University of Roehampton
  • London, United Kingdom
Recent publications
The study examined the association between teacher engagement with academic research to inform practice for pupils with Social Emotional Mental Health Difficulties (SEMHD) and teacher attitudes towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBP) for pupils with SEMHD in a sample (n = 79) of undergraduate and postgraduate primary school trainee teachers in England, UK. A questionnaire was used to assess teachers’ academic research engagement operationalised as positive attitudes towards academic research, use of academic research, and knowledge about research. The Evidence-based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) was used to examine attitudes towards EBP. The findings showed that while appreciation of academic research in the sample was high, the use of academic research to inform practice and knowledge about research was low. A positive attitude towards academic research, less scepticism towards the value of academic research to inform school practice, and high research knowledge was associated with a more positive attitude towards EBP. More scepticism towards academic research to inform school practice for SEMHD and weaker understanding of research methods was linked to more scepticism about the relevance of EBP for school practice. The findings have implications for pre-service and in-service teacher training on SEMHD and the implementation of EBP for SEMHD in schools.
Introduction/Objective Disseminated histoplasmosis is a progressive granulomatous disease caused by Histoplasmosis capsulatum which is an intracellular dimorphic fungus endemic to Ohio and Mississippi River valleys in the United States. The progressive spread of the infection to organs is thought to be due to the failure of the activation of the T-cell mediated immune response. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare but potentially fatal condition in which histiocytes and lymphocytes build up in and damage organs and other blood cells. Diagnosing Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is diagnostically challenging due to the rare presentation. Hence, we are reporting this case to alert physicians to keep a high index of suspicion in such presentations. Methods/Case Report We present a 37-year-old man with a past medical history of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus complicated by Lupus Nephritis on immunosuppressive therapy who presented to the emergency department with hypotension and was admitted for acute kidney injury. Prior to the presentation, he had persistent fever, myalgias, cough, mild shortness of breath, and back pain. CT Chest shows “eggshell” calcification and further parasitology evaluation revealed a diagnosis of histoplasmosis using a blood sample where intracellular Histoplasma organisms were identified. A diagnosis of Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was made clinically after “Clinical and Testing Criteria” was evaluated. Despite further management, he developed coagulopathy and sepsis which led to his death. Results (if a Case Study enter NA) At autopsy, we found organomegaly of the liver, spleen, and kidneys. Microscopically, these enlarged organs show old fibrotic granulomas and granulomatous inflammation with suspected fungal organisms. Periodic Acid Schiff (Fungus) and Gomori's Methenamine Silver special stain confirm these fungal organisms to be consistent with Histoplasma species (3-5 micron budding yeasts). Conclusion This case report highlights that physicians should be aware of the diagnostic challenge that Disseminated Histoplasmosis with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis could pose in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, especially those on immunosuppression. The clinical presentation could easily mimic a flare of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, leading to more aggressive immunosuppression. Failure to recognize the infection promptly could lead to grievous complications and sometimes death.
In November 1820 the House of Lords found Caroline guilty of adultery, but the margin of victory was so slender that the government dropped its case. Public opinion had triumphed and the country erupted into weeks of festivities and celebrations normally reserved for military victories and royal spectacles. London was illuminated and a special thanksgiving service at St. Paul’s Cathedral was, in all but name, Caroline’s coronation. She was at the height of her power and popularity. This chapter focuses on how caricatures converted conventional pageants of national pride and pomp into radical, democratic spectacles.
When Caroline failed to seize the initiative and bring down the government, her enemies went on the offensive and launched a propaganda campaign to discredit her and smear her worthiness to be queen. Her alleged sexual indiscretions and lax decorum became the focus of a remarkable series of high-quality caricatures published by George Humphrey. These images played on the idea that Caroline had prostituted her body in three ways: to lovers, to the public, and to radical politicians. Punishment by caricature was therefore appropriate as it exposed her flaws in the full glare of the populist gaze. However, a close reading of these prints shows a persistent acknowledgement of Caroline’s popularity and agency which undercuts the attempt to crush her reputation.
Caroline’s trial for adultery took the controversy to new heights and created a feeding frenzy in the media. Her daily appearance in the House of Lords (where she was not allowed to speak) became a set-piece confrontation between the government and her massed supporters, and between conservative and liberal notions of femininity and queenship. It was as if democracy, truth, and justice—indeed, the nation itself—were on trial. This chapter focuses on how caricatures idealized the idea of Caroline’s innocence and persecution, and how the king and his government were demonized as cowardly and on the brink of collapse in the face of overwhelming public opinion and the revolutionary power of the press. The illustrated satirical pamphlets of William Hone and George Cruikshank feature centrally.
Caroline died in August 1821 within weeks of being refused admission to the coronation of George IV, and while it is tempting to interpret this sad demise as the result of a broken heart, her end was as controversial as her arrival the previous year. The government’s attempt to dictate the route of her massive funeral procession led to an altercation in Hyde Park in which two innocent men were shot dead. The echo of Peterloo was not lost on commentators and caricaturists, in particular the Cruikshank brothers, Robert and George. This chapter features a previously unknown design by George Cruikshank.
Though the Caroline story begins with her failed marriage to the Prince of Wales in 1796, the controversy begins in the summer of 1820 when she refused to accept a government bribe in return for remaining in exile. From the moment she set foot on British soil, she was met by rapturous crowds and was propelled into the political and media limelight. This chapter focuses on this transformation and shows how caricatures magnified her rebelliousness, especially in those prints produced by radical publishers such as William Benbow and John Fairburn. Artists include George and Robert Cruikshank and William Heath. Caroline’s cause became synonymous with political reform and the rights of women.
The persistence of diverse communities and functioning ecosystems under increasing anthropogenic pressure relies on food web rewiring and the ability of animals to expand or change their diet in disturbed ecosystems. We combined a suite of diet tracing techniques to study trophic plasticity in omnivorous fishes, ecomorphologically similar species with high competition potential, across different human land uses in subtropical streams. We found that the proportion of native forest cover, associated with intensive land use, altered the isotopic composition of fishes, which were more enriched in 13C, without affecting the carbon isotope ratios of their prey and basal resources. There was also evidence for a nonlinear effect of native forest cover on the δ15N values of basal resources, macroinvertebrates, and omnivorous fishes, indicating that nutrient pollution from agriculture propagated through stream food webs. The most widely distributed fish species shifted their diet from autochthonous resources to terrestrial invertebrates and sedimentary organic matter in disturbed streams. Moreover, the isotopic niche of this fish species was broader in streams with higher fish species richness, indicating the combined impacts of environmental change and competition on species coexistence. Therefore, our findings showed that the dominance and trophic niche breadth of dominant omnivores depend not only on the availability of resources but also on the interactions with their putative competitors.
Assistive Technologies (ATs) are extensively used and integrated into society, mainstream and specialist education settings, more so with students who have learning disabilities. Everyone has a perspective on the extent to which these devices provide students with disabilities and specifically in this case study, students with visual impairments (VI) independence during their education. This case study indicates the importance of researching emerging technologies within specialist education such as tablets, multiple forms of braille, and screen readers, while utilising a constructivist paradigm to undertake the mixed methods research. This study triangulates through the use of qualitative and quantitative research tools to discover mixed views on the extent to which AT promotes the independence of students with vision impairment, ultimately discovering the extent is somewhat individualised to each and every student. This study was conducted in an English, special-mainstream partnership further education college. Four students and five teaching staff members were interviewed, alongside five classroom observations of each staff member interviewed. The foci of this article are teacher and student perspectives on the extent to which ATs provide students with VIs independence in their learning, and if ATs play a crucial role in these students’ educations. The findings revealed largely positive views surrounding ATs potential for students with VI. The extent to which the students benefit from these advantages is dependent on the individual. The students focused much of their attention on their personal feelings towards using technology, whereas the teachers elaborated on their feelings and went into detail about particular students’ successes and pitfalls when using ATs. As technology is constantly changing, the participants expressed their concerns for keeping up to date. Recommendations for further research include a longitudinal study at the college where this research took place to discover whether partnership further education facilitates inclusion.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected students studying in higher education (HE) institutions in the UK and international contexts. Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) university students faced massive pressure during and post COVID-19 pandemic, alongside trying to meet their education goals. Our research project was with postgraduate students from two HE institutions, and this paper highlights participants' lived experiences and perspectives, including emotional stress, the need for greater support to access learning resources, financial issues and physical and mental health issues. Our paper suggests that HE institutions need to provide democratic spaces to encourage all students, including BAME students, to engage in dialogues among themselves and with other key players in HE, such as policymakers, and local and international communities, to address issues of inequality. It is important for HE institutions to listen to students' voices, reflect on the impact of the pandemic on their lives and make strategic planning for mitigating negativities and uplifting quality learning experiences post the pandemic.
Objective: There is a growing interest in idiographic patient-reported outcome measures (I-PROMs) for routine outcome monitoring (ROM) and clinical feedback (CF) in psychotherapy, but to our knowledge, no systematic reviews of the empirical literature. Method: We conducted a systematic literature search for empirical papers investigating effects and experiences of I-PROMs for ROM/CF and found a total of 13 papers. There was only one experimental controlled effectiveness study. Results: We formulated a narrative summary of the data set as a whole. We conducted a secondary analysis of nine papers containing qualitative data on stakeholder experiences with I-PROMs and found three superordinate themes and eight subthemes, summarized as "I-PROMs can facilitate self-reflection for patients, assist in identifying and tracking therapeutic topics, and make patients more committed to therapy by giving them a greater sense of responsibility and empowerment. Formulating goals and problems can be difficult, and lack of progress can be demotivating. Time in therapy is precious and must be spent wisely. Effective use of I-PROMs is facilitated by flexibility and therapists' use of clinical skills." Conclusion: We discuss the limitations of the study and provide recommendations for future research and clinical practice.
For many years, the NER model has been used to assess the quality of live subtitles created by respeaking on television. In this article, I present and explore the NERLE model, an adaptation of the NER for use at Live Events (LE). This new setting is a dynamic one. When subtitles created within it were assessed with the NER model, many new categories of error were seen which proved complicated to classify, rendering the regular pathways of analysis offered by the NER model insufficient. Some errors resulted from the new, more complex, workflow and set up required at events and others from the new communicative possibilities that live events offer: audience members and people speaking at events are able to interact with respeakers and react and respond to the subtitles they produce in a way that people in a television programme cannot. This change, combined with the more complex access provision and accuracy assessment that live events entail demand that additional steps are incorporated within the NER model analysis workflow to make it applicable to this setting. The article begins with a review of how the NER model developed within the landscape of subtitle accuracy analysis; next the process involved in using the scoring system of the NER model, as the basis for the NERLE model, is examined; finally, the refinements of the NERLE model are presented and the scoring of a number of scenarios is also discussed. It concludes with suggestions for further exploration and applications of the model.
This article presents findings from a UK‐based qualitative study that explored parents/carers experiences of child to parent violence (CPV) from their child who has a neurodevelopmental difference. The study used semi‐structured interviews with 15 mothers who were experiencing physical and psychological violence from their child, often on a daily basis. Findings show that parents struggled to make sense of the violence, often feeling conflicted between whether the violence was the result of their child's neurodevelopmental challenges, ‘normal’ teenage behaviour or, in some cases, their child's poor mental health. Parents also recognised the inappropriateness of common advice they were given to address CPV. The implications of these complex sense‐making practices are discussed in relation to future research and practice.
Researchers from multiple disciplines have studied the simulation of actions through motor imagery, action observation, or their combination. Procedures used in these studies vary considerably between research groups, and no standardized approach to reporting experimental protocols has been proposed. This has led to under-reporting of critical details, impairing the assessment, replication, synthesis, and potential clinical translation of effects. We provide an overview of issues related to the reporting of information in action simulation studies, and discuss the benefits of standardized reporting. We propose a series of checklists that identify key details of research protocols to include when reporting action simulation studies. Each checklist comprises A) essential methodological details, B) essential details that are relevant to a specific mode of action simulation, and C) further points that may be useful on a case-by-case basis. We anticipate that the use of these guidelines will improve the understanding, reproduction, and synthesis of studies using action simulation, and enhance the translation of research using motor imagery and action observation to applied and clinical settings.
In George Wald’s Nobel Prize acceptance speech for “discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”, he noted that events after the activation of rhodopsin are too slow to explain visual reception. Photoreceptor membrane phosphoglycerides contain near-saturation amounts of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The visual response to a photon is a retinal cis–trans isomerization. The trans-state is lower in energy; hence, a quantum of energy is released equivalent to the sum of the photon and cis–trans difference. We hypothesize that DHA traps this energy, and the resulting hyperpolarization extracts the energized electron, which depolarizes the membrane and carries a function of the photon’s energy (wavelength) to the brain. There, it contributes to the creation of the vivid images of our world that we see in our consciousness. This proposed revision to the visual process provides an explanation for these previously unresolved issues around the speed of information transfer and the purity of conservation of a photon’s wavelength and supports observations of the unique and indispensable role of DHA in the visual process.
KMT2A -rearranged (KMT2A-R) is an aggressive and chemo-refractory acute leukemia which mostly affects children. Transcriptomics-based characterization and chemical interrogation identified kinases as key drivers of survival and drug resistance in KMT2A -R leukemia. In contrast, the contribution and regulation of phosphatases is unknown. In this study we uncover the essential role and underlying mechanisms of SET, the endogenous inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatase PP2A, in KMT2A -R-leukemia. Investigation of SET expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples demonstrated that SET is overexpressed, and elevated expression of SET is correlated with poor prognosis and with the expression of MEIS and HOXA genes in AML patients. Silencing SET specifically abolished the clonogenic ability of KMT2A -R leukemic cells and the transcription of KMT2A targets genes HOXA9 and HOXA10 . Subsequent mechanistic investigations showed that SET interacts with both KMT2A wild type and fusion proteins, and it is recruited to the HOXA10 promoter. Pharmacological inhibition of SET by FTY720 disrupted SET-PP2A interaction leading to cell cycle arrest and increased sensitivity to chemotherapy in KMT2A -R-leukemic models. Phospho-proteomic analyses revealed that FTY720 reduced the activity of kinases regulated by PP2A, including ERK1, GSK3β, AURB and PLK1 and led to suppression of MYC, supporting the hypothesis of a feedback loop among PP2A, AURB, PLK1, MYC, and SET. Our findings illustrate that SET is a novel player in KMT2A -R leukemia and they provide evidence that SET antagonism could serve as a novel strategy to treat this aggressive leukemia.
This thesis aims to explore the development of dance education and the application of art dance therapy in the medical field. As a comprehensive form of art education, dance education not only helps to cultivate students aesthetic ability and artistic accomplishment, but also promotes physical and mental health and personal development. This article first reviews the history and development of dance education, and introduces the status and role of dance education in the education system, as well as the reflection on the current education system. Then, the thesis discusses the application of art dance therapy in the medical field. Art dance therapy is a comprehensive treatment method that combines dance and psychotherapy, and promotes the individuals psychological and physical recovery through dance and physical movement. Through in-depth research on the development of dance education and the application of art dance therapy, this thesis aims to provide theoretical and practical support for promoting the development of dance education in the medical field.
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Catherine Gilvarry
  • Department of Psychology
Fulvio D'Acquisto
  • Health Sciences Research Centre
Lewis Halsey
  • Department of Life Sciences
Mick Cooper
  • Department of Psychology
London, United Kingdom