Regarding to learning capacities rural youth is lacking related to knowledge, communication means, novel approaches and in promoting sustainable farming initiatives. To achieve the goal of sustainability in changing environment, rural youth must have access to continuous training, communication sources, membership, or association with organizations with novel ideas covering all the changes happening in the farming business.
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is the most consumed vegetable worldwide with the potential for diverse ecological adaptation. However, increasing salinization and changing climatic conditions are posing serious threats to the growth, yield, and quality of okra. Therefore, to mitigate increasing soil salinization and ensure sustainable okra production under rapidly changing climatic conditions, evaluation of new okra germplasm to develop salt tolerant cultivars is direly needed. The present study was designed to evaluate the genetic resources of okra genotypes for salt tolerance at growth and reproductive phases. Based on mophological and physio-biochemical responses of plants under stress condition, genotypes were divided into salt tolerant and succeptible groups. The experiment was comprised of 100 okra genotypes and each genotype was grown under control conditions and 6.5 dS m⁻¹ NaCl concentration in a pot having 10 kg capacity. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed vast genetic variability among the evaluated okra germplasm traits like days to emergence, pod length, pod diameter, plant height, stem girth, and other yield-related parameters. Correlation analysis showed a highly significant positive association among the number of leaves at first flower and plant height at first flower.Likewise, pod weight also revealed a highly significant positive relationship for pod weight plant⁻¹, pod length, and K⁺: Na⁺. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that out of 16 principal components (PCs), five components showed more than one eigenvalue and the first six PCs contributed 67.2% of the variation. Bi-plot analysis illustrated that genotypes 95, 111, 133, 99, and 128, under salt stress conditions, exhibited both high yield per plant and salt-tolerant behavior in other yield-related traits. On the basis of all studied traits, a salt susceptible group and a salt-tolerant group were formed. The salt tolerant group comprised of 97, 68, 95, 114, 64, 99, 111, 133, 128, and 109 genotypes, whereas, the salt susceptible group contained 137, 139, 130, 94, and 125 genotypes. Salt-tolerant okra genotypes were suggested to be used in further breeding programs aimed to develop salt tolerance in okra. These insights will empower precision breeding, underscore the importance of genetic diversity, and bear the potential to address the challenges of salt-affected soils while promoting broader agricultural resilience, economic prosperity, and food security.
Curvature lines are special and important curves on surfaces. It is of great significance to construct developable surface interpolated on curvature lines in engineering applications. In this paper, the shape optimization of generalized cubic ball developable surface interpolated on the curvature line is studied by using the improved reptile search algorithm. Firstly, based on the curvature line of generalized cubic ball curve with shape adjustable, this paper gives the construction method of SGC-Ball developable surface interpolated on the curve. Secondly, the feedback mechanism, adaptive parameters and mutation strategy are introduced into the reptile search algorithm, and the Feedback mechanism-driven improved reptile search algorithm effectively improves the solving precision. On IEEE congress on evolutionary computation 2014, 2017, 2019 and four engineering design problems, the feedback mechanism-driven improved reptile search algorithm is compared with other representative methods, and the result indicates that the solution performance of the feedback mechanism-driven improved reptile search algorithm is competitive. At last, taking the minimum energy as the evaluation index, the shape optimization model of SGC-Ball interpolation developable surface is established. The developable surface with the minimum energy is achieved with the help of the feedback mechanism-driven improved reptile search algorithm, and the comparison experiment verifies the superiority of the feedback mechanism-driven improved reptile search algorithm for the shape optimization problem.
The thin needle is viewed as a revolutionary object since it has a thinner thickness than a boundary layer. As a consequence, scientific and engineering applications for instance electrical equipment, hot wire anemometers and geothermal power generation are significantly impacted by the flow deformed by a thin moving needle. MHD Eyring–Powell fluid flow over a thin needle perceiving heat source, chemical reaction and nonlinear thermal radiation is the subject of the current investigation. In addition, the present study utilizes the Buongiorno model to examine the special effects of the fluid's Brownian and thermophoretic forces. The solution of the dimensionless form of ODEs is produced by applying exact renovations to the given problem, which is determined by the structure of PDEs. The bvp4c algorithm, based on the finite difference approach is utilized to numerically solve such modified ODEs. For validation, the results obtained indicate good agreement when compared to the literature. Finally, a detailed graphical analysis of key parameters is shown and explained while keeping in mind the physical significance of flow parameters. The results show that as magnetic and fluid parameter values improve, the velocity gradient falls. Increasing heat source and radiation parameters optimises heat transfer rate. The augmentation of the Lewis number and chemical reaction accelerates the rate of mass transfer on the surface. Brownian motion and thermophoresis provide enhanced thermal performance for the fluid temperature. Growing the thermophoresis parameter from 0.1 to 0.3 upsurges the Nusselt number by 5.47% and the Sherwood number by 12.26%.
This study investigated the role of genetic variant rs8177374 in MAL/TIRAP gene in mediating the cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β in malaria patients due to Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax infection. The study included human blood samples collected from patients with malaria (n = 228) and healthy controls (n = 226). P. falciparum and P. vivax groups were established based on the causative species of Plasmodium. Malaria samples were divided into mild and severe malaria groups based on the symptoms that appeared in the patients, according to the WHO criteria. In a previous study, we genotyped rs8177374 via allele specific PCR strategy. In this study, cytokine levels were estimated in the blood plasma of rs8177374 genotype samples via Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay kits. Increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in presence of CC genotype indicates the role of CC genotype in both severe and mild malaria groups. Enhanced IL-10 levels in the CT genotype and mild malaria groups suggest a role of CT genotype and IL-10 in the mild clinical outcomes of malaria. The rs8177374 polymorphism in MAL/TIRAP plays an important role in malaria pathogenesis.
Research on thorium and uranium phosphides/silicides has attracted tremendous scientific and technological interest on the basic and applied prospects. This owes mainly to their enhanced melting temperature, large density, neutron abundance, and enhanced thermoelectric performance. Herein, we report on the density functional theory (DFT)-based quantum analysis of thermodynamic properties of thorium phosphides (ThP) and thorium silicides (ThSi) via ThSixP1-x (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) alloying scheme. For the theoretical computations of the targeted properties of ThSixP1-x silicides, we employed all electron potential with linearized augmented plane wave method as implemented in DFT. To incorporate the exchange-correlations, we treated energy potential by GGA density functional. The thermodynamic properties computed via Quasi-harmonic approximations (or Debye Model) are constant volume specific heat capacity (Cv), volume thermal expansion coefficient (α), Debye temperature (θD), Gruneisen parameter (γ), and thermal entropy (S). various doping ratio in view of Si/P renders a considerable modification of the thermodynamic performance and intermetallic alloying of ThP and ThSi. As such, the reported results hold great potential for fundamental and applied prospects in view of interface thermal management and energy storage applications, thermoelectric power generation, and green nuclear energy technology.
This paper deals with the analysis of Caputo variable order fractional differential equations. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the problem at hand. To achieve this, the paper employs the hypothesis of ordinary differential equations and derives a theorem of continuity for VOFDE. The results of the study show that there is global existence of solutions to the problem under consideration. Furthermore, the paper also establishes results for Caputo variable order FDE and demonstrates Ulam-Hyers stability. This indicates that small changes in initial conditions or parameters of the equation result in small changes in the solution of the equation. Overall, the research paper contributes to the understanding of Caputo variable order fractional differential equations and provides theoretical results that can be useful in various applications.
A pyranopyrimidine derivative named as 10-amino-7-(2,4-diamino-6-oxidopyrimidin-1-ium-5-yl)-7H-benzo[7,8]chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-9-ium-8-olate dimethylformamide acetic acid hydrate (ADCP) is synthesized by the reaction of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 2,6-diaminopyrimidin-4-ol in the presence of ethanol and dimethylformamide. The synthesized compound is characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The molecule exists as a doubly zwitterion ion and the supramolecular assembly is stabilized by N-H⋯N, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N bonding interactions. These intermolecular interactions are further investigated and justified by Hirshfeld Surface Analysis. Void analysis is carried out in order to check the response of the crystal to an applied stress. Quantum chemical calculations are carried out at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) electron density model for finding the interaction energies between molecular pairs.
BACKGROUND Tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an economically important vegetable crop around the globe. Tomato yellow leaf curling (TYLC) is the most devastating viral disease posing a serious threat to tomato production throughout the tropical and subtropical world. Induction of microbe‐mediated systemic resistance in plants have been of great interest in recent years as a novel microbiological tool in disease and insect pest management. This in‐vitro study aimed to determine the effectiveness of different strains (BB252, BB72 and ARSEF‐2860) of a hypocreal fungus Beauveria bassiana against TYLCV disease and aphid Myzus persicae . Potted tomato plants exogenously treated with conidial and filtrate suspensions of B. bassiana strains and of their partially purified or purified proteins were exposed to TYLCV inoculum and aphid M. persicae . RESULTS Results showed a significant suppression of TYLCV disease severity index by the exogenous application of conidial, filtrate and protein treatments of all B. bassiana strains and this response was directly proportional to the treatment concentration. Similarly, mean fecundity rate of M. persicae was also significantly reduced by the highest concentration of ARSEF‐2860‐derived elicitor protein PeBb1 , followed by the highest concentrations of BB252‐ and BB72‐derived partially purified proteins. Moreover, these B. bassiana ‐derived proteins also caused a significant upregulation of most of the plant immune marker genes associated with plant defense. CONCLUSION Overall study findings suggest that these above mentioned B. bassiana strains and their partially purified or purified elicitor proteins could be effective biological tools for the management of TYLCV and aphid infestation on tomato plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) is a widely used measure that captures somatic symptoms of coronavirus-related anxiety. In a large-scale collaboration spanning 60 countries (Ntotal = 21,513), we examined the CAS’s measurement invariance and assessed the convergent validity of CAS scores in relation to the fear of COVID-19 (FCV-19S) and the satisfaction with life (SWLS-3) scales. We utilized both conventional exact invariance tests and alignment procedures, with results revealing that the single-factor model fit the data well in almost all countries. Partial scalar invariance was supported in a subset of 56 countries. To ensure the robustness of results, given the unbalanced samples, we employed resampling techniques both with and without replacement and found the results were more stable in larger samples. The alignment procedure demonstrated a high degree of measurement invariance with 9% of the parameters exhibiting non-invariance. We also conducted simulations of alignment using the parameters estimated in the current model. Findings demonstrated reliability of the means but indicated challenges in estimating the latent variances. Strong positive correlations between CAS and FCV-19S estimated with all three different approaches were found in most countries. Correlations of CAS and SWLS-3 were weak and negative, but significantly differed from zero in several countries. Overall, the study provided support for the measurement invariance of the CAS and offered evidence of its convergent validity while also highlighting issues with variance estimation.
This article examines the optoelectronic and transport properties of ZnxAxSiGeN4 (A = Mn, Eu) through a comprehensive study. The study utilizes first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the Wien2k code. The optimized structural parameters, including the tolerance factor, critical radius, and formation energy, were initially determined. The energy band structure, densities of electronic states, and energy dependence of the optical functions were determined. The observed phenomenon exhibits a reduction in the energy difference between the valence and conduction bands for the materials under investigation. Precisely, the band gaps were measured to 4.1 eV, 2.0 eV (up)/2.8 eV (dn), and 0.8 eV (up)/2.4 eV (dn), respectively, for the respective doping of Eu and Mn. It has been determined that the material exhibits a direct band gap with a transition occurring along the Γ–Γ symmetry point. The electronic interband changes responsible for the observed optical spectra were identified. The thermoelectric parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivities, and figure of merit, were calculated using the standard Boltzmann transport theory in parallel. Based on our findings, it has been determined that the compounds under investigation exhibit promising characteristics that make them viable contenders for utilization in thermoelectric applications. The process of doped compounds Zn0.95Eu0.05SiGeN4 and of Zn0.95Mn0.05SiGeN4 has the potential to alter the characteristics of the material significantly, suggesting being promising for utilization in emerging fields such as advanced electronics and photovoltaic.
Salinity stress is a worldwide problem that damages crop growth and development. As a principal regulatory component in eukaryotic cells, protein kinase is key to regulating crop tolerance to salinity stress. However, it is still unclear about the responses of protein kinase to salinity stress across different upland cotton species in China. This study was conducted to evaluate the functional expression of protein kinase genes in three cotton species ( Gossypium hirsutum , Gossypium raimondii , and Gossypium arboretum ) under salinity stress. A total of 134 genes that encode the protein kinase were recognized in cotton species. The results indicated that 67 genes belonged to G. hirsutum , 34 genes belonged to G. arboretum , and 33 genes belonged to G. raimondii , respectively. Protein kinase genes were unequally distributed on the chromosomes of the three cotton species. Based on the syntenic analysis, 58 protein kinase genes were duplicated in G. hirsutum , G. raimondii , and G. arboretum . The results of synonymous (Ks), non–synonymous (Ka), and Ka/Ks values for orthologous genes showed that the top ten G. hirsutum protein kinase genes were mostly expressed. Co– expression network analysis of protein kinase genes confirmed their function in improving crop tolerance to salinity stress for different cotton species. It was concluded that protein kinase genes were stress–inducible and were linked to stress–responsive miRNAs in cotton species. The findings can be used for breeding new salt–tolerant cotton varieties in China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Currently, global warming and air pollution are the world’s most urgent issues partly caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, and prompt actions are needed to address these global concerns. Sustainable development cannot be attained until we reverse the negative impact of economic factors on the quality of the environment. It is noteworthy to offer a new indication on whether and how the empirical liaison between product diversification and environmental degradation evolved in China from 2008 to 2019. Product diversification (PD) is a remedy for reducing environmental degradation (ED). It is a crucial component of energy demand, which a significant impact on reducing energy consumption and ED. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of PD on ED in China using the provincial panel dataset. Employing the fixed effects-Driscoll-Kraay standard errors (FE-DKSE) and feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) methods, we discover an inverted U-shaped link between PD and ED. The control variable urbanization (URB) and technological innovation (TI) reduce ED significantly. However, industry value added (IVA) and energy consumption (EC) promote ED. Our results are robust with the addition of various controls in all models. The policy implication from our findings is that, to achieve a target of carbon neutrality, countries should adopt the product diversification strategy.
In our current investigation, we have discussed the effects of second-order slip and radiation on the flow of a generalized rotating fluid inside a channel in the presence of a magnetic field. The flow equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations with the help of suitable similarity transformations, and the resultant coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved analytically. Using the obtained results, the effects of the involved physical parameters on the flow dynamics are examined and described physically. In addition, Pearson’s coefficient of correlation has been utilized to measure the linear association between different variables. The impact of emerging dimensionless parameters such as Hartman number, rotation parameter, radiation parameter, viscosity parameter, first- and second-order slip parameter, Schmidt number, and suction parameter on the Nusselt number and Sherwood number have all been investigated using a slope linear regression approach across the whole data points. The [Formula: see text]-test approach has been adopted to explore the relationship between various involved physical parameters.
The current study focuses on the chemical composition and biological properties of the hydro-distilled essential oil from Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves, including its antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Three distinct drying techniques (sun drying, shade drying, and oven drying) were used to dry the plant leaves. The yield of essential oils from E. camaldulensis leaves (ELEOs) ranged from 1.0% (shade-dried sample) to 2.25% (sun-dried sample). The strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis was seen in the essential oil from shade-dried leaves, which also had notable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. The shade-dried variant, which was followed by the sun-dried and oven-dried variants, had the highest total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and DPPH scavenging potential. These values were 54.07, 38.95, 16.86 (GAE mg/100g for TPC), 66.43, 29.09, 3.76 (CE mg/100g for TFC), and 66.58, 54.56, 24. 25 (IC 50 µg/mL for DPPH scavenging). The shade-dried ELEOs, among others, with paw diameters of 0.739, 1.133, and 1.143 mm at 0, 30, and 60 min, respectively, showed the strongest inhibition of anti-inflammatory activity. According to GC-MS analysis, 1,8-cineole (28.08-42.70%), terpinol (11.19-19.28%), terpen-4-ol (9.74-12.33%), and β-pinene (7.89-9.51%) were the prominent components found in the evaluated ELEOs, followed by p-cymene (4.96-5.92%). The volatile profile and biological activity of ELEOs show wide variations in this study depending on the drying technique. Overall, these findings encourage peel samples to be dried at room temperature in order to gain maximal nutritional and nutraceutical benefits of this under-utilized agro-waste.
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