University of Prince Edward Island

Recent publications
Thermal dose models are metrics that quantify the thermal effect on tissues based on the temperature and the time of exposure. These models are used to predict and control the outcome of hyperthermia (up to 45°C) treatments, and of thermal coagulation treatments at higher temperatures (>45°C). The validity and accuracy of the commonly used models (CEM43) are questionable when heating above the hyperthermia temperature range occurs, leading to an over-estimation of the accumulation of thermal damage. A new CEM43 dose model based on an Arrhenius-type, Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher, equation using published data, is introduced in this work. The new dose values for the same damage threshold that was produced at different in-vivo skin experiments were in the same order of magnitude, while the current dose values varied by two orders of magnitude. In addition, the dose values obtained using the new model for the same damage threshold in 6 lesions in ex-vivo liver experiments were more consistent than the current model dose values. The contribution of this work is to provide new modeling approaches to inform more robust thermal dosimetry for improved thermal therapy modeling, monitoring, and control.
As a result of climate change as well as the increasing need for island ecological protection, nature-based solutions have attracted increasing international attention. The impact of climate change and COVID-19 has presented island countries and regions with practical challenges such as rising sea levels, stunted economic development and difficult survival situations. Therefore, finding ways to realize the sustainable development of islands from a nature-based perspective has become a key concern. The Island Research Center of the Ministry of Natural Resources of China etc. organized the International Forum on Island Ecological Protection 2021 on November 19, 2021 with the theme, ‘Nature-based Island Ecological Restoration and Management Practice.’ The conference, which was held online and face-to-face, brought together front-line staff from government agencies, academic institutions and experts from major countries around the world to discuss emerging issues of sustainable island development.
A Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped marine bacterium, designated RKSG542 T , was isolated from the sea sponge Verongula gigantea collected at a depth of 20 m off the west coast of San Salvador, The Bahamas. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene and genome sequences place RKSG542 T in a monophyletic clade with members of the genus Pseudovibrio . Strain RKSG542 T shared <96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity,<72.2 % average nucleotide identity,<66.7 % average amino acid identity, and <24.8 % digital DNA–DNA hybridization with type strains of the family Stappiaceae . Growth occurred at 22–37 °C (22–30 °C optimum), at pH 7–9 (pH 7 optimum), and with 0.5–5 % (w/v) NaCl (2 % optimum). The predominant fatty acids (>10 %) were summed feature 8 (C 18 : 1 ω 6 c and/or C 18 : 1 ω 7 c ), C 18 : 0 and C 16 : 0 , and the respiratory lipoquinone was Q-10. The polar lipid composition comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, three unknown aminolipids, six unknown phospholipids and four unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content of the genome sequence was 52.5 mol%. Based on the results of biochemical, phylogenetic and genomic analyses, RKSG542 T (=TSD-76 T =LMG 29867 T ) is presented here as the type strain of a novel species within the genus Pseudovibrio (family Stappiaceae , order Hyphomicrobiales , class Alphaproteobacteria ), for which the name Pseudovibrio flavus sp. nov. is proposed.
In recent years, the Providing REgional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS) developed by the UK Met Office Hadley Centre has been used widely for climate downscaling and has demonstrated superior performance in reproducing the historical climatology in many regions around the world. However, all previous studies based upon PRECIS were solely driven by the GCMs from the Hadley Centre (i.e., HadCM3 and HadGEM2-ES). This inevitably limits its capability of exploring the uncertainties of regional climate projections caused by different boundary conditions from many other GCMs developed by different research centers around the world. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to investigate the downscaling performance of PRECIS to other GCMs for the first time. In particular, we use the CMIP6 boundary conditions from the BCC-CSM2-MR model from Beijing Climate Center to drive the PRECIS model in order to generate 25 km high-resolution climate scenarios for China. The downscaled temperature simulations from PRECIS for the baseline period (i.e., 1979–2004) are compared to the observational data (CN05.1) to help evaluate the downscaling performance. The results show that PRECIS can provide an obvious improvement in simulating the annual mean temperature over China, particularly in the east of China, with the bias of ~ 1 °C. Future changes in mean temperature over China under the SSP245 and SSP585 emission scenarios are further investigated with PRECIS. The downscaled projections by PRECIS show a smaller increase in temperature compared to its driving BCC-CSM2-MR, except for the late of this century under the SSP585. This study is the first attempt to use PRECIS to downscale a non-Hadley-Centre GCM and the evaluation results suggest that PRECIS does present a superior downscaling performance. The results from this study will provide a scientific basis for using PRECIS to downscale other GCMs in support of the exploration of regional climate projection uncertainties associated with different boundary conditions.
A piecewise linear spline maximum entropy optimization method is described for the approximation of fixed densities of the Frobenius-Perron operator associated with higher-dimensional transformations. Convergence in L1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$L^1$$\end{document}-norm is proved and several examples with results are given.
Nurses represent the highest proportion of healthcare workers globally and have played a vital role during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has shed light on multiple vulnerabilities that have impacted the nursing workforce including critical levels of staffing shortages in Canada. A review sponsored by the Royal Society of Canada investigated the impact of the pandemic on the nursing workforce in Canada to inform planning and implementation of sustainable nursing workforce strategies. The review methods included a trend analysis of peer-reviewed articles, a jurisdictional scan of policies and strategies, analyses of published surveys and interviews of nurses in Canada, and a targeted case study from Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan. Findings from the review have identified longstanding and COVID-specific impacts, gaps, and opportunities to strengthen the nursing workforce. These findings were integrated with expert perspectives from national nursing leaders involved in guiding the review to arrive at recommendations and actions that are presented in this policy brief. The findings and recommendations from this policy brief are meant to inform a national and sustained focus on retention and recruitment efforts in Canada.
The surgical treatment of a gastroesophageal intussusception (GEI) in a 4-week-old male intact German shepherd puppy is described in this report. Bilateral gastropexies were performed; an incisional gastropexy on the right and a gastrostomy tube gastropexy on the left. The dog recovered well and is thriving long-term with no clinical signs of persistent megaesophagus. With the combination of early detection and surgical correction of GEI, mortality rates may be lower than the 95% mortality rate that has been reported in previous literature and supports new studies that have reported a 65% survival rate long-term. Key clinical message: Young animals presenting with vague clinical signs require thorough evaluation to identify uncommon, yet life-threatening diseases such as GEI. Early detection and interventions can subsequently lead to successful outcomes.
Infant feeding is closely related to children’s life-long health and well-being. It is common for parents to withstand infant feeding challenges and with a plethora of guidelines and advice caregivers can face a great deal of stress. Extra-familial child care and employment circumstances also impact infant feeding, yet little is known about how caregivers experience them. This qualitative study explores working mothers’ infant feeding experiences during their children’s transition to a child care setting. Six mothers with at least one child age 6 to 18 months old in child care participated in semistructured interviews. The themes identified using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach were infant feeding burden on mothers, weaning stress, responsive feeding style, seeking professional support, and child care setting partnership. Mothers experienced a significant infant feeding burden due to a gendered division of labor and lack of professional resources and support. The infant feeding burden decreased considerably once children transitioned to child care and some feeding responsibilities were reallocated. Recommendations are discussed for how child care settings can play a more substantial role in supporting families with infant feeding through knowledge translation strategies and modeling. Future research directives assessing how partners can better assist mothers with infant feeding are suggested.
This study aimed to determine how materialism is related to relationship quality, as conceptualised across multiple levels, including an individual’s relationship to self (self-esteem and attachment), relationships with others (family, peers and intimate partners) and relationships in the broader social context (online and community). Young adults between 18 and 30 years of age (N = 205) completed an online self-report questionnaire that assessed materialism, self-esteem and attachment style, as well as a number of relationship variables of interest. Data were analysed using bivariate correlations and regression analyses. Lower self-esteem, anxious attachment and poorer quality of family relationships predicted higher levels of materialism (p < .05), even after controlling for demographic and socio-economic variables (p < .05), with self-esteem showing the strongest association. These findings were interpreted within a developmental framework that posits a central role for the individual’s early relationships and immediate environment in the etiology of materialism, although future longitudinal studies are needed to test this theory explicitly.
The present study investigates the relationship between nitrous oxide emissions and economic growth using the ARDL bounds testing approach in Canada over the period of 1970–2020. The agricultural land use and exports are included in the estimated models as additional control variables. The empirical findings confirmed the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis when total N2O emissions are used as a dependent variable in the case of Canada, and similar results are found when we used agricultural induced N2O emissions as a dependent variable. The results also indicate that Canada is already in the decreasing segment of the Kuznets curve, and the turning point of GDP per capita for the total N2O emissions is $41,718, while for agricultural induced N2O emissions, it is$38,825. Our empirical evidence confirms that agricultural land use had a positive and significant effect on total N2O emissions, while a negative but insignificant effect in the case of agricultural induced N2O emissions. However, Canadian exports are negatively associated with total N2O emissions as well as agricultural induced N2O emissions, but it requires more stringent laws to curb N2O emissions-oriented exports to keep the ecosystem in balance in the short-run and intends to meet its long-term target of reducing emissions as it progresses towards Canada’s 2050 net-zero ambition.
Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are industrial biowaste resulting from the coffee-brewing process, and they are often underutilized and end up in landfills, thereby leading to the emission of toxic gases and environmental damage. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an attractive approach to valorize wet biomass such as SCG to valuable bioproducts (i.e., hydrochar). Thus, in this work, the HTC of SCG was carried out in a 500 L stainless steel vessel at 150, 170, 190, 210, and 230 °C for 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, and 120 min and a feedstock to water weight ratio of 1:5, 1:10, and 1:15, and the use of the resulting hydrochar as a solid fuel was evaluated. The results showed that a high energy recovery (83.93%) and HHV (23.54 MJ/kg) of hydrochar was obtained at moderate conditions (150 °C, 30 min, and feedstock to water weight ratio of 1:5) when compared with conventional approaches such as torrefaction. Following this, the surface morphology, functionality, and combustion behavior of this hydrochar were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and TGA, respectively. In short, it can be concluded that HTC is an effective approach for producing solid fuel from SCG and the resulting hydrochar has the potential to be applied either in domestic heating or large-scale co-firing plants.
Objective To assess the impact of deferred (delayed) cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking in singleton and twin gestations on maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Target Population Women who are pregnant with preterm or term singletons or twins. Benefits, Harms, and Costs In preterm singletons, DCC for (ideally) 60 to 120 seconds, but at least for 30 seconds, reduces infant risk of mortality and morbidity. DCC in preterm twins is associated with some benefits. In term singletons, DCC for 60 seconds improves hematological parameters. In very preterm infants, umbilical cord milking increases risk for intraventricular hemorrhage. Evidence Searches of Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to March 2020 were undertaken using Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and key words related to deferred cord clamping and umbilical cord milking. This document represents an abstraction of the evidence rather than a methodological review. Validation Methods The authors rated the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. See online Appendix A (Tables A1 for definitions and A2 for interpretations of strong and conditional [weak] recommendations).
Exceptional orthogonal X1-polynomials of symmetric and nonsymmetric types can be considered as eigenfunctions of a Sturm–Liouville problem. In this paper, by defining a generic second-order differential equation, a unified classification of all these polynomials is presented, and 10 particular cases of it are then introduced and analyzed.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage (GsGd), which threaten the health of poultry, wildlife and humans, are spreading across Asia, Europe, Africa and North America but are currently absent from South America and Oceania. In December 2021, H5N1 HPAI viruses were detected in poultry and a free-living gull in St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that these viruses were most closely related to HPAI GsGd viruses circulating in northwestern Europe in spring 2021. Our analysis of wild bird migration suggested that these viruses may have been carried across the Atlantic via Iceland, Greenland/Arctic or pelagic routes. The here documented incursion of HPAI GsGd viruses into North America raises concern for further virus spread across the Americas by wild bird migration.
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