University of Sargodha
  • Sargodha, Pakistan
Recent publications
Standard theory of consumer behavior stands on the maxim of utility maximization. Optimizing behavior of consumer is achieved by maximization of utility subject to budget constraint. An increase in inflation that is not accompanied by proportionate increase in income can leave a consumer worse off. Therefore, it is imperative for consumers to have right assessment about inflation which in turn requires appropriate modelling of inflationary behavior. This study assesses efficacies of different versions of new Keynesian Phillips curve for capturing dynamics of CPI inflation. Estimation of different formulations of this curve is achieved by employing generalized method of moments. This choice of estimation technique is made to handle potential problem of endogeneity. Countries with different resource and market structures are included to evaluate and compare fitness of different formulations for different economies. Economies of Pakistan and Turkey represent developing economies, economy of South-Korea is incorporated for emerging market economy and economies of Canada, UK and US are included for developed economies. The results of this study reveal that internal as well as external factors are crucial for explaining inflationary behavior of developing economies. Whereas, dynamics of domestic inflation for advanced economies are mostly explained by internal factors.
Background The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was recorded for the first time in Pakistan in 2019, and now it has spread in several regions, i.e., Punjab and Sindh, affecting maize production. Farmers are using widely synthetic pesticides to control the pest. Further, the resistance development in insects and the non-target effect of chemicals on the environment and humans pose serious threats of using insecticides. The use of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) is being considered an important tool in integrated pest management program. The main objective of this study was to check the impact of different conidial concentrations of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus on the nutritional physiology of S. frugiperda . Results The dose-dependent effect of tested EPF was observed, and the highest concentration (1 × 10 ⁹ conidia/ml) considerably affected nutritional parameters. Reduced relative consumption rate (21.7%), relative growth rate (19.5%), the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (24.2%), and approximate digestibility (16.3%) were observed in treated larvae compared to the untreated by using a higher concentration of EPF. Pupal weight was also found lower (77.9 mg and 84.2 mg, respectively), when larvae were treated by 1 × 10 ⁹ and 1 × 10 ⁸ conidia/ml concentrations of EPF. Further, 46.7% of larvae were found dead with this conidial concentration. Conclusions This study suggests that the application of a higher concentration of M. anisopliae could be an effective option to control S. frugiperda . The EPF can enhance the integrated pest management programs and could be useful in reducing the environmental impact of synthetic insecticides.
The fractional calculus (FC) has been extensively studied by researchers due to its vast applications in sciences in the last few years. In fractional calculus, multivariate Mittag–Leffler functions are considered the powerful extension of the classical Mittag–Leffler functions. This paper defines the generalized fractional integral operator with multivariate Mittag–Leffler (M-L) function. We prove certain basic properties of the proposed operators, such as an expansion of an infinite series of Riemann–Liouville integrals, Laplace transform (LT), semigroup property, composition with Riemann–Liouville integrals. Also, we present the fractional differential operators and their properties. The application of the proposed operators like the fractional kinetic differential and the time-fractional heat equation are also discussed.
Heavy metal deposition in crops irrigated with wastewater is a serious environmental issue in many developing countries. This research looked at the probable health impacts of chromium (Cr) in water, soil, and food crop samples. The concentration of Cr was measured in samples taken from three sites: Sargodha City, Sahiwal, and Shahpur. Chromium levels were found to vary from 0.011 to 0.067 mg/L in water, to 0.223–2.49 in soil, and from 0.17 to 1.74 mg/kg in crops, respectively. Cr levels in the water, soil, and crops met World Health Organization requirements. Crop samples showed a positive correlation with soil chromium concentrations. There was a wide range in the bioconcentration factor (BCF), pollution load index (PLI), enrichment factor (EF), daily metal intake (DIM), health risk index (HRI), and target hazard quotient (THQ), which were all between 0.16 and 1.79. The BCF and EF were greater than one, which proves a high level of Cr mobility and metal enrichment. The PLI, DIM, HRI, and THQ of metal values were less than one, indicating that toxic metals were present in lower quantities in food crops and had no carcinogenic effects on consumers. Consistent monitoring of water quality, crops, soil, and better agricultural practices that inhibit metals from entering agricultural food reduce the potential health risks to consumers.
The entrained flow and heat transfer in Newtonian fluid along the thermally and electrically conducting cone embedded in porous medium by encountering the variable surface temperature is carried out. The proposed process is time dependent that is the source of oscillation in all considered variables. The primary phenomenon is given a mathematical form in partial differential equations which are non-linear and coupled. By means of dimensionless formulation, the resulting set of constitutive equations is reduced to non-dimensional form. A suitable formulation that produces the smoothness in algorithm is utilized for the transformation of dimensionless form of equations to smooth ones. The pertinent material properties of interest such as velocity, temperature and magnetic profiles along with their derivatives are portrayed in graphical way under the impact of pertinent parameters. The main finding about the current communication is that for elevating the variable surface temperature parameter ζ, the main stream velocity and temperature field get declined and opposite attitude is noted in magnetic profile. Furthermore, maximum value for velocity and temperature are secured at ζ=0.1 and ζ=8.0 respectively but reverse scenario is seen in magnetic profile.
Double perovskite halides are a potential candidate for the applications of the solar cell, photovoltaic and thermoelectric, due to their non-toxicity and environmental stability. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation investigates the details physical properties of halides Rb2ScAgX6(X = Cl, Br, I) that can be useful for applications like thermoelectric and solar cells. The structural and thermodynamics stability is endorsed by the formation energy, tolerance factor, and Born stability criteria. The calculated indirect band gaps of 1.95 eV, 1.85, and 1.60 eV for Rb2ScAgCl6, Rb2ScAgBr6, and Rb2ScAgI6 respectively, ensure the light absorption in the region of visible range. Therefore, all studied halides are widely used in optoelectronic devices like solar cells. In addition, thermoelectric properties are examined through thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and the Seebeck coefficient. ZT values of 0.74, 0.71, and 0.72 for Rb2ScAgI6, Rb2ScAgBr6, and Rb2ScAgCl6 double perovskites are recorded, which spotlight their significance for the applications of thermoelectric.
Heavy metal/metalloids (HMs) are among the primary soil pollutants that limit crop production worldwide. Plants grown in HM contaminated soils exhibit reduced growth and development, resulting in a decrease in crop production. The exposure to HMs induces plant oxidative stress due to the formation of free radicals, which alter plant morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms at cellular and tissue levels. When exposed to HM toxicity, plants evolve sophisticated physiological and cellular defense strategies, such as sequestration and transportation of metals, to ensure their survival. Plants also have developed efficient strategies by activating signaling pathways, which induce the expression of HM transporters. Plants either avoid the uptake of HMs from the soil or activate the detoxifying mechanism to tolerate HM stress, which involves the production of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) for the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. The metal-binding proteins including phytochelatins and metallothioneins also participate in metal detoxification. Furthermore, phytohormones and their signaling pathways also help to regulate cellular activities to counteract HM stress. The excessive levels of HMs in the soil bring about plant morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular alterations, which are detrimental on the quality and productivity of crops. To maintain the value of fruits and vegetables, various measures should be considered to remove HMs from the metal-polluted soils. Bioremediation is a promising approach that involves the use of tolerant microorganisms and plants to manage HMs pollution. The understanding of HM toxicity, signaling pathways, and tolerance mechanisms will facilitate the development of new crop varieties that help in improving phytoremediation.
The production of biofuels from crop biomass is now seen as a practical renewable energy alternative, reducing overdependence on fossil fuels and limiting global warming from greenhouse gases. With respect to nitrogen emissions from biomass, it is claimed that nitrification inhibitors (NIs), particularly dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), can reduce these nitrogen losses. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these NIs to reduce N2O emissions and NH3 volatilization under different environmental conditions remains largely unclear. To this aim, a global meta-analysis was performed using 366 observations from 149 peer-reviewed research studies to quantify the responses of N2O emissions and NH3 volatilization to the application of DCD and DMPP under different conditions. Based on the meta-analysis, DCD and DMPP can significantly reduce N2O emissions by 47% and 39%, respectively. The efficiency of DCD in reducing N2O emissions was much higher (12%) than that of DMPP when used together with chemical fertilizers. Interestingly, DCD tended to be more effective (9–10%) in incubation and field trials , while DMPP showed 39% higher efficacy. Concerning NH3, fertilizer-type, and soil pH, specific effects of NIs were not significant overall. Although DCD (pot experiments) and DMPP (incubation experiments) showed 30% and 46% higher NH3 emissions, respectively, their effects were not significant under field conditions. According to meta-analysis, DCD and DMPP have demonstrated great potential to reduce N2O emissions. Importantly, the efficacy of such eco-friendly interventions could further be improved if the preferences described above are followed. Therefore, it will take further investigation to understand the mechanisms underlying the relatively higher efficacy of one NI over the other under specific conditions, including crop type, the nature of experiment, and other edaphic factors.
Introduction During the COVID-19 pandemic various degrees of lockdown were applied by countries around the world. It is considered that such measures have an adverse effect on mental health but the relationship of measure intensity with the mental health effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here we report data from the larger COMET-G study pertaining to this question. Material and Methods During the COVID-19 pandemic, data were gathered with an online questionnaire from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80 ±13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90±13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64±13.15). Anxiety was measured with the STAI, depression with the CES-D and suicidality with the RASS. Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively. Statistical Analysis It included the calculation of Relative Risk (RR), Factorial ANOVA and Multiple backwards stepwise linear regression analysis Results Approximately two-thirds were currently living under significant restrictions due to lockdown. For both males and females the risk to develop clinical depression correlated significantly with each and every level of increasing lockdown degree (RR 1.72 and 1.90 respectively). The combined lockdown and psychiatric history increased RR to 6.88 The overall relationship of lockdown with severity of depression, though significant was small. Conclusions The current study is the first which reports an almost linear relationship between lockdown degree and effect in mental health. Our findings, support previous suggestions concerning the need for a proactive targeted intervention to protect mental health more specifically in vulnerable groups
The present work reveals variation in the nutritional and antioxidant profiles of Moringa oleifera leaves with regard to four maturity stages (early, mid, penultimate and late). The corresponding yield of 80% methanolic extract (14.21 and 9.69%) and total phenolic contents (TPC) of the extract (95.26 and 38.22 mg GAE/g) from M. oleifera leaves were found to be maximum at early stage and minimum at the later stage. Total flavonoids, ash, protein, vitamin C and β -carotene contents were found to be minimum at the early stage and maximum at later stage (12.26 ± 0.47 to 30.07 ± 1.09 mg/g, 10.36–15.92%,50.3 ± 0.15 to 56 ± 0.77 mg/100 g, 143.14 ± 0.74 to 164.81 ± 0.44 mg/100g, and 89 ± 0.28 to 112.8 ± 1.40 mg/100 g). Amino acids including valine, alanine, leucine and phenylalanine were identified with their least contents at early stages (90.87, 53.07, 55.21, and 48.65 µg/g) and maximum at later stages (197.66, 114.3, 114.2, and 104.5 µg/g, respectively). The levels of different minerals such as Cu, Fe, Mn in M. oleifera leaves at different maturity stages varied from 0.59 to 2.08, 21.96 to 58.68, and 5.56 to 13.84 mg/100 g, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis of the nutritionally rich later-stage leave samples revealed the presence of quercetin as a major component (21.64 mg/kg), followed by benzoic acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, gallic acid, and p -coumaric acid with contributions of 13.03, 8.85, 3.39, 2.88, and 1.59 mg/kg, respectively. Overall, a considerable variation in the profile of different nutrients and antioxidants was noted in M. oleifera leaves as maturity progressed. These results support the harvesting of M. oleifera leaves at an appropriate maturity stage to maximize the functional food and nutraceutical benefits of this valuable food commodity.
For successful aquaculture, the primary need is the quality of fish feed, which determines fish flesh quality. The current study was conducted to evaluate the number and concentration of heavy metals in commonly used fish feeds and fish gills, liver, and muscle of biofloc technology and earthen pond systems. Besides this, the correlation between heavy metals in fish feeds with detected metals in the gills, liver, and muscle of fish was also determined. Results revealed that heavy metals concentration, including Cu and Cd, in feed B was significantly greater than in feed A, but the Zn level in feed A was significantly higher than in feed B. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals in fish of both aquaculture systems was significantly higher in the liver than in the gills and muscle. The metal concentration in fish feeds and fish edible parts (muscle) was lower than the WHO standard level; however, the amount of Pb was higher in the fish muscle, which is harmful for human consumption. Though the correlation test revealed that all of the metals from the feeds were positively correlated to the metals detected in the fish, but most of the estimated correlation was insignificant. From the current study, it can be concluded that the fish feed producers need to measure feed quality adequately to avoid hazardous contamination by heavy metals in the feed. The ultimate consumer, fish and humans, may, otherwise, be predisposed to assimilate and accumulate these heavy metals.
Abnormal uric acid level result in the development of hyperuricemia and hallmark of various diseases, including renal injury, gout, cardiovascular disorders, and non‐alcoholic fatty liver. This study was designed to explore the anti‐inflammatory potential of stevia residue extract (STR) against hyperuricemia‐associated renal injury in mice. The results revealed that STR at dosages of 150 and 300 mg/kg bw and allopurinol markedly modulated serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine in hyperuricemic mice. Serum and renal cytokine levels (IL‐18, IL‐6, IL‐1Β, and TNF‐α) were also restored by STR treatments. Furthermore, mRNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis revealed that STR ameliorates UA (uric acid)‐associated renal inflammation, fibrosis, and EMT (epithelial‐mesenchymal transition) via MMPS (matrix metalloproteinases), inhibiting NF‐κB/NLRP3 activation by the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway and modulating the JAK2‐STAT3 and Nrf2 signaling pathways. In summary, the present study provided experimental evidence that STR is an ideal candidate for the treatment of hyperuricemia‐mediated renal inflammation. Practical applications The higher uric acid results in hyperuricemia and gout. The available options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout are the use of allopurinol, and colchicine drugs, etc. These drugs possess several undesirable side effect. The polyphenolic compounds are abundantly present in plants, for example, stevia residue extract (STR) exert a positive effect on human health. From this study results, we can recommend that polyphenolic compounds enrich STR could be applied to develop treatment options for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
The surge in production of cement due to rapid growth of construction industry has an adverse effect on environment globally caused by the huge amount of carbon emission. In order to produce an environment friendly concrete, this study investigates the effective contribution of silica fume (SF) on various mechanical and durability characteristics of high strength concrete. In this regard, the incorporation of silica fume was adopted with a progressive proportion of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of cement constituting various concrete mixes namely CM, SF05, SF10, SF15, SF20, SF25 and SF30 respectively. The mechanical and durability properties of concrete improved along with the incorporation of SF up to its 15% replacement. However, excessive replacement of SF have adverse effect on its mechanical and durability properties due to dilution effect of cement. Similarly, in terms of the mechanical characteristics, the proposed 15% substitution of silica fume resulted in highest compressive and flexural strengths with respect to CM. The maximum reduction in strength loss with respect to control mix was 41.17% and 28.04% for sulfuric and hydrochloric acid due to formation of densified microstructure.
For large-scale energy applications, conceiving low-cost and simple earth-abundant electrocatalysts are more difficult to develop. By using an aqueous chemical technique, MnO2 was added into Co3O4 with varying concentrations to prepare MnO2@Co3O4 nanocomposite (CM). In an aqueous solution of 1 M KOH, the electrocatalyst with a greater concentration of MnO2 outperforms in terms of OER. To confirm the composition, crystalline structure, and morphology of the electrocatalyst, analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. At 20 mA/cm2 current density, the electrocatalyst had a lowest overpotential of 310 mV verses Reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). The CM-0.4 electrocatalyst has a small Tafel slope value and charge transfer resistance of approximately 72 mV/dec and 74 Ω which confirm its high catalytic activity. The electrocatalyst reveals a double layer capacitance (Rct) of 18 µF/cm2 and an electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of 450 cm2, demonstrating that addition of MnO2 impurities into Co3O4 enhances the active catalyst sites. These findings contribute to the knowledge of these kind of catalysts, that will assist in the development of novel electrocatalysts which are feasible for prospective energy generation technologies.
Pumpkin is a well-known vegetable, among the members of Cucurbitaceae family, due to its importance as pharma food. Keeping in view the antidiabetic and plasma lipids lowering potential of pumpkin, the present study was conducted to investigate that, which part of pumpkin (peel, flesh, and seeds), possess more bioactive compounds, exhibiting antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential. Albino rats with 190-210 g body weight were divided into 11 groups. Five rats were included in each group; group A was negative control, group B was positive control, and groups C to K were diabetic rats fed with pumpkin peel, flesh, and seed powders. Diabetes was induced in rats with the help of alloxan monohydrate. During 28 days of experimental period, blood glucose level of different rat’s groups was checked with the help of glucometer, at every 7 days interval and at the end of 28 days study, plasma lipids were checked with the help of commercial kits. A significant decrease in blood glucose level ( 128.33 ± 1.67 mg / dl ), TC ( 88.43 ± 0.66 mg / dl ), TG ( 69.79 ± 0.49 mg / dl ), and LDL-C ( 21.45 ± 0.08 mg / dl ) was recorded in rat groups fed with 15 g pumpkin seed powder, at the end of study. After pumpkin seeds, second significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect was recorded in rat’s groups fed with 15 g pumpkin peel powder. Pumpkin flesh powder effect in lowering blood glucose level and plasma lipids was less significant as compared to seeds and peel powder. As the dose of the pumpkin powders was increased from 5 to 10 and then 15 g, the blood glucose-lowering and plasma lipid-lowering effect became more significant. Similarly, as the experimental duration was expanded from first week to 28 days, this antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect became more significant. These results were sufficient to conclude that pumpkin has high potential to be used in human diet to cope with noncommunicable diseases like diabetes and hypercholesterolemia.
Fog computing has revolutionized the computing domain by enabling resource sharing, such as online storage, and providing applications and software as services in near vicinity to the edge nodes through the Internet. Small-to large-sized companies, like Amazon, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn, have started switching to fog-computing-enabled infrastructures. Fog computing being distributed in nature and in near vicinity gives rises to security and privacy issues. Although mostly now a days, user identification is adopted via single sign-in process, such as simple password-based authentications, which is not a secure process. Several multi-tier authentication techniques are proposed to overcome single sign-in process limitations. In this article, we go through state-of-the-art schemes proposed over the period of 2011-2018 for multi-tier authentication, their weaknesses and security issues, and finally their solutions for fog-computing environment. We performed the comparison of available multi-tier authentication techniques based on three factors, ie, level of security, cost of deployment, and usability. Multi-tier authentication techniques are classified into categories in accordance with the aspects that are concerned with the authentication process. We are optimistic that this work will provide useful information to the researchers about the architectures of fog enabled systems and the underlying authentication models in a consolidated form.
As a fundamental value in the Islamic belief system, tawakkul is defined as the belief in the sufficiency of God that involves positive efforts to achieve one’s goals while accepting the outcomes unconditionally. The present research intended to develop a psychometrically sound measure of tawakkul and it comprised two studies. In study I, an initial item pool of 60 items was developed based on the content analyses of Quranic verses with the root word ‘w–k–l’ and the findings of two focus group discussions with psychologists, Islamic scholars, and common Muslim adults. This item pool was reviewed by a committee of experts resulting in a 40-item initial draft of the Tawakkul Scale, which was administered on a purposive sample of (N = 300) Pakistani Muslim adults. The findings of the exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure (loadings ranged from .56 to .96) of the Tawakkul Scale that cumulatively explained 76.67% variance. The factors included belief in the sufficiency of God (11 items), unconditional acceptance of God’s will (6 items), efforts (4 items), and annihilation of one’s own will (3 items). All factors were moderately related to each other with good values of Cronbach’s alpha (α ≥ .83). Study II replicated the factorial structure of the Tawakkul Scale through confirmatory factor analysis and established its construct validity in an independent sample of (N = 350) Pakistani Muslim adults. Tawakkul had a positive relationship with secure attachment to God and a negative relationship with insecure attachment to God that affirmed its construct validity. Overall, the findings indicated that the Tawakkul Scale is a psychometrically sound measure that needs to be further studied in Muslim populations across the globe.
Religious sectarian intolerance occurs when members of different religious sects within a faith are unable to tolerate the religious beliefs and practices of each resulting in bigotry and prejudice toward each other. The present research sought to develop a psychometrically sound measure of religious sectarian intolerance for Muslim adults. The research comprised two studies. Study I involved the development of an initial item pool for the Religious Sectarian Intolerance Scale (RSIS). The initial pool of items was based on thematic analysis from focus group discussions. This item pool was reviewed by a committee of experts resulting in a 39-item initial draft of the RSIS, which was administered to a purposive sample of Pakistani Muslim adults (N = 270). The exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-factor structure for the RSIS (with loadings ranging from 0.56 to 0.94) that explained 62% of the variance. The factors include dogmatic loyalty (9 items), social intolerance (13 items), renunciation of other religious Sects. (8 items), and propagation of one's Sect. (9 items). All factors were moderately related to each other with acceptable Cronbach's alpha (.78 to .92). Study II replicated the factorial structure of RSIS through confirmatory factor analysis on an independent sample of Muslim adults (N = 274). The convergent validity of the RSIS was demonstrated by a positive relationship with dogmatism. Overall, the findings indicated that the RSIS is a psychometrically sound measure that provides a standard operationalization for religious sectarian intolerance in Muslim cultures and it needs to be studied further in Muslim populations across the globe.
This research study focuses on the design of variable rate liquid fertilizer applicator which can measure the NPK status of soil and applies N, P and K nutrients simultaneously at separate variable rates around the oil palm trees in the form of aqueous solutions of straight fertilizers having single nutrient. A fertilizer flow control and spray system was designed to apply liquid fertilizer around the oil palm tree on a 5 m × 5 m (25 m²) area of most effective roots. On the basis of simulation and calculations, six 8006 flat fan nozzles were selected to maintain the adequate swath coverage of fertilizer spray. The nozzles 1–3 were mounted vertically on the horizontal boom to spray on the machine side of an oil palm tree, i.e. the side of an oil palm where the machine is passing through. Whereas nozzles 4–6 were fixed at − 22°, − 21° and − 20° angles with respect to the horizontal plane on a 45° angled boom to spray across the tree using trajectory method. An average simulated liquid velocity of 14.05 m/s from each nozzle was found to spray at 2.5 m distance across the tree using trajectory method. Thus an improved distribution of fertilizer around the tree at 25 m² area of most effective roots can be achieved using this system. Mechanical structure of the applicator which carries all the equipment and fertilizer tanks was designed by using the finite element analysis. Minimum safety factors of 3.13 and 11.34 were found for mechanical structure and fertilizer tank assembly respectively which were satisfactory to bear the necessary loads during field operation.
Drought poses a significant risk to human life, agriculture, energy, ecosystem, wildlife, and other aspects of the terrestrial system. Climate warming may increase drought hazards around the globe. This study compares the pre- and post-industrial impact of climate change on the spatiotemporal evolution of drought over the Tibet Plateau region. Two standardized drought indices (SDIs), namely Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), are utilized to characterize drought by averaging the time-series data of precipitation and temperature from 23 climate models of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 database. Sen slope estimates and steady-state probabilities of the Markov Chain are used to assess drought characteristics. This study shows that an increasing trend in temperature has led to increased evaporation. Increasing evaporation had caused expansion in water deficiency; the decreasing trend of SPEI index on almost the entire Tibet Plateau reveals the persistence of future drought. A slight increase has been observed in extreme wet classes in higher timescales. However, the long-term probabilities of extreme drought and extreme wet episodes at the one-month timescale of SPI are equivalent and stable in both periods. The chance of occurrences of severe drought episodes has decreased. Comparatively, a significant increase in the likelihood of severe drought has been observed under the SPEI. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal quantitative comparison reveals that the SPI index is consistent in both periods. However, a significant decline ratio of SPEI values has been observed in the post-industrial period. It is because increasing temperature causes more evaporation. Consequently, the increase in water deficiency is the main reason for increasing drought episodes under SPEI.
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867 members
Adnan Adil
  • Department of Psychology
Arif Muhammad
  • Department of Biotechnology
M Asam Riaz
  • College of Agriculture
Fayyaz ur Rehman
  • Institute of Chemistry
Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar
  • Department of Pharmacology
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