Adults with ADHD may engage in two distinct but related social-cognitive processes: positive illusory bias (PIB) and self-handicapping (SH). A theoretical basis for these mechanisms in ADHD is provided through the self-worth theory of achievement motivation. These mechanisms may initially serve a self-protective function, but ultimately lead to negative outcomes. However, research in this area is limited, and most of what is known about PIB and SH is not specific to adults with ADHD. We conducted a scoping review of the extant literature of PIB and SH among adults with ADHD. Eight studies were reviewed (six PIB and two SH). Results suggest that adults with ADHD may be more likely to engage in PIB and SH than their non-ADHD peers, and that engaging in these patterns may lead to worsened outcomes over time. The findings are limited by a small number of studies with varying sampling, operational definitions, and measures. Recommendations for research and clinical work are provided, including considering various ways to operationalize PIB and SH, investigating the impact of PIB and SH on assessment reporting style (i.e., under- versus over-reporting), and considering the role of PIB and SH in the treatment of ADHD in adults.
Purpose Learning experiences that incorporate cadaver prosection or dissection of the brain have shown to enhance the acquisition and retention of neuroanatomy and improve standardized examination scores when included within medical curriculum. However, the role of cadaver-based instruction within allied health fields, and particularly in the field of communication sciences and disorders (CSD), remains limited and less understood. Method The effectiveness of a cadaver-based lab compared to lecture to teach neuroanatomy within an undergraduate/postbaccalaureate clinical neuroscience course for CSD majors was explored within a crossover design. Fifty-four participants were stratified by class rank between two initial training sessions: lab-first versus lecture-first. Neuroanatomical knowledge was tested via labeling tasks at baseline, after the first allocated training, and at 1-week follow-up after crossover training had been completed. Results Both cohorts demonstrated significant gains in neuroanatomical knowledge following training, yet after the initial training session, students that received cadaver-based instruction produced a significantly greater number ( p < .001) and more accurate ( p < .001) anatomical labels than students that received lecture. After completion of the crossover design, students receiving cadaver-based instruction prior to lecture continued to demonstrate superior labeling accuracy at follow-up testing ( p = .022). Conclusions Cadaver-based instruction was more effective in improving students' ability to identify neuroanatomy compared to lecture for CSD students. Interestingly, cadaver-based demonstrations were also most effective in bolstering students' retention of structural knowledge when conducted before, instead of after, a lecture. Clinical training programs, specifically student learning outcomes, benefit from cadaver-based instruction that provides both three-dimensional orientation and a deep appreciation of the human elements of clinical anatomy. Furthermore, both the acquisition and retention of anatomical concepts may be enhanced through strategic instructional design, particularly in regard to the order of lecture and lab experiences.
Despite management theorists’ decades-long attention to the robust sustainability of complex organizations, adaptive management practices remain undertheorized. Management is evolving from a hierarchically organized effort in pursuit of strategically determined goals into a facilitation of layered, distributed, autonomous agents able to learn from their errors and ensure the entire system’s long-term survivability. A rhetorical perspective on pedagogy allows us to better prepare our students for success in the 21st century’s adaptive organization as well as contribute to theoretical scholarship of effective organizations.
Psychology researchers have historically neglected variables related to sex, gender, and sexual orientation, leading to the erasure of sex, gender, and sexual orientation in research, which limits the generalizability of psychological findings. We argue that these important variables need to be considered more consistently by researchers across psychology subdisciplines. In Study 1 we found that 15.1% of a large MTurk sample (i.e., 8500+) identified as a sexual or gender minority (SGM; e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer [LGBTQ+]). In addition, data from Study 1 showed that our youngest cohort (i.e., aged 18-25 years) reported significantly higher rates of LGBTQ+ identification (22.7%) than our oldest cohort (i.e., 65-84 years; 1.3%), suggesting that endorsement of these idnetities is increasing. Next, in Study 2 we found that psychology researchers (N = 135) tended to rate expansive sex, gender, and sexual orientation demographic variables as important in general, but were much less likely to report actually using these variables in their own studies. Moreover, younger faculty and faculty who identified as women rated these variables as more important than their colleagues. Based on our findings, we conclude that psychology researchers should use expansive sex, gender, and sexual orientation items in their studies, report these demographic variables consistently, and analyze their data by these important variables when possible. Because a substantial and growing proportion of individuals identify as LGBTQ+, and because SGM identity is related to additional life stressors, it is imperative to better understand these individuals. Various resources are offered and challenges are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine climatologically suitable places to raise feedlot cattle in Türkiye. The Comprehensive Climate Index (CCI), a model that enables one to quantify beef cattle performance based on environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation) at any time in the year, was used to predict dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency (FE) of feedlot cattle. Thirty years of daily average temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed values were obtained for 15 cities, namely, Antalya, Balikesir, Çorum, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Isparta, Izmir, Kayseri, Konya, Sivas, and Van. Measured daily solar radiation values were not available and values were calculated based on a formula that takes hemisphere, latitude, and day of the year into account. Since mostly dairy breed calves are placed into a feedlot in Türkiye, the Holstein option in the CCI model was chosen to calculate the maintenance energy requirement. Based on previous feedlot feeding studies conducted in Türkiye, it was assumed that calves would be placed on feed at 250 kg and be marketed at 520 kg, that the diet would have 2600 kcal/kg metabolic energy, and that DMI would be 2.31% of the body weight. Results indicate that cattle raised in Antalya (the hottest place) and Erzurum (the coldest place) had the lowest and highest DMI, respectively (P<0.05). Summer months depressed the DMI of cattle in hotter cities and winter months increased the DMI of cattle in colder cities (P<0.05). Feedlot cattle raised in hotter and colder regions of Türkiye had lower ADG than other places having a more temperate climate (P<0.05). In general, cattle raised in a hotter climate had better FE than those raised in a cold climate (P<0.05).
What role does investors’ firsthand experience have in stock selection, and does this firsthand experience lead to better investment outcomes? Using a unique data set containing the stock research activities of patrons of Las Vegas casino hotels, we find evidence that investors’ firsthand experience motivates interest in Vegas‐related travel industry stocks. Additionally, their interest in these stocks predicts strong performance; Vegas interest leads to positive abnormal returns of up to 3.7% (0.4%) over the following year (month), and abnormal returns are highest in industries that are related to Las Vegas.
A negative correlation between forecast errors of the price level and real output is evidence that prices are countercyclical and so evidence for the dominance of supply shocks. We examine the correlation between the forecast errors of real GDP and its deflator for six OECD countries. With the exceptions of the United Kingdom and the United States, previous research used errors from an Index of Industrial Production and the Consumer Price Index. Using real GDP and the GDP deflator, the patterns of correlations over forecast horizons for Canada, France, Italy, and Japan do not match closely with that of either the UK or the US. Using a longer sample than previous studies we find evidence that the correlations are greater and often positive after 1981 indicating diminished dominance of supply shocks. This decrease is associated with decreases in both the relative frequency and relative size of the negative products of the forecast errors.
A good night's sleep is of the utmost importance for the seamless execution of our cognitive capabilities. Unfortunately, the research shows that one-third of the US adult population is severely sleep deprived. With college students as our focused group, we devised a contactless, unobtrusive mechanism to detect sleep patterns, which, contrary to existing sensor-based solutions, does not require the subject to put on any sensors on the body or buy expensive sleep sensing equipment. We named this mechanism Packets-to-Predictions(P2P) because we leverage the WiFi MAC layer traffic collected in the home and university environments to predict "sleep" and "awake" periods. We first manually established that extracting such patterns is feasible, and then, we trained various machine learning models to identify these patterns automatically. We trained six machine learning models-K nearest neighbors, logistic regression, random forest classifier, support vector classifier, gradient boosting classifier, and multilayer perceptron. K nearest neighbors gave the best performance with 87% train accuracy and 83% test accuracy.
The serious leisure perspective (SLP) aligns with humanistic counseling principles. A most significant professional implication is that humanistic counselors can create optimal leisure lifestyle strategies linked to the AHC principles of discovering meaning and purpose, developing deep connections with people and nature, moving toward growth and change, maintaining a holistic approach to humanity, and developing creativity. Future research implications and practical steps that humanistic counselors can use in professional practice to connect the SLP to humanistic counseling principles are elucidated.
The discourse on vulnerability to COVID-19 or any other pandemic is about the susceptibility to the effects of disease outbreaks. Over time, vulnerability has been assessed through various indices calculated using a confluence of societal factors. However, categorizing Arctic communities, without considering their socioeconomic, cultural and demographic uniqueness, into the high and low continuum of vulnerability using universal indicators will undoubtedly result in the underestimation of the communities’ capacity to withstand and recover from pandemic exposure. By recognising vulnerability and resilience as two separate but interrelated dimensions, this study reviews the Arctic communities’ ability to cope with pandemic risks. In particular, we have developed a pandemic vulnerability–resilience framework for Alaska to examine the potential community-level risks of COVID-19 or future pandemics. Based on the combined assessment of the vulnerability and resilience indices, we found that not all highly vulnerable census areas and boroughs had experienced COVID-19 epidemiological outcomes with similar severity. The more resilient a census area or borough is, the lower the cumulative death per 100 000 and case fatality ratio in that area. The insight that pandemic risks are the result of the interaction between vulnerability and resilience could help public officials and concerned parties to accurately identify the populations and communities at most risk or with the greatest need, which, in turn, helps in the efficient allocation of resources and services before, during and after a pandemic. A resilience–vulnerability-focused approach described in this paper can be applied to assess the potential effect of COVID-19 and similar future health crises in remote regions or regions with large Indigenous populations in other parts of the world.
In the opening months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S., thousands of volunteer makers stepped up to produce PPE through third sphere labor, volunteer work that emphasizes community maintenance. Drawing on 78 semi-structured interviews and 662 open-ended questionnaires, we consider how third sphere carework could destabilize hierarchies between public, private, and third sphere labor and in the valuation of feminized versus masculinized work. We find women and men makers differed in what they made, but not in their motivations for producing PPE or how they valued the work of other makers. Makers rejected the idea that they should perform such work without any appreciation from third sphere recipients, but private sphere demands limited women makers more than men. Throughout men makers’ efforts, we find ample evidence of caring masculinities as a response to disaster. We conclude with a consideration of what these trends mean for redoing gender and third sphere carework.
Despite extensive transition provisions in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the post-school outcomes for students with disabilities continue to be disappointing. The IDEA designated those transition provisions as priority targets for federal and state compliance monitoring to assure that schools are attaining the goal of successful post-school transition for students with disabilities. Yet, we question if the compliance monitoring approach, indicator targets, and data collection requirements are appropriate and adequate to gauge post-school success. We provide a critical examination of the transition performance monitoring indicators and propose recommendations for policy and praxis, including culturally responsive data disaggregation by ethnicity and race. These policy proposals, coupled with effective preservice and inservice professional development praxis, will enhance successful transition outcomes for students with disabilities.
The primary aims of the current study were to explore differences among adolescent parentification profiles and to determine the extent to which those profiles are linked to physical health and life satisfaction among adolescents. While parentification roles in adolescents have been found to be detrimental to mental health outcomes, minimal research has focused on its relation to other outcomes (e.g., physical health outcomes). Also, there is a dearth of empirically-supported knowledge on how family culture might shape those outcomes. A large sample of Polish-speaking adolescents (N = 41,162 adolescents aged 12–21 years old) participated in a survey research study focused on family structure and adolescent functioning. We used cluster analysis to identify patterns of parent caregiving and to explore associations between those patterns and health and life satisfaction. Cluster analysis techniques identified five parent caregiving profiles: (a) satisfied emotional parent caregiving, (b) dissatisfied youth with moderate levels of parent caregiving, (c) satisfied youth with low levels of parent caregiving, (d) dissatisfied youth with low levels of parent caregiving, and (e) conflicted parent caregiving. Mean levels of physical health and life satisfaction were found to be highest for adolescents in the following cluster profiles: “satisfied emotional parent caregiving” and “conflicted parent caregiving.” The lowest means were found in the following cluster profiles: “dissatisfied youth with moderate levels of parent caregiving” and “satisfied youth with low levels of parent caregiving.” The results of all analyses are discussed as well as implications for future research and family therapy.
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