In this paper, we prove the existence of two positive solutions for a critical elliptic problem with nonlocal term and Sobolev exponent in dimension four.
Savalia savaglia is an ecosystem engineer listed as Near-Threatened by the IUCN, even though effective management and proper monitoring efforts to assess its distribution is still lacking. The record of large, long-established colonies can indicate the occurrence of areas with limited human local pressure. These areas may be considered as proxies for the creation of baselines of reference useful to design restoration strategies. The aim of this work was to update the distribution of Savalia's Mediterranean populations to develop an Ecological Niche Model, highlighting potential areas for future monitoring programs. Occurrence data were collected and harmonized into a single dataset using the scientific literature and validated observations to feed a presence-only MaxEnt model, obtaining a basin-level potential distribution of the species. The results of our study can support decision-makers in marine spatial planning measures including the preservation of mesophotic environments and prioritizing areas for conservation.
About 35% of the world’s food are produced in small-scale farms while only occupying about 12% of all agricultural land. However, smallholder farmers usually face a number of constraints and the water resource is one of the major constraints. The usage of smart technologies and especially sensor systems in so-called Smart Farming Technologies can be applied to the optimization of irrigation. Regardless of the irrigation technique, soil sensors are promising in providing data that can be used to further reduce the usage of water. However, despite all these possibilities, the smallholder community are still reluctant to step into technology-based systems. There are various reasons but prohibitive cost and complexity of deployment usually appear overwhelming. The PRIMA INTEL-IRRIS project has the ambition to make digital and smart farming technologies attractive & more accessible to these communities by proposing the intelligent irrigation “in-the-box” concept. This paper describes the low-cost and full edge-IoT/AI system targeting the smallholder farmers communities and how it can provide the intelligent irrigation “in-the-box” concept.
This study explores incompatibility in the distribution of facilities and trade in the city of Batna, Algeria, using two examples (the city center and the periphery) and a spatial analysis incorporating betweenness centrality. The analysis revealed that the city is far from effectively implementing the concepts of strategic planning. With an area of 83 ha, the city center is marked by low accessibility, further hampered by a concentration of 105 facilities occupying 60% of the space. Based on an examination of four outer areas, the periphery presents a different situation: It is characterized by high accessibility and low betweenness, placing trade and attractiveness out of concern. This arrangement has generated disarticulated spaces with huge flows to the city center, mostly for purchasing goods and securing administrative services. Recent planning proposals have also demonstrated how new access routes can significantly improve accessibility to the currently constricted city center. These results constitute a valuable tool for local authorities to understand how disarticulated the system is.
The history of South Africa is embedded in violence. Exposure to various forms of violence is a consistent experience of children, adolescents, and young people in this context, negatively impacting various aspects of their lives and overall quality of life. However, these experiences of violence have been narrated from an adult-centric perspective. The current study thus aims to systematically review and synthesis existing empirical studies focusing on youth and adolescents' perceptions of violence in post-apartheid South Africa. We identified 34 articles that were included in the final review, with study samples ranging from youth and adolescents between the ages of 8 to 27-years-old. The included studies were delineated into three overarching themes using thematic analysis, namely: exposure to violence; gender and sexual-based violence; and interpersonal and school violence. We found several contributing factors that resulted in violence, such as: low socio-economic conditions, hegemonic masculinity, and male entitlement over women; which can be linked to the corollaries of apartheid. At a grassroots level, more research is needed to gain deeper knowledge about how youth and adolescents understand, conceptualise, and contextualise violence through various frameworks. Moreover, violence prevention and intervention requires a collaborative approach to exact meaningful change that will be beneficial for all stakeholders. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12187-021-09890-5.
Résumé La maladie de Behçet est une vascularite multi systémique pouvant se manifester par des atteintes cutanéo-muqueuses, oculaires, articulaires, vasculaires et digestives. Les manifestations neurologiques ne sont pas rares et peuvent même inaugurer le tableau clinique. Elles peuvent être classées en atteintes du système nerveux central, et celles du système nerveux périphérique. Ces atteintes neurologiques constituent un critère de gravité pouvant mettre en jeu le pronostic vital et fonctionnel des patients. La plupart des études africaines sur le neurobehçet sont maghrébines, la maladie étant rare en Afrique noire. L’objectif de cette mise au point est de décrire le spectre des manifestations neurologiques de la maladie de Behçet, afin d’en optimiser la reconnaissance rapide et la prise en charge thérapeutique.
We attempt to introduce the effectiveness‐electronic density (EED) based on the ratio of the valence and the atomic electrons to measure the contribution of the valence electronic density in an atom. The valence density plays a substantial role in polarizability, the later being inversely related to the hardness. In the present work, we suggest the EED, found to be, inversely related to the polarizability as a descriptor to identify the hard‐hard interaction. This approach is tested and validated on typical reactions such as protonation and deprotonation processes to address the chemical reactivity of the molecular system from the hardness/softness concepts. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with experimental and chemical behaviour.
This book contains hundreds of counterexamples in operator theory (in the context of bounded and unbounded operators). Here are some other features of this manuscript: • It covers many topics in operator theory (bounded and unbounded operators). • Half of it is devoted to solved problems about unbounded linear operators. • It contains over 500 counterexamples (some of them are quite advanced). • It contains results from many research and recent papers. • The majority of the solutions are very detailed.
Coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is an infectious pathology generated by intense severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This infectious disease has emerged in 2019. The COVID-19-associated pandemic has considerably affected the way of life and the economy in the world. It is consequently crucial to find solutions allowing remedying or alleviating the effects of this infectious disease. Natural products have been in perpetual application from immemorial time given that they are attested to be efficient towards several illnesses without major side effects. Various studies have shown that plant extracts or purified molecules have a promising inhibiting impact towards coronavirus. In addition, it is substantial to understand the characteristics, susceptibility and impact of diet on patients infected with COVID-19. In this review, we recapitulate the influence of extracts or pure molecules from medicinal plants on COVID-19. We approach the possibilities of plant treatment/co-treatment and feeding applied to COVID-19. We also show coronavirus susceptibility and complications associated with nutrient deficiencies and then discuss the major food groups efficient on COVID-19 pathogenesis. Then, we covered emerging technologies using plant-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We conclude by giving nutrient and plants curative therapy recommendations which are of potential interest in the COVID-19 infection and could pave the way for pharmacological treatments or co-treatments of COVID-19.
Usually, the search for new candidate probiotics starts from strain isolation, followed by genotypic and phenotypic characterisations. For the best candidates, the final selection criteria, i.e., an efficient biomass production and the survival to stressful conservation processes, may often represent a bottleneck. The aim of this study is to reverse this classic bottom-up approach, thereby evaluating the in vitro probiotic properties of microbes that are already commercialized and employed in the dairy sector. The major advantage of reversing the traditional scheme is to deal with strains that are already suitable for the scale-up at the industrial level. In this work, four lactobacilli strains were analysed, belonging to the species of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (strains PLA and PLA2) and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (strains PAR4 and RHM). Both L. plantarum strains showed the best survival under simulated oro-gastrointestinal stress; PLA and PAR4 had the strongest inhibitory activity against all the tested harmful bacteria, with the latter strain showing also the highest percentage of Caco-2 adhesion; RHM was the best biofilm producer on abiotic surface. Finally, cell-free surnatants from all the strain cultures exhibited anti-inflammatory action on THP-1 macrophages. For all the studied strains, it is possible to claim beneficial functional properties other than the technological ones for which they are already marketed. The possible use of the four strains in a mixture could represent a strategy to diversify and maximize their beneficial potential. Nonetheless, future studies are necessary to validate in vivo the observed beneficial properties and to evaluate any effect of the vehicle product on the probiotic aptitude.
Date fruit has a significant role in Sahara countries' economies. In this study, a bunch of empty dates waste was used to produce biochar, which will be used to adsorb Eriochrome black T (EBT) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solution. The dates bunch was washed, dried, and ground into small particles. Then it was heated in a muffle furnace at 850 °C. The biochar from empty date bunches (BEDB) characteristics before and after adsorption was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The experiment has used different parameters notably initial concentration (25 – 100 mg L-1), contact time (0 – 90 min), BEDB amount (0.01 – 0.05 g), and different solutions pH (2 – 10) in batch adsorption. This investigation has shown that Langmuir and pseudo-second-order isotherm models were well-fitted than Freundlich and pseudo-first-order. The maximum capacity of adsorption was 58.47 and 80.64 mg g-1 for EBT and MB removal, respectively at 25°C. The results obtained show that BEDB sorbent has an important adsorption capacity of dyes removal and has a performance to eliminate EBT and MB dyes from aqueous solution.
Background The Algerian COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which started by the end of January 2021, is marked by a slowly ascending curve despite the deployed resources. To tackle the issue, we assessed the levels and explored determinants of engagement towards the COVID-19 vaccine among the Algerian population. Methods A nationwide, online-based cross-sectional study was conducted between March 27 and April 30, 2021. A two-stage stratified snowball sampling method was used to include an equivalent number of participants from the four cardinal regions of the country. A vaccine engagement scale was developed, defining vaccine engagement as a multidimensional parameter (5 items) that combined self-stated acceptance and willingness with perceived safety and efficacy of the vaccine. An Engagement score was calculated and the median was used to define engagement versus nonengagement. Sociodemographic and clinical data, perceptions about COVID-19 and levels of adherence to preventive measures were analyzed as predictors for nonengagement. Results We included 1,019 participants, 54% were female and 64% were aged 18-29 years. Overall, there were low rates of self-declared acceptance (26%) and willingness (21%) to take the vaccine, as well as low levels of agreement regarding vaccine safety (21%) and efficacy (30%). Thus, vaccine engagement rate was estimated at 33.5%, and ranged between 29.6-38.5% depending on the region (p>0.05). Nonengagement was independently associated with female gender (OR=2.31, p<0.001), low adherence level to preventive measures (OR=6.93p<0.001), private sector jobs (OR=0.53, p=0.038), perceived COVID-19 severity (OR=0.66, p=0.014), and fear from contracting the disease (OR=0.56, p=0.018). Concern about vaccine side effects (72.0%) and exigence for more efficacy and safety studies (48.3%) were the most commonly reported barrier and enabler for vaccine acceptance respectively; whereas beliefs in the conspiracy theory were reported by 23.4%. Conclusions The very low rates of vaccine engagement among the Algerian population probably explain the slow ascension of the vaccination curve in the country. Vaccine awareness campaigns should be implemented to address the multiple misconceptions and enhance the levels of knowledge and perception both about the disease and the vaccine, by prioritizing target populations and engaging both healthcare workers and the general population.
Gallbladder cancer is the 5th most frequent women cancer in Algeria, Squamous-cell and adenosquamous carcinomas are the rarest histological type of this cancer and represent less than 7%, Malformation of the bile ducts such as a choledochal cyst or a biliopancreatic maljunction being risk factors. This manuscript reports a rare case of an 82-year-old woman operated on for an adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with a bile duct cyst and a biliopancreatic junction abnormality. Aggressive surgery was performed combined with adjuvant oral chemotherapy, 29 months of recurrence-free survival was achieved by this patient suffering from this aggressive and rare form of gallbladder cancer.
In the present study, a combination of theoretical and experimental methods has been employed to evaluate and understand the molecular geometrical properties of 1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-5-bromolindolin-2,3-dione (FBID) molecule, our calculation has been performed by density functional theory method using B3LYP function with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The experimental geometrical parameters are in good accordance to the theoretical ones. Moreover, anti-hypoxic activity of our molecule has been proposed by PASS program. Then, molecular docking has been applied, indicating favourable performance and good binding affinity between FBID molecule and protein human serum albumin (HSA), which has a code of (2BXF). Additionally, the oral toxicity test has shown that the compound was safe and non-toxic. Even under hypoxia conditions, FBID has proved to have better results compared to the standard treatment (piracetam) and it has improved the lifetime of mice. From the Open Field Test, locomotor activity (square crossings, rearing) and high central square entries has indicated anxiolytic activity of mice.
La4Co3O9 perovskite thin film was grown on a glass substrate using spray pyrolysis technique at 460 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicates a high orthorhombic structure in Ruddlesden-Popper phase along (040) orientation. A nanometric scale size varying between 10 to 20 nm of the La4Co3O9 films were proved via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) specifically displayed the lattice fringe among the (040) and (1 10 0) planes. A direct transition band was revealed in the synthesized La4Co3O9 films through transmittance and reflectance spectra, with a band gap of 1.42 eV. Urbach effect as well as a relatively high absorptivity were evidenced. The prepared thin films exhibit a ferromagnetic behaviour. The saturated magnetization (MS) and coercive field (HC) were equal to MS = 4.69810⁻⁴ emu/g and an HC = 45.56 Oe, respectively, at room temperature. The revealed ferromagnetic behaviour was due to the non-stoichiometry of La4Co3O9 constituents. The present work emphasizes the specificity and suitability of La4Co3O9 thin film perovskite for magneto-optical applications.
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