Thrombotic events in SARS-COV-2 disease patients are frequent, especially in patients with comorbidities such as heart failure, hypertension, cancer, diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, vascular disease, and other pulmonary illnesses. In severe cases, in particular those of hospitalized patients with other comorbidities, the development of thrombotic events in spite of anticoagulation therapy has been observed. The main thrombotic events are pulmonary thromboembolism, cerebral ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery thrombosis. Despite the severity of SARS-COV-2 disease, some patients with the aforementioned comorbidities develop thrombotic events regardless of the severity of their SARS-COV-2 infection. In this setting, the cerebellum makes no exception as an uncommon, but still possible target for thrombotic events.
Zinner syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of the mesonephric duct comprising of seminal vesicle cyst, ipsilateral renal agenesis, and ejaculatory duct obstruction. Clinical presentation varies with perineal pain, painful ejaculation, hematospermia and infertility common presenting complaints. Here, we present a case of Zinner syndrome in a 35-year-old male with a rare clinical presentation of only abdominal discomfort. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the challenging clinical presentation of Zinner syndrome and the use of imaging modalities in diagnosing the condition.
The split left coronary artery (LCA) is an anomaly of coronary arteries connection related to the aorta, presenting more often in patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography compared to coronary computed tomography angiography. Although this anomaly causes no hemodynamic impairment, failure to recognize may lead to incorrect diagnosis and prolonged procedures during acute myocardial infarction resulting in serious complications. We report 2 cases of split left coronary artery presenting with acute myocardial infarction who underwent primary percutaneous coronary interventions (pPCI) with excellent outcomes. In the both cases, electrocardiogram demonstrated ST-segment elevation and cardiac biomarkers were increased. Also, before coronary angiography in both patients echocardiographic examination was performed revealing hypokinesis who corresponded with the territory of occluded coronary arteries. During invasive further coronary examinations split left artery was found, besides the culprit lesion in the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Successful percutaneous stenting was performed on LAD achieving TIMI flow grade 3 in both cases. Prompt recognition of split LCA in the setting of acute myocardial infarction during pPCI, it is essential to achieve appropriate treatment and avoid potential clinical consequences.
The aim of this study is to analyse the level and determinants of women farmers’ access to financial resources in agriculture in Kosovo. The study describes the socio-economic characteristics of women farmers and identifies the socio-economic factors that influence access to financial resources. Primary data were collected from one hundred forty-six (146) women farmers who had access to a source of finance using multistage random sampling. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Likert scores, and probit regression estimates. 61.94% of the women had a farm size between 0.2 and 1.0 hectares and had an average farming experience of 8.33 years. The majority, 40.48% of the respondents, had formal education. They had a relatively high number of sources of finance through “family savings” and did not have access to finance through “borrowing from family members”. The probit regression estimation showed that education level, gross annual income, and net worth each exerted a significant positive influence on the probability. This implies that the relevant institutions in the country should develop policies and programmes for women farmers with low levels of education, income, and net worth.
Following publication of the original article , the authors identified an error in the author name Marco Daverio. The given name and family name were erroneously transposed. The incorrect author name is: Daverio Marco. The correct author name is: Marco Daverio. The incorrect Results section in the Abstract reads: Seventy-one percent of PICUs stated to use protocols for analgosedation management, more frequently in highvolume PICUs (77% vs 63%, p = 0.028). It should instead read: Seventy-one percent of PICUs stated to use protocols for analgosedation management, more frequently in low-volume PICUs (77% vs 63%, p = 0.028). The author group has been updated above, and the original article  has been corrected
Objectives: To identify risk factors that contribute to the occurrence of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) and quantify the strength of their impact. Material and methods: This study was designed as a retrospective-prospective observational cohort study conducted on pregnant women at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics at the University Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. We measured the intrauterine degree of fetal development through the estimated fetal weight (EFW) on ultrasound examination, which was calculated using Hadlock's formula 3. Fetuses whose EFW was below the 10th percentile on the World Health Organization (WHO) fetal growth charts adjusted for gender and gestational age were classified as FGR fetuses, while newborns weighing less than the 10th percentile were considered SGA. Results: The study included 320 pregnant women with an average age of 30.3 ± 5.5 years who gave birth to 332 newborns. The results of univariate and multivariate stepwise backward conditional binary logistic regression showed that the occurrence of FGR during the second trimester was more likely in pregnant women with lower body height and proteinuria. The risk factors for the occurrence of FGR during the third trimester were lower body height and proteinuria, while iron supplementation had a protective effect. SGA newborns were more common in pregnant women who were shorter, had proteinuria, used corticosteroids, or smoked during pregnancy. Conclusions: Clinicians should pay special attention to pregnant women with lower body height, proteinuria, who smoke and use corticosteroids in order to prevent FGR and SGA.
Study purpose. This study purpose was to investigate whether health-related physical fitness is associated with total and central body fat in school children aged 6–10 years. Materials and methods. A total of 2197 Macedonian children aged 6–10 years (1096 boys and 1101 girls) participated in the study. Health-related physical fitness was measured by the modified EUROFIT test battery: the 20 m shuttle run test (cardiorespiratory fitness); the handgrip strength test, the standing long jump and the 30 s sit-ups tests (muscular strength); the 4×10 m shuttle run test (motor fitness) and the sit and reach test (flexibility). Body mass index, body fat percentage and waist circumference were used as markers of total and central body fat, respectively. Results. The standing long jump, the 30 s sit-ups, the 4×10 m shuttle run and the 20 m shuttle run tests were negatively associated with all markers of total and central body fat in boys and girls after controlling for age (p
The aim of the study was to propose a method for three-dimensional evaluation and visualisation of mucosa thickness and mucosa thickness changes and to validate it in four different software implementations. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digitised mandibular impression, i.e., optical scan, of five patients treated with a mandibular distal extension removable partial denture were acquired at baseline (T0) and 1-year follow-up (T1). CBCT images were automatically segmented and then superimposed with a corresponding optical scan and within a patient. To obtain mucosa thickness changes in the T0-T1 interval, firstly, the distances between T0 and T1 models were computed for mucosa surface, representing surface changes (dSurface) and bone surface, representing bone changes (dBone). The distances were saved as scalar field values in the mesh model. Finally, the mucosa thickness changes (dMucosa) were calculated by subtracting the corresponding dBone from dSurface values. Distance computation algorithms in four different software were tested and compared. No differences were found between all four tested software (p0.001). Mean (and standard deviation) of median dSurface, dBone, and dMucosa of right and left residual ridge (n=10) was -0.47mm (0.43), -0.44mm (0.62), and 0.00mm (0.35), respectively. High local variability of dBone and dMucosa was found on the colour-coded maps. A novel method facilitates precise three-dimensional evaluation and visualisation of mucosa thickness and thickness changes, regardless of the software used.
Air pollution is an increasing challenge for modern society globally, and it is a very common problem in Kosovo. In this work, the atmospheric deposition of Tl, Hg and As was studied using mosses as natural samplers. Moss samples (Homalothecium sericeum (Hedw.) Schimp. 1851, Hypnum cupressiforme Hedwig. 1801, and Pseudoscleropodium purum (Hedw.) M.Fleisch) were collected, cleaned, digested and then analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis and spatial distribution maps were performed to explain the obtained results. Median concentrations in mg/kg were 0.017 mg/kg for Tl, 0.088 mg/kg for Hg and 0.172 mg/kg for As. There were also extreme concentrations for Tl and As related to the industrial pollution sources such as the Trepça mine facilities in the town of Mitrovica, a thermoelectric coal power plant in the town of Obiliq and a cement factory in the town of Hani i Elezit. This indicates that the main industries causing pollution in Kosovo are mining processes and thermal power plant operations. ARTICLE HISTORY
This paper aims to analyze the impact of business-related crime on the performance of Kosovo firms. This also represents the research problem of this paper. The sample of firms consists of 200 firms from different economic sectors. This research is based on the research of Moyo (2012) and Botrić (2021) who used similar variables related to this issue. Through the ordinary least squares (OLS) econometric model, the results have been obtained that show that criminality or different types of crime of a business nature have a negative impact on the performance of these firms. Also, the results obtained prove that firms from the region of Pristina and Mitrovica are more exposed to crime, while as for the size of the firms, medium-sized firms are more exposed to crime compared to other firms. Firms in the textile and wood sectors, compared to firms in other sectors, are most affected by crime. Business associations and government institutions should design state policies that would ensure a safe environment for all firms in all regions of Kosovo and economic sectors. The relevance of this research lies in the fact that these findings have never been elaborated on by other authors from Kosovo.
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a training program for professional development on early education teachers' knowledge and skills, work motivation, and self-efficacy. A one-group pre-post-test design was used to assess the effect of the training program on 75 teachers working in public early education institutions in the Tirana municipality in Albania. The results indicated that completing training was associated with a significant increase in early education teachers' knowledge and skills, work motivation, and self-efficacy. These findings demonstrate the multiple benefits of professional training as a mechanism for supporting teachers' personal and professional development and improving teaching practice, the quality of early education settings, and children's early learning and growth experiences. Implications for practice, study limitations, and future research directions are also discussed.
Abstract Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease and can be reflected in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of metabolic control on saliva, dental caries, dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and cariogenic bacteria in saliva. Methods A case–control epidemiologic study was performed on children with type 1 diabetes (ages 10–15 years) separated into two groups: 34 children with good metabolic control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c 7.5%). Oral status was assessed using the Decay, Missing, and Filled Teeth index for permanent teeth (DMFT), plaque index and gingival index. The stimulated salivary flow rate was measured, and the colonies of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva were determined. The observed children answered questions related to their frequency of brushing habits, dental visits and parents’ education. Mann–Whitney U Test, Chi-Square test and Fisher’s exact test were used in the statistical analyses. The significance level was set at p 0.05). Conclusion The results indicate that children with diabetes have a lower level of oral hygiene and are potentially to dental caries and periodontal diseases, mainly when their metabolic disorder is uncontrolled.
Inclusive education is a priority and a challenge for education systems. The success of the inclusive practices’ implementation depends on the attitudes of teachers’ towards inclusive education. This research reflects the current state of pre-university teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion in Kosovo, as well as it examines the relationship between teachers’ attitudes and selected background variables and self-efficacy. The research conducted a quantitative design and included 499 teachers from 40 schools in Kosovo. The instruments that were used to collect the data are Teachers’ Attitudes towards Inclusion Scale (TAIS) and Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistical tests. Results show positive attitudes of teachers’ towards inclusive education. Secondary level teachers have more positive attitudes towards inclusion than those from primary ones. Correlation results found a negative relationship between teachers’ and educational qualification and experience of teachers with students with special needs. The factors that predict teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion are self-efficacy for inclusive practices, professional qualification and work experience with children with special needs. The findings highlight the need to develop teaching skills and provide systematic support for teachers, while placing them as a priority in education agendas to ensure the success of inclusion.
The effect of quaternary ammonium salts (DDPC and DDQC) with different concentrations on the corrosion inhibition of X65 carbon steel in the sour brine solution at different temperatures were investigated by weight loss, electrochemical measurements, surface analysis (SKP, AFM, SEM, EDS, and ATR-FTIR), and theoretical calculations (DFT, Monte Carlo, and molecular dynamics). It was found that the corrosion rate decreased with increasing inhibitor concentration, and the inhibition efficiency was about 98%. The adsorption of inhibitors on the metal surface followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Furthermore, inhibitors showed good performance at elevated temperatures. The computational studies supported the experimental data well.
Aims: To use Quality Indicators to study the management of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in different regions. Methods and results: Prospective cohort study of STEMI within 24 hours of symptom onset (11,462 patients, 196 centres, 26 ESC member and 3 affiliated countries). The median delay between arrival at a PCI centre and primary PCI was 40 min (IQR 20 to 74) with 65.8% receiving PCI within guideline recommendation of 60 min. A third of patients (33.2%) required transfer from their initial hospital to one that could perform emergency PCI for whom only 27.2% were treated within the quality indicator recommendation of 120 mins. Radial access was used in 56.6% of all primary PCI, but with large geographic variation, from 76.4% to 9.1%. Statins were prescribed at discharge to 98.7% of patients, with little geographic variation. Of patients with a history of heart failure or a documented LVEF ≤40%, 84.0% were discharged on an ACEI/ARB and 88.7% were discharged on beta blockers. Conclusions: Care for STEMI shows wide geographic variation in the receipt of timely primary PCI, and is in contrast with the more uniform delivery of guideline-recommended pharmacotherapies at time of hospital discharge.
Using the secondary data from Eurostat, World Bank, SEE Jobs Gateway Database and Kosovo Agency of Statistics labour source survey results the authors investigate female and youth unemployment as well as the level of inactivity in the labour market of Western Balkans with a particular focus on Kosovo. The results indicate that in Kosovo the unemployment rate remains the highest among Western Balkan countries. Whereas the unemployment rate of women and youth in Kosovo is even higher, presenting one of the main challenges and concerns for the country. The authors conclude by providing recommendations, which include implementing appropriate policies in order to decrease the unemployment rate, and the share of economically inactive women and youth by encouraging them to register as active job seekers or attend entrepreneurship training to gain the knowledge and skills needed to start a business.
The present work introduces a (p, q)-analogue of a linear positive operator based on multivariate Lagrange polynomials (Erkuş et al. in Appl Math Comput 182:213–222, 2006). Using P-summability convergence technique, we state and prove a non-trivial Korovkin type approximation theorem. Also, we provide a generalization of the proposed operator in response to the smoothness of a function and see the approximation behavior of a sufficiently smooth members of the Lipschitz class.
Social role theory posits that binary gender gaps in agency and communion should be larger in less egalitarian countries, reflecting these countries’ more pronounced sex-based power divisions. Conversely, evolutionary and self-construal theorists suggest that gender gaps in agency and communion should be larger in more egalitarian countries, reflecting the greater autonomy support and flexible self-construction processes present in these countries. Using data from 62 countries (N = 28,640), we examine binary gender gaps in agentic and communal self-views as a function of country-level objective gender equality (the Global Gender Gap Index) and subjective distributions of social power (the Power Distance Index). Findings show that in more egalitarian countries, gender gaps in agency are smaller and gender gaps in communality are larger. These patterns are driven primarily by cross-country differences in men’s self-views and by the Power Distance Index (PDI) more robustly than the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI). We consider possible causes and implications of these findings.
Rear wind is the air flow that blows in the rear side of the truck. Also known as a tailwind, this aerodynamic force can cause stability issues during forward travel. The methodology of the study is CFD numerical analysis of vehicle aerodynamics. The results will be acquired for the influential aerodynamic parameters, which includes velocity, pressure, vortex, stress, that will explain the impact of rear wind on the truck body. This is achieved with the aid of design, modelling, and simulations using software Comsol Multiphysics. The simulations were performed with freestream velocity of rear wind on the back and around the truck body. Virtual Wind tunnel is modelled around the truck to simulate the wind blow and distribution. There are two airflow regimes analysed: laminar flow and turbulent flow. Simulations for the laminar air flow were implemented for Compressed air flow and the velocity limit Ma<0.3. Simulations for the turbulent air flow regime were implemented based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANS) and K-ω model. Anemometer device is used for the experimental measurements of the wind velocity around the truck. The wind is a function of air velocity and atmospheric pressure. The paper is in the fields of Vehicle aerodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Transport safety.
This chapter discusses human rights and social work in Kosovo, especially how rights-based methods, shape social work practice and professional identity and how professional norms are shaped in return. Though human rights have become an integral part of Kosovo social work practice and education, reflecting a public discourse in which rights-based approaches have also assumed center stage, there are still barriers to social workers becoming true human rights professionals. These challenges have become increasingly visible as the unprecedented and uncertain times of the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the well-being of Kosovo’s people and their limited access to human rights. This chapter demonstrates how the crisis of political legitimacy—occurring just as COVID-19 cases were rising—left Kosovo without effective leadership, prompted citizen protests, and delayed critical legislation needed to help citizens cope with the pandemic. COVID-19 and political instability have both presented social work with challenges that have required ethically appropriate responses. This chapter concludes that Kosovo social workers can best promote their profession and help meet the needs of the new nation by employing rights-based approaches to social work practice, as rights-based approaches provide social workers with the tools to safeguard human rights standards and to address the inequality and social exclusion that were heightened by the COVID-19 pandemic. Social work will need to work with policymakers to create the conditions for social work to fully integrate human rights into their practices now and in the future postpandemic Kosovo. Në këtë kapitull flitet për të drejtat e njeriut dhe punën sociale në Kosovë, posaçërisht për mënyrën se si metodat e bazuara në të drejtat e njeriut formësojnë praktikën e punës sociale dhe identitetin profesional, si dhe për mënyrën se si formësohen normat profesionale nga metodat e bazuara në të drejta. Të drejtat e njeriut janë pjesë përbërëse e praktikës së punës sociale dhe e arsimit në Kosovë, praktikë kjo që reflekton diskursin publik, qasjet e të drejtave të njeriut, të cilat zënë vend qendror. Por, përkundër këtij diskursi, në Kosovë ka ende barriera që punëtorëve socialë u dalin përpara dhe i pengojnë të bëhen profesionistë të njëmendët të të drejtave të njeriut. Sfidat u bënë më të dukshme gjatë kohës së pandemisë Covid-19, e cila shkaktoi pasiguri me ndikim në mirëqenien e kosovarëve dhe qasje të kufizuar në të drejtat e njeriut. Në këtë kapitull demonstrohet se si kriza e legjitimitetit politik—që ndodhi kur rastet e Covid-19 rriteshin—e la Kosovën pa udhëheqje efektive, duke i shtyrë qytetarët në protesta dhe vonoi legjislacionin e nevojshëm që do t’i ndihmonte qytetarët të përballeshin me pandeminë. Covid-19 dhe jostabiliteti politik i paraqitën punës sociale sfida që kërkonin zgjidhje të duhura etike. Në këtë kapitull arrihet deri te përfundimi se punëtorët socialë në Kosovë më së miri mund të promovojnë profesionin e tyre dhe të ndihmojnë plotësimin e nevojave të kombit të ri duke zbatuar qasje të të drejtave të njeriut në praktikën e punës sociale, sepse qasjet e të drejtave të njeriut u ofrojnë punëtorëve socialë mjete për të ruajtur standardet e të drejtave të njeriut dhe për të adresuar pabarazinë dhe përjashtimin social që u thelluan nga pandemia e Covid-19. Puna sociale duhet të veprojë së bashku me politikë-bërësit për të krijuar kondita për punën sociale që në plotëni të mund t’i integrojë të drejtat e njeriut në praktikë, tani dhe në të ardhmen pas pandemisë në Kosovë.
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