The COVID-19 pandemic brought about an increase in online shopping because of government-imposed restrictions and consumer anxiety over the potential health risk associated with in-store shopping. By end of 2021, many health concerns had been alleviated through efforts such as vaccinations and reductions in hospitalizations in certain countries. Some governments started to relax their restrictions and consumers started to return to in-store shopping, creating the possibility that the volume of online shopping would decrease once stores reopened. However, consumers may continue to shop online more than they did prior to the pandemic because of their experience during the lockdown. This study seeks to understand the factors that explain the potential of online shopping continuance. A novel model is constructed by extending ES-QUAL, and adding hedonic motivation, social shopping and health susceptibility as mediators. Empirical data is collected from Canada, Germany and the US. We find that convenience and efficiency, as well as security for some females, are important factors contributing to online shopping's perceived usefulness and, ultimately, intentions to continue shopping online. In addition, creating an enjoyable online shopping experience adds to these continuance intentions.
Drought is considered one of the key barriers influencing wheat production, and various adaptation schemes are practiced globally to mitigate drought impacts. However, it is difficult to precisely assess the performances of drought mitigation measures, especially when multiple measures are implemented simultaneously. Here, a remote sensing-based agricultural drought-affected area change index (ADAC) was applied to assess the performance of drought mitigation schemes, which separates and avoids confusion between performances of drought mitigation and wheat yield improvement. The results revealed the historical performance changes and regional differences under drought mitigation measures in 12 major wheat-growing regions (WGRs) of the world. The drought mitigation efforts have steadily succeeded, with a reduction in the drought-affected area of approximately 14.5 % in the 1980s and 28.5 % in the last decade, relatively 55 % of drought-affected areas are alleviated in the 12 WGRs. However, there are significant regional differences ranging from 28 % to 79 % in the 12 WGRs. The drought mitigation measures implemented in the WGRs of China and India, followed by France and Ukraine, are more effective than other regions, while a few are still declining. By further evaluating the effects of short-term and long-term drought mitigation strategies taken in the WGRs, we found that irrigation is the main drought mitigation measure in dryland, while measures such as conservation tillage are of great value for yield stability for both dry and wet areas. The results of this study improve the understanding of the regional performance of drought mitigation schemes and will help stakeholders to select appropriate measures.
The modern datacenter's computing capabilities have far outstripped the applications running within and have become a hidden cost of doing business due to how software is architected and deployed. Resources are over-allocated to monolithic applications that sit idle for large parts of the day. If applications were architected and deployed differently, shared services could be used for multiple applications as needed. When combined with powerful orchestration software, containerized microservices can both deploy and dynamically scale applications from very small to very large within moments—scaling the application not only across a single datacenter but across all datacenters where the application(s) are deployed. In this paper, we analyze data from an application(s) deployed both as a single monolithic codebase and as a containerized application using microservice-based architecture to calculate the performance and computing resource waste are both architected and deployed. A modern approach is offered as a solution as a path from how to go from a monolithic codebase to a more efficient, reliable, scalable, and less costly deployment model.
We report on the process of children’s construction of a volume calculation algorithm for rectangular prisms. We provided third- and fourth-grade students with traditional volume tasks and a dynamic virtual manipulative to support their three-dimensional reasoning and use of unit cubes to structure space. We investigated the challenges faced, evolving understandings, and supports for growth. We found four threads of understanding we called interpretation, structure, representation, and numeration, that interacted in complex ways as students constructed volume calculation algorithms. Across six patterns of growth, we found that these threads could have both positive and negative influences on one another. The representation thread tended to have the strongest dragging influence on coordinated understanding, and the structuring thread tended to produce the most enduring conceptualizations. We also found that feedback from the dynamic virtual manipulative and the interviewer played a critical role in overcoming challenges and reaching new understandings about volume.
Humility is a key virtue in most religious traditions, and empirical evidence links it with healthy religious leader development. Psychological evaluation often forms part of the vocational discernment process for religious leaders. We evaluated development of the clinician-rated humility scale (CRHS) within the clergy candidate psychological evaluation context at a community mental health center in the United States. In Study 1, we examined inter-rater reliability of the CRHS using three methods across 10 calibration tests with clergy candidates (female = 1, male = 9; average age = 34.6 years). Combined convenience and comprehensiveness provided the best method for obtaining the highest agreement. In Study 2, we evaluated the internal and external factor structure of the CRHS using clergy candidates ( n = 70) receiving psychological testing (29% female, 70% male; average age = 34.5 years). A final six-item version of the scale showed acceptable model fit, with evidence of a unidimensional factor structure, good internal consistency, and theoretically consistent associations with correlates. The results suggested the CRHS tapped dimensions of caring for others, openness toward personal beliefs, and self-growth. This observer-rated humility scale holds potential in conjunction with self-report measures for use in clinical assessment and research on client humility.
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the efficacy of isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD) variables to distinguish starters from non-starters in collegiate female soccer players. Methods: Eleven starters (20±2 years) and 13 non-starters (19±1 years) performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors and flexors. Peak torque, peak RTD, and RTD at 0-100 (RTD100) and 0-200 (RTD200) ms were obtained from each contraction. Results: The starters produced significantly greater (P=0.002-0.015) knee extension and flexion peak RTD, RTD100, and RTD200 values than the non-starters. There were no significant differences (P>0.050) between the starters and non-starters for peak torque. Discriminant analysis revealed thresholds of 9.36, 7.98, and 6.97 Nm⋅s-1⋅kg-1 for knee extension RTD200 and knee flexion peak RTD and RTD100, respectively. These thresholds showed 81.8% sensitivity and 76.9 to 92.3% specificity for identifying playing group membership. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that RTD may be a better parameter than peak torque at differentiating between playing level in collegiate female soccer players. The discriminant analysis thresholds for the RTD variables demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity, and therefore, may be used as indices to identify players with a high degree of soccer playing ability.
Many diseases and conditions, such as stroke and COVID-19 result in direct restrictive pulmonary impairments that trigger a secondary concomitant reduction in cardiopulmonary function, resulting in a plethora of issues, such as a reduction in activities of daily living (ADLs), decreased exercise tolerance, decreased prognosis and even an increased mortality. In many of these cases, aerobic training is poorly tolerated. Thankfully, other modes of exercise training, such as resistance training (RT) have previously been successfully integrated into general rehabilitation programs. However, it is not known whether such exercise modalities are sufficient to enhance cardiopulmonary system function and whether they could be utilized in rehabilitation programs that integrate interventions related to respiration. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of different RT modalities on chest expansion, spirometry, and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in untrained smokers. METHODS: Forty-two untrained male smokers were randomized into either a non-exercising control group (n=15) or a muscle endurance RT group (MERG; n=15) and hypertrophy RT group (HRG; n=15), who trained using their respective one-hour resistance training regimes non-consecutively, thrice weekly. Abdominal and thoracic dimensions and kinematics, spirometry, and VO2max were assessed pre- and post-test following the eight-week training period. Differences from pre- to post-test were examined using t-tests with alpha levels set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: Hypertrophy type RT improved PIF (from 5.76±2.56 L.sec-1 to 7.46±2.71 L.sec-1; p=0.009) and maximum inhalation (from 90.93±4.15 cm to 92.76±4.32 cm; p=0.000). In turn, the muscle endurance type RT only improved VO2max (from 46.37±7.66 mL.kg-1.min-1 to 63.62±7.86 mL.kg-1.min-1; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that RT can be used to improve abdominal and thoracic dimensions and kinematics, spirometry, and VO2max in untrained smokers. However, to fully gain the benefits from RT, both hypertrophy and muscle endurance RT should be incorporated into their program design.
While resistance training (RT) has been proposed as a useful adjunct in a primary prevention setting and rehabilitation context, the exact application of training intensity and volume for maximal therapeutic effects is still unclear. In this regard, German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been utilized by athletes for decades and may prove a safe and effective method in improving strength and cardiorespiratory endurance, and modifying coronary risk factors. PURPOSE: To determine the physiological determinants during a single bout of German Volume Training. METHODS: Using a within-group design, untrained healthy males (n=19; mean age: 22±1 years) served as their own inactive controls prior to engaging in a single one-hour bout of GVT consisting of leg press, chest press, latissimus dorsi pull-downs and shoulder press for 10 sets of 10 repetitions each with a 60-second rest between sets and a three-minute rest period between exercises. Differences from pre- to post-test were examined using t-tests with alpha levels set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: An acute bout of GVT significantly (p≤0.05) decreased systolic blood pressure (SPB) (from 119±9 mmHg to 110±9 mmHg; p=0.042), diastolic BP (DBP) (from 77±10 mmHg to 68±10 mmHg; p=0.037) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (from 91±9 mmHg to 82±8 mmHg; p=0.028), but increased rate pressure product (RPP) (from 8370±826 to 12332±1602; p =0.008). Increases were observed in carbon dioxide production (VCO2) (from 0.34±0.09 L.min-1 to 0.65±0.32 L.min-1; p=0.021). No changes were found in any of the measured spirometry parameters. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that GVT is of sufficient safety and provides the appropriate intensity to be included in general primary prevention and rehabilitation settings.
Operations Management (OM) has evolved to its current status due to the contributions of researchers in many fields including economics, finance, behavioral sciences, operations research/management science, mathematics, statistics, and computer science. Many of these contributors are Nobel laureates – winners of the highest academic award. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences is awarded to those with monumental works in economics. Yet some winners have also made contributions to operations management, the field of this journal. Others have developed important concepts and techniques that have made an enormous impact on OM research. Here we describe the OM contributions as well as the impactful concepts of these Laureates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
The Japanese government led by Shinzo Abe passed the Security Bills in 2015. The passage of these bills drastically changed Japan’s passive stance in the security arena. Utilizing the context surrounding the Security Bills in Japan, the present research examines Japanese citizens’ attitudes and behavior toward security issues. In addressing this matter, this study focuses on the roles of war memories in Japanese society. Recognizing that war memories constitute an essential element of Japanese society in the post-World War II era, I present two hypotheses. First, one can expect that those who are deeply immersed in war memories tend to be opposed to the Security Bills. Second, it is possible to hypothesize that those who are extensively exposed to war memories tend to discuss security issues more actively. To test these hypotheses, I conduct an original survey in Japan that is specifically tailored for this study. A statistical analysis relying on the survey data verifies the second hypothesis although it fails to support the first one. By dissecting the processes through which war memories shape Japanese citizens’ attitudes and behavior in the security arena, this study significantly advances our understanding of Japan’s security culture. Findings from the statistical analysis generate critical implications that are essential in understanding the current discourse over security issues in Japan.
We report the synthesis and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells of novel 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-triazolyl analogs of ribavirin. We modified ribavirin's carboxamide moiety to test the effects of lipophilic groups. 1-β-D-Ribofuranosyl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles were prepared using Click Chemistry, whereas an unprecedented application of a prior 1,2,4-triazole ring synthesis was used for 1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole analogs. Though cytotoxicity was mediocre and there was no correlation with lipophilicity, we discovered that a structurally similar concentrative nucleoside transporter 2 (CNT2) inhibitor was modestly cytotoxic (MCF-7 IC50 of 42 µM). These syntheses could be used to efficiently investigate variation in the nucleobase.
Here the author presents a collage of inter-relatable quotations. The excerpts include discourses from/regarding reality dating shows, media coverage of Ukraine’s invasion, gamification in dating apps, the role of affect in media remixing and sense-making, military and business strategy, computerized games, and literary authors and social theory. Questions emerge: How do various forms of popular/social media “interpellate” us? How does affect precede and result from participation, watching, and/or collaboration? How might varied discursive contexts present overlapping (and destabilizing) phrasing and points of focus across platforms? The performative text is designed to meet the moment.
Image‐based water level measurements offer data quality assurance through visual verification that no other method can provide. GaugeCam Remote Image Manager‐Educational 2 (GRIME2) is a mature, open‐source commercial friendly software application that automatically detects and measures water level in laboratory and field settings. The software relies on a dedicated target background for water line detection and image calibration. The system detects the change in pixel gray scale values associated with the intersection of the water level at the target surface. Fiducials on the target background are used to precisely create a pixel to real world coordinate transfer matrix and to correct for camera movement. The presented software package implements the algorithms and automates the water level measurement process, annotation of images with result overlays, creation of animations, and output of results to files that can be further analyzed in a spreadsheet or with R or Python. These GRIME2 features are illustrated using imagery from a coastal marsh field site. Tradeoffs between workflow and algorithm complexity and ease of use are discussed and future improvements are identified with the intention that this Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable‐inspired software can be adopted, modified and improved by the user community. While image resolution, quality and other factors associated with field deployment (e.g., water surface roughness, sun glare, shadows, and bio‐fouling) will have an impact on measurement quality, previous controlled laboratory testing that did not manifest these issues showed potential for accuracy of ±3 mm (Gilmore et al., 2013, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.05.011).
To date, HIV infection among adolescents and young adults remains a challenging public health issue, especially for countries located in Sub-Saharan Africa but no empirical research known to date has provided a spatial- temporal cluster analyses to assess trends in HIV prevalence among this population. This study attempts fill in the gaps in research by examining how the prevalence of adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 living with HIV are clustered together and estimating the number of individuals infected with HIV and the effectiveness of disease control initiatives. The empirical work of this study is based on the UNAIDS estimates downloaded from the World Bank DataBank and data obtained from the United States Central Intelligence Agency. Findings suggest that trends in HIV prevalence among adolescents and young adults differed by region and the prevalence of HIV infection among these individuals will not surge but will somewhat fluctuate over time. Attempt to end AIDS as a public health threat by year 2030 can remain a challenge if the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage, population growth rates, and AIDS-related death rates were to continue into the next decade.
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