# University of Rhode Island

• Kingston, Rhode Island, United States
Recent publications
The progressive increase in antibiotic resistance in recent decades calls for urgent development of new antibiotics and antibiotic stewardship programs to help select appropriate treatments with the goal of minimizing further emergence of resistance and to optimize clinical outcomes. Three new tetracycline-class antibiotics, eravacycline, omadacycline, and tigecycline, have been approved within the past 15 years, and represent a new era in the use of tetracyclines. These drugs overcome the two main mechanisms of acquired tetracycline-class resistance and exhibit a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against gram-positive, gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical pathogens, including many drug-resistant strains. We provide an overview of the three generations of tetracycline-class drugs, focussing on the efficacy, safety, and clinical utility of these three new third-generation tetracycline-class drugs. We also consider various scenarios of unmet clinical needs where patients might benefit from re-engagement with tetracycline-class antibiotics including outpatient treatment options, patients with known β-lactam antibiotic allergy, reducing the risk of Clostridioides difficile infection, and their potential as monotherapy in polymicrobial infections while minimising the risk of any potential drug-drug interaction. KEY MESSAGES The long-standing safety profile and broad spectrum of activity of tetracycline-class antibiotics made them a popular choice for treatment of various bacterial infections; unfortunately, antimicrobial resistance has limited the utility of the early-generation tetracycline agents. The latest generation of tetracycline-class antibiotics, including eravacycline, tigecycline, and omadacycline, overcomes the most common acquired tetracycline resistance mechanisms. Based on in vitro characteristics and clinical data, these newer tetracycline agents provide an effective antibiotic option in the treatment of approved indications in patients with unmet clinical needs – including patients with severe penicillin allergy, with renal or hepatic insufficiency, recent Clostridioides difficile infection, or polymicrobial infections, and those at risk of drug–drug interactions.
Cardiac contractile strength is recognised as being highly pH-sensitive, but less is known about the influence of pH on cardiac gene expression, which may become relevant in response to changes in myocardial metabolism or vascularization during development or disease. We sought evidence for pH-responsive cardiac genes, and a physiological context for this form of transcriptional regulation. pHLIP, a peptide-based reporter of acidity, revealed a non-uniform pH landscape in early-postnatal myocardium, dissipating in later life. pH-responsive differentially expressed genes (pH-DEGs) were identified by transcriptomics of neonatal cardiomyocytes cultured over a range of pH. Enrichment analysis indicated “striated muscle contraction” as a pH-responsive biological process. Label-free proteomics verified fifty-four pH-responsive gene-products, including contractile elements and the adaptor protein CRIP2. Using transcriptional assays, acidity was found to reduce p300/CBP acetylase activity and, its a functional readout, inhibit myocardin, a co-activator of cardiac gene expression. In cultured myocytes, acid-inhibition of p300/CBP reduced H3K27 acetylation, as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. H3K27ac levels were more strongly reduced at promoters of acid-downregulated DEGs, implicating an epigenetic mechanism of pH-sensitive gene expression. By tandem cytoplasmic/nuclear pH imaging, the cardiac nucleus was found to exercise a degree of control over its pH through Na ⁺ /H ⁺ exchangers at the nuclear envelope. Thus, we describe how extracellular pH signals gain access to the nucleus and regulate the expression of a subset of cardiac genes, notably those coding for contractile proteins and CRIP2. Acting as a proxy of a well-perfused myocardium, alkaline conditions are permissive for expressing genes related to the contractile apparatus.
In the California Current Ecosystem, upwelled water low in dissolved iron (Fe) can limit phytoplankton growth, altering the elemental stoichiometry of the particulate matter and dissolved macronutrients. Iron-limited diatoms can increase biogenic silica (bSi) content >2-fold relative to that of particulate organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), which has implications for carbon export efficiency given the ballasted nature of the silica-based diatom cell wall. Understanding the molecular and physiological drivers of this altered cellular stoichiometry would foster a predictive understanding of how low Fe affects diatom carbon export. In an artificial upwelling experiment, water from 96 m depth was incubated shipboard and left untreated or amended with dissolved Fe or the Fe-binding siderophore desferrioxamine-B (+DFB) to induce Fe-limitation. After 120 h, diatoms dominated the communities in all treatments and displayed hallmark signatures of Fe-limitation in the +DFB treatment, including elevated particulate Si:C and Si:N ratios. Single-cell, taxon-resolved measurements revealed no increase in bSi content during Fe-limitation despite higher transcript abundance of silicon transporters and silicanin-1. Based on these findings we posit that the observed increase in bSi relative to C and N was primarily due to reductions in C fixation and N assimilation, driven by lower transcript expression of key Fe-dependent genes.
Traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions applied to hedonic pricing models assume that, when using time series, the estimated coefficients for each of the attributes remain constant. We propose a Bayesian dynamic estimation of the hedonic regression model in which the estimated coefficients can be time-varying, demonstrated with an application of art prices. Our dynamic linear regression model overcomes the problems associated with traditional rolling-window based OLS (which represent ad hoc approximations to dynamic estimation), such as under or over-estimation of parameter values and non-adaptive window sizes to account for time-variability. Using a sample of 27,124 paintings sold at auction from 63 Pop-artists (2001–2013), we demonstrate that the estimated coefficients associated with commonly used art attributes fluctuate noticeably through time, and that certain types of artworks and artists might be regarded as “safer” investments (as their art experiences smaller maximum drawdowns), based on price dynamics during the financial crisis (2008–09).
In this paper, we study the relation between technological advancement, and corporate investment and hiring. We build a corporate investment model with dynamic technology conditions, and we find the optimal investment and labor inputs increase in response to technological innovation shocks. Consistent with the model predictions, we empirically show that corporate investment and hiring increase following technological advancements, using various measures of technological innovation. Further, we find the effect is stronger for firms in more innovative industry, firms with higher capital intensity and firms with higher market-to-book ratio. Our findings provide evidence for the endogenous growth theory, i.e., firms with successful innovations tend to expand in capital investment and employment, suggesting technological innovations are, to some extent, Hicks-neutral.
Daily deals, exemplified by proponents such as Groupon, Deals-for-Deeds and Pinduoduo, have been very popular across the globe among both online shoppers and businesses seeking to attract customers. A daily deal typically consists of a deep discount for a targeted group of shoppers valid for a single day. In this paper, we rely on the Rogers-Bass new product diffusion framework to delve into the adoption process of daily deals and untangle the drivers of adoption by analyzing a unique dataset we have scraped from Woot, an Amazon-owned daily deal website in the United States. Our results show that factors such as consumers’ prior experience with daily deals, time-of-day, and the price discount frame have a substantial quantifiable impact. Providing price discount information has a strong positive effect, in addition to just the deal price. We discuss managerial implications of the study and propose directions for future research.
Small-scale fishers around the world are facing many challenges in sustaining viable livelihoods due to diverse factors such as declining fisheries resources, degradation of coastal habitats, and climate change impact, among others. How fishers respond to change depends in part on their evaluations of adaptive capacity, and an understanding of factors underlying their evaluations can be helpful in guiding policies and programs to reduce vulnerability and build resilience. The paper presents a study of twelve small-scale fishing communities in eastern Thailand, which illustrates the multiplicity of factors influencing attitudes, beliefs, values and cognitive biases (ABVCs) concerning adaptive capacity. First, the ABVCs of small-scale fishers toward adaptation to changes and the reduction of fishery resources were elicited using a structured survey. Next, principle component analysis was performed on the survey results of 266 respondents, which revealed that the ABVCs concerning adaptive capacity are related to three main components: ability to change occupation (Options component), ability to compete (Ability component), and ability to plan for changes (Plan component). The final step identified factors influencing the adaptive capacity components with the use of regression analysis. Specifically, the ability to change work is positively related to level of education, and negatively associated with age and high dependency on fishing income. Satisfaction with income and with individual well-being determine the ability to compete. The ability to plan for changes, on the other hand, is influenced by evaluated level of closeness to nature, the factor that is expected to be associated with conservation behavior. The findings can aid in designing policies and interventions that align with the adaptive capacity of fishers; hence, enhancing viability and contributing to increasing resilience of small-scale fishing communities.
Forming accurate dynamic models through finite element (FE) methods always requires the system parameters to be precise. Given that a few frequency response functions (FRFs) of a dynamic system have been measured, an efficient FRF-based FE model updating method is developed to simultaneously update the system’s stiffness, damping and mass parameters. Instead of using the measured FRFs directly for model updating, the proposed method develops an efficient scheme to first extract the poles and zeros associated with a measured FRF, then derives a cross-model cross-mode-based (CMCM-based) updating method that utilized both measured poles and zeros. Two numerical examples, including computer simulation and lab experiment, are provided to demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed method.
Fishing is vital to millions of people in Southeast Asia. Overfishing along with climate-induced stressors have presented significant challenges to managers. Solutions for fisheries management in the region, however, tend to narrowly focus on production and catch restrictions despite the importance of local economies and relationships. For example, the role of networks known as patron-client systems are understood by scholars and local populations as important drivers of fisheries exploitation in Indonesia, but policy is rarely directed at them. Here, we perform value chain analysis to better understand the socioeconomic factors that mediate fish catch, distribution, and governance outcomes in an Indonesian fishing community. The community’s social context spurred the following research questions: i) In what ways does the regional fish trading system influence fisheries value chains; and ii) How does the current structure of trade align with fisheries and fishing actors on the island? Survey-based fieldwork collected data on species composition, revenue, and buyer/seller relationships from the point of catch to sale. These results showed that patrons earn disproportionate trading benefits compared to fishing clients, including higher revenues, bargaining power, and flexibility from their central position as lenders. Findings also revealed a strong connection between pelagic-based fishing crews and the wider market system, which mediates the trade of fish off-island. Given the links between trading hierarchies and fish flows in our study, we argue that efforts to enhance fisheries governance would be most effective if introduced through off-island auctioneers since they have significant power in controlling fish catch and distribution.
Recent advances in deep learning have led to tremendous achievements in computer vision applications. Specifically for the tasks of automated human age estimation and nudity detection, modern machine learning can predict whether or not an image contains nudity or the presence of a minor with startling accuracy. Fusing together separate models can make possible to identify instances of child pornography without ever coming into contact with the illicit material during model training. In this paper, a novel framework for automatically identifying Sexually Exploitative Imagery of Children is introduced. It is a synthesis of models for modeling human apparent age and nudity detection. The performance of this approach is thoroughly evaluated on several widely used age estimation and nudity detection datasets. Additionally, preliminary tests were conducted with the help of a local law enforcement agency on a private dataset of SEIC taken from real-world cases with up to 97% accuracy of SEIC video classification.
Growing evidence suggests that the glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) system modulates alcohol seeking and consumption, and GLP‐1 analogues may represent novel pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Accordingly, it is important to understand the potential effects of alcohol on the endogenous GLP‐1 system. In a series of secondary analyses of previous human laboratory experiments, we first examined the effects of alcohol administration, with different doses and routes of administration, on peripheral active GLP‐1 concentrations in heavy‐drinking individuals with AUD enrolled in placebo‐controlled pharmacological studies (only placebo conditions were analysed here). Alcohol administration resulted in a significant reduction of GLP‐1 levels across the four experiments (oral alcohol, variable dose: F3,28 = 6.52, p = 0.002; oral alcohol, fixed dose: F7,75.94 = 5.08, p < 0.001; intravenous alcohol, variable dose: F4,37.03 = 20.72, p < 0.001; intravenous alcohol, fixed dose: F4,13.92 = 10.44, p < 0.001). Next, central expression of the GLP‐1 receptor (GLP‐1R) in post‐mortem brain tissues (amygdala, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex) was compared between individuals with AUD and controls. Fold change of GLP‐1R mRNA in the hippocampus was significantly higher in individuals with AUD, compared to controls (F1,21 = 6.80, p = 0.01). A trend‐level effect with the same direction was also found in the prefrontal cortex (F1,20 = 3.07, p = 0.09). Exploratory analyses showed that GLP‐1R gene expression levels were correlated with behavioural measures of alcohol drinking (hippocampus) and cigarette smoking (hippocampus and prefrontal cortex). Collectively, these data provide novel information on the crosstalk between alcohol and GLP‐1 in a clinically relevant sample. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of this link. Here, we report the results of two studies investigating the effects of alcohol on different components of the glucagon‐like peptide‐1 (GLP‐1) system in heavy‐drinking individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). In the first study, alcohol administration was associated with an acute reduction in peripheral GLP‐1 concentrations. In the second study, individuals with AUD, compared to controls, showed higher expression of the GLP‐1 receptor gene in the brain (hippocampus and prefrontal cortex).
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to examine treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) for combination of nivolumab (NIVO) and ipilimumab (IPI) compared to NIVO monotherapy among cancer patients. We searched several databases to identify relevant RCTs. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects model. In fourteen RCTs included in the study, we found that compared to NIVO monotherapy, combination NIVO + IPI increased the risk of any grade (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.11), and grade 3 or 4 (RR =1.95) TRAEs. Compared to NIVO, NIVO + IPI had higher risk for any grade colitis (RR =4.52), pneumonitis (RR =3.06), and diarrhea (RR =1.68).
Regular HIV testing is an essential component of the HIV prevention and care cascade. Sexual minority males (SMM) account for most new HIV infections in the US and testing rates among SMM vary substantially across the lifespan. Research has largely overlooked the developmental context of HIV testing. The current study compared correlates of HIV testing among adolescents (aged 13-17; n = 1,641), emerging adults (aged 18-29; n = 50,483), early adults (aged 30-39; n = 25,830), middle adults (aged 40-64; n = 25,326), and late adults (65 and older; n = 1,452) who were recruited online. Overall, HIV testing rates were lowest among adolescent SMM. Having condomless anal sex in the past 3-months was a consistentpredictor of HIV testing across all age cohorts.The association between relationship status and frequency of HIV testing varied across ages. Being in a non-monogamous relationship (versus single) was associated with more frequent HIV testing among adolescent and emerging adult SMM , while being in a monogamous relationship (versus single) was associated with lower odds of HIV testing among early, middle, and late adults.
The literature on the interplay between geographic communities and organizations has largely ignored the role of individual residents. In adopting a meso-perspective, we examine a potentially vital relationship between corporate conduct and pro-social behavior demanding sacrifice from individuals. Drawing on Weber (Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology. University of California Press, Berkeley, 1978 (Translation of Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, Grundriss der verstehenden Soziologie, 1922)), we theorize that organizations in a community legitimize personal social conduct in three ways—by serving as role models, imparting norms and values, and routinizing forms of interaction. We study the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) behavior by local firms and the social distancing (SD) of citizens in US counties during the Covid-19 pandemic, a core ethical outcome. We argue and find that the residents of communities in which firms exhibit higher levels of CSR engaged in more SD during the Covid-19 pandemic. This was true when firms were (a) long-established, (b) isomorphic in their CSR, and (c) major employers and vendors. Moreover, CSR relating to the treatment of employees as well as positive and negative extremes in CSR bore especially strong relationships with SD. Implications are drawn for the study of business ethics, as modeled by CSR, as a force for ethical personal behavior and public health in communities.
Systemic oppression includes inequitable education that historically does not fully prepare students for comprehensive participation in society. The tools of science education, however, uniquely enable students to explore social inequities as well as the natural world. Thus, a role of education can be to embed social justice in science curricula. Presented here are three case studies that investigate pedagogical methods used by experienced teachers to integrate social justice into upper level high-school biology curricula. Two separate semi-constructed interviews were conducted with participants, along with an analysis of their pedagogical materials. Two main themes are identified and explored: (1) delivery methods (pedagogy) and (2) biological science content. Storytelling and culturally responsive pedagogy were reported to be highly effective in engaging students; using these vehicles for delivery, social justice content can be seamlessly introduced alongside organic evolution. This embedded exploratory multiple-case study serves as an example of how science education can become a tool for student empowerment. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11191-021-00287-y.
Research regarding daily acute pain and its correlates has primarily been conducted with adolescents who have had major surgery or musculoskeletal pain, restraining efforts towards adapting interventions for adolescents with other sources of acute pain. We explored the trajectories and correlates of pain intensity. Adolescents with an opioid prescription to treat acute pain (N = 157) completed demographic questions, and the PROMIS pediatric depression and anxiety subscales. A 10-day daily diary assessed pain intensity, pain interference, sleep quality, and opioid use. Three trajectories of pain intensity emerged: (1) slow decreases in pain, (2) rapid decreases in pain, and (3) stable or slight increases in pain. Teens with stable pain demonstrated the greatest anxiety levels. Higher sleep quality predicted lower next day pain intensity and pain interference, when controlling for opioid use. Future research should employ intensive longitudinal methodology to further guide intervention development and prevent the transition to chronic pain.
Distributive fairness influences public acceptance of renewable energy technologies. Concerns about distributive fairness contribute to opposition to export of electricity and public preferences for electricity to be consumed near its production. Distributional issues are relevant to offshore wind energy development, where the coastal communities nearest to the developments may see none of the jobs, economic development, or profits associated with development, with undersea cables often delivering the electricity to faraway places. In a survey of coastal residents in the northeast United States, we find differences in support for use of offshore wind energy in their own state. Support for electricity use by other states, however, reveals the effects of subnational regionalism. Residents of Rhode Island prefer the use of electricity produced off their shores by the state of Massachusetts over New York; residents of New Hampshire prefer for Maine to consume energy over Massachusetts. These findings portend conflicts over the transmission of electricity as offshore wind energy development expands in U.S. and has implications for all renewable energy transmission that crosses regional boundaries.
Let (A,+)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$(A,+)$$\end{document} be a finite Abelian group. Take the elements of A to be vertices of a complete graph and color the edge ab with a+b\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$a+b$$\end{document}. A tree in A is rainbow colored provided all of its edges have different colors. In this paper, we study conditions that regulate whether or not a given tree can be realized as a rainbow spanning subtree of an Abelian group of the same order. For example, let C[h1,⋯,hs]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$C[h_1, \dots , h_s]$$\end{document} denote the caterpillar with s spine vertices and with hi\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$h_i$$\end{document} hairs on the ith spine vertex. We characterize, by means of divisibility conditions, when a caterpillar of type C[k,ℓ],C[k,0,ℓ]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$C[k,\ell ], C[k,0,\ell ]$$\end{document} or of type C[k,0,0,ℓ]\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$C[k,0,0,\ell ]$$\end{document} embeds as a rainbow spanning tree in a group of the same order. We also show that embeddability as a rainbow spanning tree is not a local condition. That is, given any tree T and sufficiently large non-cyclic group A, some trees of order A\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\left| A \right|$$\end{document} that contain T as a subtree do embed as rainbow spanning trees in A, and some do not. For non-Boolean groups A of order at most 20, we give a complete catalogue of all trees that fail to embed as rainbow spanning trees of A. We also show that all rainbow spanning trees in A can be obtained from the star with center 0 through a simple pivoting procedure.
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• School of Education
• Department of Chemistry
• Department of Kinesiology