University of North Carolina at Wilmington
  • Wilmington, NC , United States
Recent publications
E-commerce has been steadily growing year after year, as have the numbers of canceled and returned online orders. Retailers must understand what makes customers second-guess their purchase decision during the gamma phase, and “how” and “why” customers justify their online retail purchase decisions. Purchase justification enables retailers to both enhance positive customer sentiments towards their purchase and maximize profitability in the online context. Utilizing customer survey field data, we illustrate how the combination of evaluative tangibility and anticipatory imagination helps customers justify online hedonic purchases, resulting in both satisfaction and delight. Results indicate that delight but not satisfaction drive share of wallet. We also explore the impact of customers’ previous shopping experiences. Implications for retailer managers and researchers are discussed.
This book explores the impact of Great American Songbook lyricists on the music of the early 1900s and the connections between what was happening in the country (depression, racism, war) and the music. Included in the exploration is an examination of how the music was used in Broadway shows and Hollywood musical movies. Each chapter is dedicated to either a specific lyricist and the people they collaborated with or to a group of lyricists of an era (swing or jazz) or to how the music was implemented (Tin Pan Alley or Hollywood). Within the book are snippets of how the lyrics were applied to the music.
Background: Arcidae, comprising about 260 species of ark shells, is an ecologically and economically important lineage of bivalve mollusks. Interestingly, mitochondrial genomes of several Arcidae species are 2-3 times larger than those of most bilaterians, and are among the largest bilaterian mitochondrial genomes reported to date. The large mitochondrial genome size is mainly due to expansion of unassigned regions (regions that are functionally unassigned). Previous work on unassigned regions of Arcidae mtDNA genomes has focused on nucleotide-level analyses to observe sequence characteristics, however the origin of expansion remains unclear. Results: We assembled six new mitogenomes and sequenced six transcriptomes of Scapharca broughtonii to identify conserved functional ORFs that are transcribed in unassigned regions. Sixteen lineage-specific ORFs with different copy numbers were identified from seven Arcidae species, and 11 of 16 ORFs were expressed and likely biologically active. Unassigned regions of 32 Arcidae mitogenomes were compared to verify the presence of these novel mitochondrial ORFs and their distribution. Strikingly, multiple structural analyses and functional prediction suggested that these additional mtDNA-encoded proteins have potential functional significance. In addition, our results also revealed that the ORFs have a strong connection to the expansion of Arcidae mitochondrial genomes and their large-scale duplication play an important role in multiple expansion events. We discussed the possible origin of ORFs and hypothesized that these ORFs may originate from duplication of mitochondrial genes. Conclusions: The presence of lineage-specific mitochondrial ORFs with transcriptional activity and potential functional significance supports novel features for Arcidae mitochondrial genomes. Given our observation and analyses, these ORFs may be products of mitochondrial gene duplication. These findings shed light on the origin and function of novel mitochondrial genes in bivalves and provide new insights into evolution of mitochondrial genome size in metazoans.
Research on the genetic mechanisms underlying human skeletal development and disease have largely relied on studies in mice. However, recently the zebrafish has emerged as a popular model for skeletal research. Despite anatomical differences such as a lack of long bones in their limbs and no hematopoietic bone marrow, both the cell types in cartilage and bone as well as the genetic pathways that regulate their development are remarkably conserved between teleost fish and humans. Here we review recent studies that highlight this conservation, focusing specifically on the cartilaginous growth zones (GZs) of endochondral bones. GZs can be unidirectional such as the growth plates (GPs) of long bones in tetrapod limbs or bidirectional, such as in the synchondroses of the mammalian skull base. In addition to endochondral growth, GZs play key roles in cartilage maturation and replacement by bone. Recent studies in zebrafish suggest key roles for cartilage polarity in GZ function, surprisingly early establishment of signaling systems that regulate cartilage during embryonic development, and important roles for cartilage proliferation rather than hypertrophy in bone size. Despite anatomical differences, there are now many zebrafish models for human skeletal disorders including mutations in genes that cause defects in cartilage associated with endochondral GZs. These point to conserved developmental mechanisms, some of which operate both in cranial GZs and limb GPs, as well as others that act earlier or in parallel to known GP regulators. Experimental advantages of zebrafish for genetic screens, high resolution live imaging and drug screens, set the stage for many novel insights into causes and potential therapies for human endochondral bone diseases.
Background People who inject drugs (PWID) are at risk for HIV and opioid overdose. We piloted PARTNER UP, a telemedicine-based program to provide PWID with access to both oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention and medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) through two syringe services programs (SSPs) in North Carolina. We conducted a qualitative evaluation to assess the acceptability and feasibility of PARTNER UP from the participant perspective. Methods PARTNER UP participants met with a provider for an initial in-person visit at the SSP, followed by weekly telemedicine visits in month 1 and then monthly telemedicine visits until program end at month 6. Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample of PARTNER UP participants at 1 month and 4 months. Informed by the technology acceptance model, we assessed participant perceptions of the usefulness and ease of use of PARTNER UP, as well as their intent to continue to use the program’s components. We audio-recorded all interviews with participants’ permission and used applied thematic analysis to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Results We interviewed 11 of 17 people who participated in PARTNER UP—10 in the month 1 interview and 8 in the month 4 interview. Nearly all participants were motivated to join for consistent and easy access to buprenorphine/naloxone (i.e., MOUD); only a few joined to access PrEP. Most were comfortable accessing healthcare at the SSP because of their relationship with and trust toward SSP staff, and accessing services at the SSP was preferred compared with other healthcare centers. Some participants described that telemedicine allowed them to be honest and share more information because the visits were not in-person and they chose the location, although the initial in-person meeting was helpful to build provider trust and rapport. Most participants found the visit schedule to be feasible, although half described needing to reschedule at least once. Nearly all participants who were interviewed intended to continue with MOUD after the program ended, whereas none were interested in continuing with PrEP. Conclusions Participant narratives suggest that the PARTNER UP telemedicine program was acceptable and feasible. Future studies should continue to explore the benefits of embedding both PrEP and MOUD into SSPs with larger numbers of participants. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT04521920.
Introduction The Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT) is the fitness assessment used by the Army launched in April of 2022. The ACFT consists of six physically demanding motor movements that parallel to the stressors experienced by the modern-day combat soldier. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of a 12-week virtual exercise program on the individual and their overall ACFT scores. Materials and Methods Thirteen soldiers from the Army National Guard (age = 29.8 ± 6.2 years; height = 175.7 ± 6.1 cm; service experience ≥ 18 months to 18 years) volunteered to complete three sessions. In session 1, baseline height, body mass, body composition, and ACFT scores were collected. Session 2 consisted of a suspension trainer (ST) tutorial in which all participants familiarized themselves with the set-up and utilization of the suspension training tool kit. Upon completion of session 2, a TRX Elite ACFT Kit containing one suspension trainer, four resistance bands, and the 12-week virtual exercise training program available via iphone operating system and Android were given to all participants. In session 3, post-assessments of body mass, body composition, and ACFT scores were collected. Data were statistically analyzed using a paired-sample t-test with a Bonferroni correction (P < .00065) to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results There were no significant changes in mean body mass (83.8 ± 16.5 kg vs. 83.9 ± 16.6 kg; P = .752); however, there was a significant reduction in mean percentage body fat (19.5 ± 6.4% vs. 18.3 ± 6.5%; P < .0001). Mean scores from four of the six individual ACFT assessments, specifically, deadlift, standing power throw, hand-release push-ups, and sprint–drag–carry, displayed improvements, but did not attain statistical significance. The overall mean ACFT scores displayed significant improvements (319.4 ± 39.9 vs. 390.4 ± 68.5; P < .0001). Conclusions The TRX Elite ACFT Kit which includes one suspension trainer, four varying resistance bands, and on-demand access to a stepwise 12-week virtual exercise program was deemed effective by increasing the overall mean ACFT scores among participants. From a practitioner’s perspective, the TRX Elite ACFT Kit should be widely distributed to all Army units and recruiting commands to provide vital assistance for recruits and soldiers to train and prepare for the ACFT. Moreover, given the ease and portability of the TRX Elite ACFT Kit, recruits and soldiers will be able to effectively train anytime, anywhere.
Students with disabilities in upper elementary grades who read well below grade level often require one-to-one intensive intervention. The following study examines the effects of a combined explicit decoding plus frequency building intervention on consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) word reading fluency. Participants included two third-grade students and one fourth-grade student from an urban elementary school receiving special education services. Delivered during the intervention block, the students practiced 5 to 8 min per day over 8 to 9 days per word list. The multiple probe design demonstrated an experimental effect for all three participants, with significant gains revealed on individual word lists, curriculum-based assessment, and curriculum-based measurement.
bold xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">Background: News media play a critical role in communicating risks and shaping public perceptions of social issues. Covering a multilayered disaster that grew from a local story to a national one, the ways that news media at different levels construct the Flint water crisis have not been previously explored. Literature review: Despite the well-established role of journalism as a government watchdog, news media do not neutrally mirror every social event. Instead, news reporting, highly mediated by language, is filled with political interests, values, and attitudes. Research questions: 1. How did local/regional and national newspapers construct the Flint water crisis? 2. Are there any similarities and/or differences in local/regional and national news construction of the Flint water crisis? 3. What are the practical implications for media coverage of risks, emergencies, or crises? 4. What are the methodological implications of this study for professional communication research? Methodology: This study integrates corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to analyze 1858 news reports about the Flint water crisis published between 2014 and 2018. I use keywords as a core analytical technique to compare the local/regional and national news coverage. Results: The results show that both local and national news reports overemphasized government activities while downplaying the unofficial voices of Flint residents and community activists. In addition, national newspapers were more likely than local newspapers to use racial cues in describing the Flint community and to associate the crisis with other social problems. Conclusions: This study suggests that news media should provide wide coverage of the affected community's efforts in risk/crisis communication rather than reproducing official messages. News representations should be cautious of strengthening stereotypes or forming negative conceptual associations of traditionally disenfranchised communities.
Physical inactivity has increasingly affected public health in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic as it is associated with chronic diseases such as arthritis, cancer, and heart disease. Contingency management has been shown to increase physical activity. Therefore, the present study sought to evaluate the effects of an escalating schedule of monetary reinforcement with a reset contingency on physical activity, as compared between 2 counterbalanced groups in which a monetary deposit of $25 was either required (deposit group) or not (no-deposit group). Twenty-five adults wore Fitbit accelerometers to monitor step counts. An ABA reversal design was used; in the 2 baseline phases, no programmed contingencies were in place for step counts. During intervention, step goals were set using a modified 70 th percentile schedule with a 7-day window: Reaching the first goal would result in $0.25, and incentives increased by $0.25 for each subsequent day in which the goal was met. Failure to reach a goal resulted in a reset of the monetary incentive value to $0.25. Ten out of 12 participants from the deposit group were determined to be responders to intervention, whereas 8 out of 13 participants from the no-deposit group were determined to be responders to intervention. Overall, there were no significant differences between the groups' step counts. However, the deposit group's intervention was cheaper to implement, which suggests that deposit contracts are a viable modification for physical activity interventions.
IntroductionHow sexual assault victims conceptualize their experiences are shaped, in part, by adherence to rape myths and victim blaming. Victim blaming is predicated on the idea that victims should have done something differently to prevent sexual assault from happening. To better understand victims’ experiences, we documented victim reactions during sexual assault and how victims label and judge the severity of their experience.Methods We inductively coded 906 US women’s open-ended descriptions of sexual assault from a 2016 cross-sectional online survey. Participants were diverse sexual orientations, incomes, and ages but were not racially diverse (78% white).ResultsWe identified three main themes: Labeling, Judging Severity, and Victim Reactions. Labeling refers to how victims describe their experience—as sexual assault or some other descriptor. Judging Severity captures victims’ perceptions of the experience, for example as severe or relative other experiences. Victim Reactions refers to how victims responded during the assault.Conclusions Normalizing variation in victims’ reactions is important especially given that some state statutes define sexual assault in terms of what a “reasonable person” would recognize as a refusal cue. We find that some victims’ perceptions of their experience change over time. When judging severity, women mentioned two ends of a continuum (i.e., worst experience of my life vs. not a big deal); both are valid. But, participants’ perceptions that sexual assault is a “normal experience” is concerning.Policy ImplicationsOur findings could inform sexual violence prevention programs, norming campaigns, statute of limitations policies, and criminal justice services.
The present study (total N = 901) set out to construct and validate a culturally sensitive instrument to examine anti-White bias among Black UK minority group members. Our novel measure of anti-White bias–which we called the AWB scale–was based upon the Johnson-Lecci scale (JLS; 2003) a questionnaire designed to measure anti-White attitudes among Black Americans. Studies 1 and 2 provided converging evidence for the AWB’s four-factor dimensionality, its structural characteristics, its temporal stability and its external validity in Black UK samples, attesting to the consistency of minorities’ experience of anti-majority bias in two very different societal contexts. Moreover, Study 3 evidenced our measure’s utility for understanding reactions to various relevant contemporary societal events. Theoretical contributions to the literature on intergroup bias are delineated and compared with majority-to-minority prejudice.
Sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, are anadromous, semelparous fish that breed in freshwater - typically in streams, and juveniles in most populations feed in lakes for one or two years, then migrate to sea to feed for two or three additional years, before returning to their natal sites to spawn and die. This species undergoes important changes in behavior, habitat, and morphology through these multiple life history stages. However, the sensory systems that mediate these migratory patterns are not fully understood, and few studies have explored changes in sensory function and specialization throughout ontogeny. This study investigates changes in the olfactory rosette of sockeye salmon across four different life stages (fry, parr, smolt, and adult). Development of the olfactory rosette was assessed by comparing total rosette size (RS), lamellae number, and lamellae complexity from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images across life stages, as a proxy for olfactory capacity. Olfactory rosette size increased linearly with lamellae number and body size (p < 0.001). Complexity of the rosette, including the distribution of sensory and non-sensory epithelia and the appearance of secondary lamellar folding, varied between fry and adult life stages. These differences in epithelial structure may indicate variation in odor processing capacity between juveniles imprinting on their natal stream and adults using those odor memories in the final stages of homing to natal breeding sites. These findings improve our understanding of the development of the olfactory system throughout life in this species, highlighting that ontogenetic shifts in behavior and habitat may coincide with shifts in nervous system development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Doliolids are common gelatinous grazers in marine ecosystems around the world and likely influence carbon cycling due to their large population sizes with high growth and excretion rates. Aggregations or blooms of these organisms occur frequently, but they are difficult to measure or predict because doliolids are fragile, under sampled with conventional plankton nets, and can aggregate on fine spatial scales (1–10 m). Moreover, ecological studies typically target a single region or site that does not encompass the range of possible habitats favoring doliolid proliferation. To address these limitations, we combined in situ imaging data from six coastal ecosystems, including the Oregon shelf, northern California, southern California Bight, northern Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and Mediterranean Sea, to resolve and compare doliolid habitat associations during warm months when environmental gradients are strong and doliolid blooms are frequently documented. Higher ocean temperature was the strongest predictor of elevated doliolid abundances across ecosystems, with additional variance explained by chlorophyll a fluorescence and dissolved oxygen. For marginal seas with a wide range of productivity regimes, the nurse stage tended to comprise a higher proportion of the doliolids when total abundance was low. However, this pattern did not hold in ecosystems with persistent coastal upwelling. The doliolids tended to be most aggregated in oligotrophic systems (Mediterranea and southern California), suggesting that microhabitats within the water column favor proliferation on fine spatial scales. Similar comparative approaches can resolve the realized niche of fast‐reproducing marine animals, thus improving predictions for population‐level responses to changing oceanographic conditions.
We construct supersymmetric dyon solutions based on the ‘t Hooft/Polyakov monopole. We show that these solutions satisfy κ -symmetry constraints and can therefore be generalized to supersymmetric solutions of type I S O 32 string theory. After applying a T -duality transformation to these solutions, we obtain two D 3 -branes connected by a wormhole, embedded in an M 5 -brane. We analyze the geometries of each D 3 -brane for two cases: one corresponding to a dyon with vanishing spin and the other corresponding to a magnetic monopole with nonvanishing spin. In the case of the vanishing spin, the scalar curvature is finite everywhere. In the case of the nonvanishing spin, we find a frame dragging effect due to the spin. We also find that the scalar curvature diverges along the spin quantization axis as 1 / ρ 2 , ρ being the cylindrical, radial coordinate defined with respect to the spin axis. These solutions demonstrate the subtle relationship between the Yang-Mills and gravitational interactions, i.e., gauge/gravity duality.
Benzoic acid esters represent key building blocks for many drug discovery and development programs and have been advanced as potent PDE4 Inhibitors for inhaled administration for treatment of respiratory diseases. This class of compounds has also been employed in a myriad industrial processes and as common food preservatives. Recent work directed towards the synthesis of intermediates for a proprietary medicinal chemistry program, led us to observe that the 1 H NMR chemical shifts of substituents ortho to the benzoic acid ester moiety defied conventional iterative chemical shift prediction protocols. To explore these unexpected results, we initiated a detailed computational study employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations to better understand the unexpectedly large variance in expected vs experimental NMR chemical shifts.
In February 2019, two nations with the largest nuclear arsenals announced their withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Russia's interference in U.S. elections and the invasion of Ukraine has exacerbated tensions between the U.S. and Russia. These actions bring renewed attention to nuclear nonproliferation efforts worldwide. In this troubling context, but finding inspiration from Hibakusha testimonies, we propose one way to teach nuclear war and nonproliferation.
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4,050 members
Robert Roer
  • Department of Biology and Marine Biology
Pamela Seaton
  • Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Stuart R Borrett
  • Department of Biology and Marine Biology
Mahnaz Moallem
  • Department of Instructional Technology, Foundations and Secondary Education
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Dr Jack Hall