Student teams have become a very popular pedagogical learning tool in management education courses. However, these teams vary widely in their ability to accomplish their objectives. Moreover, students often report varying levels of learning as a result of teams, as well as overall satisfaction with team members. In this research, we assess the effectiveness of a prospective hindsight technique, known as the premortem exercise, in student teams. The premortem exercise requires team members to picture a potential future where their team project has failed and asks members to discuss critically the reasons for the failure. The premortem technique requires student teams to identify and codify mechanisms that will prevent these project failures from occurring. Instructions for facilitating the premortem exercise are provided, along with a preliminary analysis indicating how the premortem technique can move teams towards more successful processes and outcomes. We find that student participation in the premortem intervention leads to reports of increasing perspective taking throughout the semester, with no change in their prosocial motivation. Team satisfaction decreased immediately following the exercise, but improved to the highest levels at the semester's end, suggesting the premortem technique was beneficial to students' team experiences.
Millions of South Africans have protested the unequal allocation of public services in thousands of demonstrations. Despite the African National Congress’s (ANC) promise to reduce the disparities generated by apartheid, the level of public services remains highly uneven across the country. Most studies of service provision in Africa argue that politicians will target their coethnics; others support the “diversity deficit” hypothesis, which predicts that high levels of ethnic diversity undermines service provision. Instead, we argue that explanations of service provision should first examine how political institutions incentivize politicians to choose whether, what, and how to distribute services. Even in an ethnicized polity, ethnic targeting may not be a politician’s best strategy. We seek to explain the variation in service levels across South African municipalities and advance three hypotheses: 1) municipal councilors in more ethnically diverse municipalities will form policy coalitions that produce higher service levels; 2) South African mayors will decrease services when they enjoy electorally safety due to their extensive powers and the possibility of being a residual claimant to municipality resources, and; 3) the strategic interaction between councilors and their mayor helps to account for the variation in service provision across South Africa’s municipalities. We test our hypotheses with data from more than 1.37 million households and aggregated municipality level measures and find strong support for our hypotheses. Political institutions – not just ethnic demography – can influence policy choices and service outcomes.
This paper examines U.S. residential consumer willingness to pay for location efficiency, a normative advancement of new urbanism. Drawing on a national sample of multi-family housing data joined to measures of urban form and spatial structure, empirical models suggest three contributions to the literature. First, renters are willing to pay for greater location efficiency and for individual attributes of more efficient locations. Second, renters’ tastes and preferences for location efficiency are spatially heterogeneous. Third, location efficiency data appears to provide a meaningful level of control for locational quality. These contributions extend prior research efforts related to bid rent and urban amenities.
Today's marketers are increasingly faced with the need to collect and interpret data to aid firm strategic decision making. At the same time, there has been an explosion of text-based data and numerous advances in big data that enable marketers to mine the collection and aggregation of text. However, for many marketers there is a need to better understand how textual data can go beyond mere descriptive metrics to instead help solve real marketing problems. With this paper, we take a step in this direction. We first review key concepts and terms that are relevant to understanding how text analysis operates, as well as a new development in custom dictionary creation that expands the topics possible with text analysis. Next, we develop the FTTA grid, a new framework that enables text-derived metrics to inform actionable strategies for marketers. We present two real cases demonstrating how the FTTA grid can be employed in action. Finally, we discuss implications for both academics and marketing practitioners.
Creativity depends on individuals' willingness to invest in their novel ideas early in the creative process. Burgeoning research on idea evaluation suggests that while people can identify their novel ideas, they may reject them because they are risky and uncertain. Selecting novel ideas is crucial at the earliest phase of the creative process, in which individuals may evaluate several generated ideas to identify those they want to develop and share with others. To uncover when and why people select these ideas, we develop and test theory on the early-stage selection of novel ideas. Integrating theory from attachment, self-construal, and creativity we posit that creators can become attached to, and therefore select their early-stage novel ideas when the idea features affirm core aspects of their self. Individuals with an independent self-construal wish to affirm their unique identity and idiosyncratic agenda and thus are more likely to feel attached to, and select their novel ideas. In contrast, individuals with an interdependent self-construal are less likely to become attached to novel ideas, because these ideas do not validate their self. Findings from a field study on three early-stage hackathons and three experiments support our theory. Our research points to idea attachment as a new mechanism that explains when and why creators embrace early-stage novel ideas.
Over the last half-century, the world’s human population has doubled, impacting almost all ocean and land areas. The threats facing primates in the wild have never been greater or more complex. Primatologists have long been aware of these threats and, since the 1970s, have coordinated efforts to safeguard these threatened species, through the International Union for Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission (IUCN SSC) Primate Specialist Group (PSG). In an effort to stem the threat of extinction to primates, this group of now 700 experts+ has published 17 conservation action plans since 1977. As we look toward the next half-century, we take stock of the history of primate action planning to better understand the costs and benefits of these plans as a conservation tool. Here, we reviewed all plans published by the IUCN SSC PSG. In total, they described USD 246 million in planned primate conservation programming and were cited 1,657 times by others. We found that half of the plans had been assessed in regard to their implementation, although these assessments were not standardized. Those that had been assessed, showed evidence of positive impacts on awareness raising, collaboration, fundraising, project implementation and policy, although the impact varied by plan. For example, three of the plans directly resulted in USD 15.92 million in funds raised; four plans quantified implementation rates, which ranged from 38% to 74% of actions partially or completely achieved 5 years after plan publication; and four plans attributed the gazettement of 19 protected areas across 11 countries as indirect successes following the publication of plans. Considered together, we reflect on the ‘return-on-investment’ for developing these plans and consider a range of ‘lessons learned’ for future primate action planning efforts.
In recent years, marketers have placed increased reliance upon artificial intelligence (AI) and, subsequently, the use of virtual agents in customer service contexts is on the rise. Despite such service digitalization, service can still fail. While there is an increasing literature on the effect of virtual agents in service settings, questions remain as to how customers react to service failure that results from interactions with virtual service agents. To this end, we deconstruct the effect of virtual agent service failure across two studies: one involving a process service failure and another involving an outcome service failure. We specifically manipulate the type of service agent that causes the service failure (human vs. virtual agent) and the magnitude of the failure (small vs. large). Results show that firms can leverage virtual service agents to mitigate or buffer the negative effects of service failure. From a managerial perspective, our findings suggest that firms could engage virtual service agents in situations where there may be a risk of outcome service failure—particularly in settings where relatively large magnitude failures may be experienced. In such a setting, we find that virtual service agents can mitigate the negative effects of service failure, more so than when the failure results from an interaction with a human service agent.
We partly decipher a family of finite integer sequences used in a musical composition of the first author, by showing in particular that they relate to arithmetic classical problems (counting cycles in a permutation, primitive roots modulo a prime number, Wieferich primes, etc.), and also to the art of shuffling cards and to the art of juggling.
The proliferation of hate speech and disinformation on social media has prompted democratic countries around the world to to discuss adequate regulations to limit the power exerted by platforms over national politics. As a result, the once ostensibly uniform content moderation practices of social media companies are becoming increasingly territorialized, and the governance of online political speech is constantly negotiated between global social media platforms and national governments. To comprehend the evolving landscape of online political speech governance, this paper scrutinizes how Facebook has adapted its content moderation practices to the political and legal contexts of three democratic nations: the United States, Germany, and South Korea. We assessed national laws and governmental documents to explain the regulatory landscapes of the three countries, and used VPNs and corporate PR materials to see how Facebook’s platform design and public communication diverge by location. The findings suggest that the seemingly ‘splintering’ regulatory frameworks still have a ‘centralizing’ effect: Facebook formally complies with national laws, but its platform interface and communication activities steer users away from the local systems and towards its centralized operations. We discuss future implications for the regulation of online political speech in democratic nations.
How local stresses propagate through polymeric fluids, and, more generally, how macromolecular dynamics give rise to viscoelasticity are open questions vital to wide-ranging scientific and industrial fields. Here, to unambiguously connect polymer dynamics to force response, and map the deformation fields that arise in macromolecular materials, we present Optical-Tweezers-integrating-Differential -Dynamic-Microscopy (OpTiDMM) that simultaneously imposes local strains, measures resistive forces, and analyzes the motion of the surrounding polymers. Our measurements with blends of ring and linear polymers (DNA) and their composites with stiff polymers (microtubules) uncover an unexpected resonant response, in which strain alignment, superdiffusivity, and elasticity are maximized when the strain rate is comparable to the entanglement rate. Microtubules suppress this resonance, while substantially increasing elastic storage, due to varying degrees to which the polymers buildup, stretch and flow along the strain path, and configurationally relax induced stress. More broadly, the rich multi-scale coupling of mechanics and dynamics afforded by OpTiDDM, empowers its interdisciplinary use to elucidate non-trivial phenomena that sculpt stress propagation dynamics–critical to commercial applications and cell mechanics alike. The authors present an approach to connect polymer dynamics to force response by integrating optical tweezers with differential dynamic microscopy. They measure blends of ring and linear DNA and observe a resonant response, which is suppressed by the presence of microtubules.
Purpose Explore factors associated with flourishing and family resilience among children aged 6 months to 5 years old in the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Design and methods Cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 NSCH was conducted using Kleinman and Norton's Regression Risk Analysis method to derive adjusted risk measures for logistic regression models to assess factors contributing to (1) child flourishing and (2) child flourishing stratified between resilient and non-resilient families. Results In multivariable models, resilient families less often reported a child with two or more lifetime ACE exposures (ARD −0.11, 95% CI −0.15, −0.08), more likely to live in a supportive neighborhood (ARD 0.08, 95% CI 0.05,0.11), and more likely to report emotional support in raising children (ARD 0.07, 95% CI 0.12, 0.40). Accounting for ACE exposures, within resilient families, child flourishing was more likely when the child lived in a supportive neighborhood (ARD 0.09, 95% CI 0.03, 0.15), received care in a patient centered medical home (ARD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02,0.15), and when parents reported having emotional support in raising children (ARD 0.10, 95% CI 0.05, 0.17) Within non-resilient families, child flourishing was more likely when parents had emotional support in raising children (ARD 0.15, 95% CI 0.04,0.27). Conclusion Promoting emotional support for parents may bolster family resilience and help young children to flourish despite adversity. Practice implications Further research and innovative models of care are needed to optimize the role of pediatric primary care in promoting safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for children and families.
The Afterword will draw together the main findings of the case studies presented in the volume. It will revisit the ways that victim/perpetrator binaries are shaped by political contexts and legal processes. We will also consider the influences of social media on narratives as a way to explore the implications of binary constructions for the field of post-conflict studies. We understand that it is easy to succumb to despair and apathy in the face of mass atrocity and the power of narrative frames to reignite it. Against this inclination, we demonstrate that there is hope to be found in creative and constructive methods of narrative intervention.
Consumers have been taking various preventive measures during COVID-19. We propose that people who take voluntary (vs. compulsory) preventive actions are better able to adapt to different aspects of life changes. In four studies, we demonstrate that voluntary preventive measures have a positive effect on consumers’ adaptation to work, social relationships, interest in hobbies, and other consumption aspects. Because voluntary behavior promotes autonomy, we also manipulate consumers’ autonomous motivation and find that feeling autonomous increases consumers’ intention to take prevention and pursue adaptation. Moreover, we manipulate consumer self-efficacy and find that it improves consumer safety behavior and adaptation.
Climate change impacts on hydrologic systems, coupled with increasing water demand and a growing global population, has led to depleted water resources in semi-arid regions around the world. This increase in water shortages has significant implications for environmental justice and equity concerns. One such region impacted by both water scarcity and deep-seated inequality is the Western Cape of South Africa, whose drought crisis reached peak recognition when the City of Cape Town released its notice of “Day Zero” in 2018, the day the city would turn off the taps to residents. This study examines the changes in physical factors prior to and during the 2015–2018 drought in Cape Town and evaluates how policy decisions made in response to this event interacted with existing social injustices. Analysis of the physical data finds only a slight direct relationship between rainfall and dam levels (r2 = 0.3), suggesting a more complex narrative for the decrease in water supply, including increased water use and management decisions. Of the many policies implemented to avoid Day Zero, some were found to be more effective and can be utilized long-term. The study also finds that the Cape Town water crisis has unveiled and heightened existing inequalities through placing a disproportionate financial burden on low-income communities. As droughts become more common, Cape Town provides a crucial case study for understanding the social, political, and environmental implications of drought management in the future.
Objective The COVID -19 pandemic presents a high mortality rate amongst patients who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of venovenous ECMO in COVID-19-related ARDS and identify the patients that benefit the most from this procedure. Methods Adult COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS requiring VV-ECMO support at four academic insititutions between March and October 2020 were included. Data were collected through retrospective chart reviews. Bivariate and multivariable analysis were performed with the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality. Results Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent VV-ECMO with a mean age of 50.4 years; 64.7% were male. Survival to hospital discharge was 62.8%. Median ICU and hospitalization duration were 27.4 (IQR:17-37) and 34.5 days (IQR:23-43), respectively. Survivors and non-survivors had a median ECMO cannulation time of 11 days (IQR 8-18) and 17 days (IQR: 12-25). The average post decannulation length of stay was 17.5 days (IQR: 12.4-25) for survivors and 0 days for non-survivors (IQR 0-6 days). Only one non-survivor was able to be decannulated. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality between non-surviors and survivors included increasing age (p=0.0048), hemorrhagic stroke (p=0.0014), and post operative dialysis (p=0.0013)were associated with mortality in a bivariate model and retained statistical significance in a multivariable model. Conclusion This multicenter study confirms the effectiveness of VV-ECMO in selected critically ill patients with COVID-19-related severe ARDS. The survival of these patients is comparable to non-COVID-19-related ARDS.
We analyze spillovers of financial conditions on international portfolio bond flows. We document significant US financial conditions spillovers using data from developed and emerging countries. To disentangle the nature of spillovers, we rely on panel spatial autoregressive models, and third market competition on global trade flows to capture direct and indirect effects. We find that 30% of US spillovers are due to indirect effects in mutual funds with a regional-target investment focus.
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