University of Salzburg
  • Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Recent publications
Objective To establish reference data on required competition age regarding performance levels for both sexes, all swimming strokes, and race distances and to determine the effect of competition age on swimming performance in the context of other common age metrics. In total, 36,687,573 race times of 588,938 swimmers (age 14.2 ± 6.3 years) were analyzed. FINA (Fédération Internationale de Natation) points were calculated to compare race times between swimming strokes and race distances. The sum of all years of race participation determined competition age. Results Across all events, swimmers reach top-elite level, i.e. > 900 FINA points, after approximately 8 years of competition participation. Multiple-linear regression analysis explained up to 40% of variance in the performance level and competition age showed a stable effect on all race distances for both sexes ( β = 0.19 to 0.33). Increased race distance from 50 to 1500 m, decreased effects of chronological age ( β = 0.48 to − 0.13) and increased relative age effects ( β = 0.02 to 0.11). Reference data from the present study should be used to establish guidelines and set realistic goals for years of competition participation required to reach certain performance levels. Future studies need to analyze effects of transitions between various swimming strokes and race distances on peak performance.
In this paper we establish a higher integrability result up to the boundary of weak solutions to doubly nonlinear parabolic systems. We show that the spatial gradient of a weak solution with vanishing lateral boundary values is integrable to a larger power than the natural power p, where the statement holds for parameters in the subquadratic case max{2nn+2,1}<p≤2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ \max \lbrace \frac{2n}{n+2}, 1 \rbrace < p \le 2$$\end{document}.
We prove the analyticity of smooth critical points for generalized integral Menger curvature energies intM(p,2), with p∈(73,83), subject to a fixed length constraint. This implies, together with already well-known regularity results, that finite-energy, critical C1-curves γ:R/Z→Rn of generalized integral Menger curvature intM(p,2) subject to a fixed length constraint are not only C∞ but also analytic. Our approach is inspired by analyticity results on critical points for O’Hara’s knot energies based on Cauchy’s method of majorants and a decomposition of the first variation. The main new idea is an additional iteration in the recursive estimate of the derivatives to obtain a sufficient difference in the order of regularity.
The early Neoproterozoic granitoids exposed in the Bikou Terrane preserve vital information for understanding the Tonian tectonic evolution along the northwestern margin of the Yangtze Block, South China. However, their accurate forming age, petrogenesis, and tectonic attributes remain ambiguous. This study reports new results on zircon U–Pb geochronology, zircon Hf isotopes, whole-rock geochemistry, and Sr–Nd isotopes of the Baiquesi and Bahaihe quartz monzonite, Shilingou monzogranite, and Maliupu granodiorite from the Bikou Terrane. Detailed zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the quartz monzonite and monzogranite were formed at ca. 860 Ma, whereas the granodiorite was emplaced at ca. 825 Ma. The quartz monzonite and monzogranite samples exhibit certain linear correlations in the Harker diagram, congruent distribution patterns of rare earth elements, and consistent isotopic compositions, indicating that they shared the same magma source, whereas the monzogranite was formed by differentiation crystallization of primitive quartz monzonite melt. The quartz monzonite samples are calc-alkaline in composition and have high ratios of Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N, coinciding well with the adakitic rocks. The relatively high contents of MgO, Ni, Cr, and Sr, low contents of Yb and Y, low ratios of La/Ce, Rb/Sr, and Th/La, and positive values of εHf(t) (+4.8–+6.7) and εNd(t) (+1.7–+2.1) indicate that they were formed by the interaction between slab-derived melt and mantle wedge. This mechanism may be triggered by a slab rollback process in an arc-related setting. The Maliupu granodiorite samples are classified as calc-alkaline I-type granitoids, and have low concentrations of MgO, Cr, Ni, and Y, and low ratios of Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N. They are featured by highly evolved εHf(t) values from −15.0 to −10.9 and εNd(t) values from −11.8 to −11.9, with Hf and Nd model ages ranging between 2.63 and 2.20 Ga, implying they were derived from partial melting of the ancient lower mafic crust and were formed in a subduction-related setting. Therefore, the new data, combined with those from previous studies in the Bikou Terrane, provide an essential link in the evidence chain for the hypothesis that the northwestern periphery of the Yangtze Block was in a persistent subduction-related tectonic regime in the early Neoproterozoic.
Aims To find out which variables may be associated with comfort of patients in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Design Exploratory, quantitative study design. Methods Data were collected from October 2018 to November 2019 in Austria and Southern Germany. A total of 267 patients of 10 epilepsy centres completed the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit Comfort Questionnaire which is based on Kolcaba's General Comfort Questionnaire. Secondary data analysis were conducted by using descriptive statistics and an exploratory model building approach, including different linear regression models and several sensitivity analyses. Results Total comfort scores ranged from 83 to 235 points. Gender, occupation and centre turned out to be possible influential variables. On average, women had a total comfort score 4.69 points higher than men, and retired persons 28.2 points higher than high school students ≥18 years. Comfort scores of younger patients were lower than those of older patients. However, age did not show a statistically significant effect. The same could be observed in marital status and educational levels. Conclusion When implementing comfort measures, nurses must be aware of variables which could influence the intervention negatively. Especially, high school students ≥18 years should be supported by epilepsy specialist nurses, in order to reduce uncertainty, anxiety and discomfort. But, since the identified variables account only for a small proportion of the inter-individual variability in comfort scores, further studies are needed to find out additional relevant aspects and to examine centre-specific effects more closely.
Aims/hypothesis Attenuated counterregulation after recurrent hypoglycaemia is a major complication of diabetes treatment. As there is previous evidence for the relevance of sleep in metabolic control, we assessed the acute contribution of sleep to the counterregulatory adaptation to recurrent hypoglycaemia. Methods Within a balanced crossover design, 15 healthy, normal-weight male participants aged 18–35 years underwent three hyperinsulinaemic–hypoglycaemic clamps with a glucose nadir of 2.5 mmol/l, under two experimental conditions, sleep and sleep deprivation. Participants were exposed to two hypoglycaemic episodes, followed by a third hypoglycaemic clamp after one night of regular 8 h sleep vs sleep deprivation. The counterregulatory response of relevant hormones (glucagon, growth hormone [GH], ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline [epinephrine] and noradrenaline [norepinephrine]) was measured, and autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms were assessed. Results Sleep deprivation compared with sleep dampened the adaptation to recurrent hypoglycaemia for adrenaline (p=0.004), and this pattern also emerged in an overall analysis including adrenaline, GH and glucagon (p=0.064). After regular sleep, the counterregulatory responses of adrenaline (p=0.005), GH (p=0.029) and glucagon (p=0.009) were attenuated during the 3rd clamp compared with the 1st clamp, but were preserved after sleep deprivation (all p>0.225). Neuroglycopenic and autonomic symptoms during the 3rd clamp compared with the 1st clamp were likewise reduced after sleep (p=0.005 and p=0.019, respectively). In sleep deprivation, neuroglycopenic symptoms increased (p=0.014) and autonomic symptoms were unchanged (p=0.859). Conclusions/interpretation The counterregulatory adaptation to recurrent hypoglycaemia is compromised by sleep deprivation between hypoglycaemic episodes, indicating that sleep is essential for the formation of a neurometabolic memory, and may be a potential target of interventions to treat hypoglycaemia unawareness syndrome. Graphical abstract
Aim To identify priority areas for in situ conservation and collection of germplasm for ex situ backup of crop wild relative (CWR) diversity in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region as part of an action plan for the conservation and use of the region's important CWR diversity. Location SADC region. Methods Diversity, gap and climate change analyses at species and ecogeographic diversity levels were undertaken for 113 regional priority CWR taxa. Results CWR hotspots were identified in Eswatini (former Swaziland), Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Twenty‐one per cent of regionally priority CWR occur exclusively outside existing protected areas (PAs), 50% are not conserved ex situ, and 64% are predicted to be negatively impacted by climate change. A total of 120 existing PAs in 13 countries were identified as containing populations likely to persist in the future for 80% of CWR taxa and about 50% of the ecogeographic diversity of these taxa; remaining diversity can be conserved in an additional 151 complementary sites in 11 countries. Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, South Africa and Tanzania contain important areas for conserving CWR diversity in situ in which no negative climate change impact is predicted. Priority CWR diversity in the provinces of Bas‐Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Cabinda (Angola) is threatened by climate change and should be collected urgently for ex situ conservation. Other areas rich in ecogeographic diversity that is not conserved ex situ are located in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Main conclusions We identified 120 PAs and 151 complementary sites outside of PAs in 13 SADC countries that could form the basis of the SADC Network for In Situ Conservation of CWR. We also selected priority areas for filling gaps in ex situ collections and for field survey.
This work is a contribution to the ongoing search for algebraic structures within a nonlinear setting. Here, we shall focus on the study of lineability of subsets of continuous functions on the one hand and within the setting of Sobolev spaces on the other (which represents a novelty in the area of research).
The paper focuses on the development of an open-source utility tool for the analysis of eye-tracking data recorded on interactive web maps. The tool simplifies the labor-intensive task of frame-by-frame analysis of screen recordings with overlaid eye-tracking data in the current eye-tracking systems. The tool's main functionality is to convert the screen coordinates of the participant's gaze to real-world coordinates and allow exports in commonly used spatial data formats. The paper explores the existing state-of-art in an eye-tracking analysis of dynamic cartographic products as well as the research and technology aiming at improving the analysis techniques. The developed software, called ET2Spatial, is tested in-depth in terms of performance and accuracy. The capabilities of GIS software for visualizing and analyzing recorded eye-tracking data are investigated. The tool aims to enhance the research capabilities in the field of eye-tracking in geovisualization.
The main aim of the present study was to investigate the spatiotemporal trends of urban traffic accident hotspots during the COVID-19 pandemic. The severity index was used to determine high-risk areas, and the kernel density estimation method was used to identify the risk of traffic accident hotspots. Accident data for the time period of April 2018 to November 2020 were obtained from the traffic police of Tabriz (Iran) and analyzed using GIS spatial and network analysis procedures. To evaluate the impacts of COVID-19, we used the seasonal variation in car accidents to analyze the change in the total number of urban traffic accidents. Eventually, the sustainability of urban transport was analyzed based on the demographic and land use data to identify the areas with a high number of accidents and their respective impacts on the local residences. Based on the results, the lockdown measures in response to the pandemic have led to significant reductions in road traffic accidents. From the perspective of urban planning, the spatiotemporal urban traffic accident analysis indicated that areas with high numbers of elderly people and children were most affected by car accidents. As we identified the hotspots of urban traffic accidents and evaluated their spatiotemporal correlation with land use and demography characteristics, we conclude that the results of this study can be used by urban managers and support decision-making to improve the situation, so that fewer accidents will happen in the future.
The analysis of postmortem protein degradation has become of large interest for the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI). Although several techniques have been published in recent years, protein degradation-based techniques still largely did not exceed basic research stages. Reasons include impractical and complex sampling procedures, as well as highly variable protocols in the literature, making it difficult to compare results. Following a three-step procedure, this study aimed to establish an easily replicable standardized procedure for sampling and processing, and further investigated the reliability and limitations for routine application. Initially, sampling and processing were optimized using a rat animal model. In a second step, the possible influences of sample handling and storage on postmortem protein degradation dynamics were assessed on a specifically developed human extracorporeal degradation model. Finally, the practical application was simulated by the collection of tissue in three European forensic institutes and an international transfer to our forensic laboratory, where the samples were processed and analyzed according to the established protocol.
Classification is a very common image processing task. The accuracy of the classified map is typically assessed through a comparison with real-world situations or with available reference data to estimate the reliability of the classification results. Common accuracy assessment approaches are based on an error matrix and provide a measure for the overall accuracy. A frequently used index is the Kappa index. As the Kappa index has increasingly been criticized, various alternative measures have been investigated with minimal success in practice. In this article, we introduce a novel index that overcomes the limitations. Unlike Kappa, it is not sensitive to asymmetric distributions. The quantity and allocation disagreement index (QADI) index computes the degree of disagreement between the classification results and reference maps by counting wrongly labeled pixels as A and quantifying the difference in the pixel count for each class between the classified map and reference data as Q. These values are then used to determine a quantitative QADI index value, which indicates the value of disagreement and difference between a classification result and training data. It can also be used to generate a graph that indicates the degree to which each factor contributes to the disagreement. The efficiency of Kappa and QADI were compared in six use cases. The results indicate that the QADI index generates more reliable classification accuracy assessments than the traditional Kappa can do. We also developed a toolbox in a GIS software environment.
Meaningfulness is a profound aspect of our lives. So far, a concrete reflection of what meaning means in HCI is still rare. To understand users as humans, and thus, the humanity in being a user, we adopt Viktor Frankl’s understanding of users as meaning-seeking subjects. To make the concept of meaningfulness more graspable, we refer to what Frankl calls the three existentials of life: freedom, responsibility, and noos. We elaborate four dimensions, namely the existentials as an outcome, as their embeddedness in technology, their role in interaction, and their (non-)usage. This is followed by a discussion on the interwovenness of the three existentials as well as their potential impact on HCI research. By that, we aim to contribute to a profound understanding of meaning for HCI, from the epistemological to the methodological perspective, to enable meaning-centered design.
Purpose A few studies suggest that hormones play a role in the motility of the lower esophagus, but data is rare. In this prospective study we evaluated the correlation between hormones (TSH, fT3, fT4, calcitonin, gastrin, and VIP) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal motility disorders, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods 100 consecutive patients with reflux symptoms and dysphagia were hospitalized for diagnostic evaluation. Self-reporting questionnaires were handed out and patients routinely underwent serum analysis (TSH, fT3, fT4, calcitonin, gastrin, and VIP), 24-hour-pH-impendance monitoring, and high-resolution manometry. Results Motility disorders were found in 38 out of 86 patients. There were no correlations between hormones, the DeMeester Score, and the lower esophageal sphincter pressure. A strong inverse relation between calcitonin and the Integrated Relaxation Pressure of the esophagogastric junction was found (r=–0.492; p<0.001). No correlations were found between hormone levels and the responses given in the questionnaires. Positive correlations, however, were found between VIP and gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as correlations between fT3 and dysphagia. Within the group with minor motility disorders, TSH and fT4 correlated with outcomes of the SCL-questionnaire. fT4 correlated with the typical symptoms, as well as the gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, constipation, flatulence). TSH correlated with the typical symptoms. Moreover, a correlation between VIP and gas-bloat-symptoms was found within group II Conclusions No correlation between TSH, fT3, fT4, gastrin, VIP, calcitonin, and GERD in the sense of acid reflux was found, although calcitonin seems to have an effect on the lower esophageal sphincter.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
5,305 members
Elfriede Stocker
  • Department of Organismic Biology
Erich Hamberger
  • Department of Communication Science
Thomas Stöggl
  • Department of Sport and Exercise Science
Martin Kronbichler
  • Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience
Kapitelgasse 4-6, A-5020, Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hendrik Lehnert