# University of Montenegro

• Podgorica, Montenegro, Montenegro
Recent publications
Background Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects in genes coding for different lysosomal enzymes which degrade glycosaminoglycans. Impaired lysosomal degradation causes cell dysfunction leading to progressive multiorgan involvement, disabling consequences and poor life expectancy. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is now available for most MPS types, offering beneficial effects on disease progression and improving quality of life of patients. The landscape of MPS in Europe is not completely described and studies on availability of treatment show that ERT is not adequately implemented, particularly in Southern and Eastern Europe. In this study we performed a survey analysis in main specialist centers in Southern and Eastern European countries, to outline the picture of disease management in the region and understand ERT implementation. Since the considerable number of MPS IVA patients in the region, particularly adults, the study mainly focused on MPS IVA management and treatment. Results 19 experts from 14 Southern and Eastern European countries in total responded to the survey. Results outlined a picture of MPS management in the region, with a high number of MPS patients managed in the centers and a high level of care. MPS II was the most prevalent followed by MPS IVA, with a particular high number of adult patients. The study particularly focused on management and treatment of MPS IVA patients. Adherence to current European Guidelines for follow-up of MPS IVA patients is generally adequate, although some important assessments are reported as difficult due to the lack of MPS skilled specialists. Availability of ERT in Southern and Eastern European countries is generally in line with other European regions, even though regulatory, organizational and reimbursement constrains are demanding. Conclusions The landscape of MPS in Southern and Eastern European countries is generally comparable to that of other European regions, regarding epidemiology, treatment accessibility and follow up difficulties. However, issues limiting ERT availability and reimbursement should be simplified, to start treatment as early as possible and make it available for more patients. Besides, educational programs dedicated to specialists should be implemented, particularly for pediatricians, clinical geneticists, surgeons, anesthesiologists and neurologists.
Today's power systems are characterized by a considerable penetration of electricity production from renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy sources are characterized by intermittent non-stationary output, which leads to more complicated regulation of voltage, power flows, and frequency in power systems. Energy storage systems (ESSs) have been identified as one of the more efficient solutions to overcome some of these problems. In the literature, ESSs have been predominantly viewed as producers (in discharging) or consumers (in charging) of active power. Using bi-directional converters (BDCs), ESSs can regulate the connection point's reactive power. Therefore, this paper aims to consider the effects of the coordination of BDCs and ESSs on modern power systems. The CONOPT solver embedded in the general algebraic modeling system (GAMS) was used to analyze this problem and find the optimal location of ESSs in the system. All calculations were performed on both IEEE 39-and IEEE 30-test networks, while the objective function was minimizing the power loss. The presented results show that losses in the power system can be reduced by correctly allocating ESSs. Furthermore, the simultaneous allocation of ESSs and BDCs efficiently reduce power system losses using the CONOPT solver.
Massive Internet of Things (IoT) systems are one of the main drivers of new wireless standards. It’s necessary that IoT devices cost as little as possible, and to minimize energy consumption. In this paper, new solutions for an extended battery life of IoT devices are proposed. The new signal processing schemes, for massive IoT uplink communication, combine spatial modulation (SM), relaying, and virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques to improve energy efficiency, in the sense that more bits can be transmitted per same unit of time/energy/spectral resources. SM is particularly suitable because it allows indirect transmission of bits, i.e., it isn’t necessary to transmit them from antennas. The larger number of transmitting antennas at IoT device, of which only one is active, provides that more bits can be used for selecting active antenna. In this paper, the new uplink transmission schemes, that enable virtual multiple-input single-output (MISO)/space–time block codes (STBC) channels between IoT devices and radio access point (AP), are proposed. The simulation results show that it’s possible to find a compromise solution between bit error probability (BER) and the achieved energy savings, i.e., a network management in terms of energy and reliability can be implemented.
The large gyre systems of near-surface almost-circular ocean currents formed by global wind patterns and the effect of the Earth’s rotation often present symmetry properties. By means of maximum principles, we infer certain symmetry properties from the specific structure of such flows. Our approach uses the stereographic projection, which allows us to turn the governing equations for steady flows on a rotating sphere into semilinear elliptic equations in the plane. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of using conformal mappings to study specific flows.
Let M and N be doubly connected Riemann surfaces with C1,α\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathscr {C}}^{1,\alpha }$$\end{document} boundaries and with nonvanishing conformal metrics σ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\sigma$$\end{document} and ℘\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\wp$$\end{document} respectively, and assume that ℘\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\wp$$\end{document} is a smooth metric with bounded Gauss curvature K\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathcal {K}}$$\end{document} and finite area. Assume that H℘(M,N)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathcal {H}}^\wp (M, N)$$\end{document} is the class of all W1,2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathscr {W}}^{1,2}$$\end{document} homeomorphisms between M and N and assume that E℘:H℘(M,N)→R\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathcal {E}}^\wp : {\mathcal {H}}^\wp (M, N)\rightarrow {\mathbf {R}}$$\end{document} is the Dirichlet-energy functional, where H¯℘(M,N)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{{\mathcal {H}}}^\wp (M, N)$$\end{document} is the closure of H℘(M,N)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${{\mathcal {H}}}^\wp (M, N)$$\end{document} in W1,2(M,N)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathscr {W}}^{1,2}(M,N)$$\end{document}. By using a result of Iwaniec, Kovalev and Onninen in Iwaniec et al. (Duke Math J 162(4):643–672, 2013) that the minimizer, is locally Lipschitz, we prove that the minimizer, of the energy functional E℘\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathcal {E}}^\wp$$\end{document}, which is not a diffeomorphism in general, is a globally Lipschitz mapping of M onto N. Note that, this result is new also for flat Riemann surfaces, i.e. for the planar domains furnished with the Euclidean metric.
Motorcycles are the most common type of vehicle involved in traffic deaths, especially in underdeveloped and developing countries. In order to prevent traffic accidents involving motorcyclists, one of the measures is to respect the “see and be seen” rule. If a motorcycle is perceived in time or another motorcyclist is spotted in time, there is enough time to react, in order to avoid a traffic accident or reduce the consequences. In many countries, it is for this reason that the use of daytime running lights on motor vehicles and/or motorcycles is legally prescribed. In the Republic of Serbia, a country that belongs among the least developed countries, about a third of those killed in traffic accidents are motorcycle drivers. For these reasons, an experimental study was conducted on a driving simulator to examine the importance of (non) use of daytime running lights on the estimation of motorcycle speed. Three different situations were examined: without daytime running lights, with daytime running lights, and with LED daytime running lights; for test speeds of 30 km/h, 50 km/h, 70 km/h, and 90 km/h. In the experiment, 128 young drivers participated. The results showed that the speed of a motorcycle with LED daytime running lights on is perceived most accurately.
This paper aims to assess ecological and health risks associated with heavy metal (As, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr) content in agricultural soils and vegetables (potato tuber, beetroot, onion bulb, carrot root) collected near the lead and zinc mine (MLZ), coal-fired power station (CFPS) and coal mine (CM) located in Pljevlja municipality (Montenegro). The ecological risk of soil was estimated using the ecological risk index (RI) and pollution load index (PLI). The health risk was evaluated through different soil exposure pathways (ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact) and vegetable consumption. The pollution indices RI and PLI indicated the highest contamination in MLZ study area followed by CM and CFPS areas. RI values revealed considerable contamination in MLZ and CM study areas, while CFPS area is moderately contaminated by heavy metals. According to PLI, soil in MLZ and CM areas is classified as polluted, while the soil in the vicinity of CFPS is classified as unpolluted. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks through soil exposure were identified for both children and adults, in all investigated areas. Dermal contact was identified as the main contributor to carcinogenic risk. Dermal contact was also identified as the main exposure pathway for non-carcinogenic risk in MLZ area, while for CFPS and CM areas, ingestion was the main exposure route. As for vegetables, only Cu and Zn were detected in all examined vegetables. Non-cancerogenic health risk of edible vegetable consumption was found for children in all study areas, while there was no health risk for adults.
Physical activity among children and adolescents remains insufficient, despite the substantial efforts made by researchers and policymakers. Identifying and furthering our understanding of potential modifiable determinants of physical activity behaviour (PAB) and sedentary behaviour (SB) is crucial for the development of interventions that promote a shift from SB to PAB. The current protocol details the process through which a series of systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses (MAs) will be conducted to produce a best-evidence statement (BESt) and inform policymakers. The overall aim is to identify modifiable determinants that are associated with changes in PAB and SB in children and adolescents (aged 5–19 years) and to quantify their effect on, or association with, PAB/SB. A search will be performed in MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science, PsychINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled trials (CTs) that investigate the effect of interventions on PAB/SB and longitudinal studies that investigate the associations between modifiable determinants and PAB/SB at multiple time points will be sought. Risk of bias assessments will be performed using adapted versions of Cochrane’s RoB V.2.0 and ROBINS-I tools for RCTs and CTs, respectively, and an adapted version of the National Institute of Health’s tool for longitudinal studies. Data will be synthesised narratively and, where possible, MAs will be performed using frequentist and Bayesian statistics. Modifiable determinants will be discussed considering the settings in which they were investigated and the PAB/SB measurement methods used.
Background: Pathological and clinical features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are in temporal discrepancy and currently accepted clinical tests provide the diagnosis decades after the initial pathophysiological events. In order to enable a more timely detection of AD, research efforts are directed to identification of biomarkers of the early symptomatic stage. Neuroinflammatory signaling pathways and inflammation-related microRNAs (miRNAs) could possibly have a crucial role in AD, making them promising potential biomarkers. Objective: We examined the expression of circulatory miRNAs with a documented role in AD pathophysiology: miR-29a/b, miR-101, miR-125b, miR-146a, and miR-155 in the plasma of AD patients (AD, n = 12), people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 9), and normocognitive group (CTRL, n = 18). We hypothesized that these miRNA expression levels could correlate with the level of participants’ cognitive decline. Methods: The study participants completed the standardized interview, neurological examination, neuropsychological assessment, and biochemical analyses. miRNA expression levels were assessed by RT-PCR. Results: Neurological and laboratory findings could not account for MCI, but miR-146a and -155 were upregulated in the MCI group compared to the control. miR-146a, known to mediate early neuroinflammatory AD events, was also upregulated in the MCI compared to AD group. ROC curve analysis for miRNA-146a showed 77.8% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity for miR-155. Conclusion: Determination of circulatory inflamma-miRs-146a and -155 expression, together with neuropsychological screening, could become a non-invasive tool for detecting individuals with an increased risk for AD, but research on a larger cohort is warranted.
A non-invasive laser fiber-optic method based on infrared sensors for heart rate (Hr) recording was applied to assess the physiological condition of Pinna nobilis. During 2017, the specimens of P. nobilis were sampled at three sites within the Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro and used for ex situ experiments with short-term reduction/restoration of ambient salinity to evaluate their physiological adaptive capacity based on heart rate recovery time (Trec). Mean Trec for specimens from Sv. Nedjelja (reference site), Dobrota and Sv. Stasije were 72 ± 3, 91 ± 7 and 117 ± 15 min, while the coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.12, 0.13 and 0.17, respectively. Resting heart rate (Hrrest) and Trec showed statistically significant differences between the groups of mussels from Dobrota and Sv. Stasije in comparison to the reference site. Statistically significant correlations were observed between Trec and shell length/width, which was not the case in comparison between Hrrest and shell length/width. The lower adaptive capacity within the P. nobilis specimens from Dobrota and Sv. Stasije in comparison to the reference site could occur due to stress induced by deterioration of environmental conditions, which could have led to impairment of the physiological state of the mussels evaluated by Hr. All the specimens of P. nobilis survived the experimental treatments; afterwards, they were successfully transplanted at the Dobrota site. The experimental unit with sensor technology applied in this study can provide Hr recording in real time and could have an application in monitoring the physiological/health state of P. nobilis individuals maintained in aquaria.
Introduction: Walking is an active way of moving the population, but in recent years there have been more pedestrian casualties in traffic, especially in developing countries such as Serbia. Macro-level road safety studies enable the identification of influential factors that play an important role in creating pedestrian safety policies. Method: This study analyzes the impact of traffic and infrastructure characteristics on pedestrian accidents at the level of traffic analysis zones. The study applied a geographically weighted regression approach to identify and localize all factors that contribute to the occurrence of pedestrian accidents. Taking into account the spatial correlations between the zones and the frequency distribution of accidents, the geographically Poisson weighted model showed the best predictive performance. Results: This model showed 10 statistically significant factors influencing pedestrian accidents. In addition to exposure measures, a positive relationship with pedestrian accidents was identified in the length of state roads (class I), the length of unclassified streets, as well as the number of bus stops, parking spaces, and object units. However, a negative relationship was recorded with the total length of the street network and the total length of state roads passing through the analyzed area. Conclusion: These results indicate the importance of determining the categorization and function of roads in places where pedestrian flows are pronounced, as well as the perception of pedestrian safety near bus stops and parking spaces. Practical Applications: The results of this study can help traffic safety engineers and managers plan infrastructure measures for future pedestrian safety planning and management in order to reduce pedestrian casualties and increase their physical activity.
This paper examined ten main components of a nautical destination and the level of satisfaction with them by the nautical tourists visiting Montenegro. The goal is to propose the strategic management directions for sustainable development of Montenegro as an attractive, new Adriatic and Mediterranean nautical destination. A sample of 609 nautical tourists was examined on different dimensions of Montenegro as a destination; their obtained responses used exploratory factor analysis. All categories of respondents expressed the greatest level of satisfaction with the natural beauties of Montenegro, while being least satisfied with the nature protection. Given that strategic decision-makers are still in the process of considering the options for the development of the researched destination, and that foreign investors have recognised its attractiveness, this paper aims to offer to all stakeholders—the central government, local self-governments, investors, managers and tourism organisations—a framework for sustainable nautical destination management. The survey focuses on satisfaction defined quite broadly, since the aim is to gain an insight into crucial elements threatening the destination’s sustainability to be able, in the next steps, to examine the specificities of the problems detected. An added value is the applicability to similar nautical destinations, which very much like Montenegro, invest considerable efforts in boosting the development of this segment of tourism supply.
The aim of this study was to determine the differences between healthy-weight and overweight 5–6-year-old preschool children in fine and gross motor skills and cognitive abilities. There were 91 subjects, preschool children (41 boys and 50 girls), who participated in this cross-sectional study. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated based on measures of body height and body mass, and WHO cutoff points were used for the assessment of the children’s nutrition status. Fine motor abilities were determined using two Bruininks–Oseretsky (BOT-2) subtests, and gross motor skills are determined by the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), while cognitive abilities were tested by the School Maturity Test (TZŠ+). Based on an independent-samples t-test, a difference in two out of three variables of gross motor skills was determined: manipulative skills and total gross motor skills between healthy-weight and overweight children, while in fine motor abilities and cognitive abilities there was no difference between these two groups. Although significant differences were found only in gross motor skills between healthy and overweight preschool children but not in fine motor skills and cognitive abilities, further longitudinal studies are required to understand the mechanisms of this, including the possible role of psychological factors.
PurposeTo analyze the effects of children’s malocclusions and associated quality of life on family relationships by evaluating psychometric characteristics of the Family Impact Scale (FIS) in adolescents seeking orthodontic treatment.Materials and methodsIncluded were 334 participants (children aged 11–14 years; 53% female and 47% male) and their parents (84% mothers, 16% fathers) who were recruited at two dental clinics in Croatia. The Child Perception Questionnaire, Parental-Caregiver Perception Questionnaire, and FIS were administered. Malocclusion severity was estimated using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need Dental Health Component. The presence of caries was also recorded. Factor analysis, t‑test, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis.ResultsUnidimensional FIS measuring global family impacts had higher internal consistency (α = 0.73–0.81) compared to the specific dimensions of family impacts (α = 0.60–0.69). Global family impacts were higher in children with more severe malocclusions and existing dental caries, primarily influencing parental activity, and parental emotions dimensions (p < 0.05). In multiple regression, parental perception of child’s emotional well-being, oral symptoms, and social well-being (p < 0.001) were significant predictors of global family impacts, whereas child’s quality of life perception, malocclusion severity, or child sex were not. Reduction of an increased overjet by orthodontic treatment affected changes in the global family impacts, mainly by reducing the emotional issues of parents (p < 0.05).Conclusions The child’s malocclusion influenced the family, primarily parental emotions. Family influences were mostly determined by parental perception of the child’s altered psychosocial well-being. The FIS had adequate psychometric properties.
In this study, the possible ‘vector effect’ within the exposure of Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) to polystyrene microplastics with adsorbed fluoranthene was investigated by applying the multibiomarker approach. The major focus was placed on genotoxicological endpoints as to our knowledge there are no literature data on the genotoxicity of polystyrene microparticles alone or with adsorbed fluoranthene in the selected experimental organisms. DNA damage was assessed in haemocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test. For the assessment of neurotoxicity, acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in gills. Glutathione S-transferase was assessed in gills and hepatopancreas since these enzymes are induced for biotransformation and excretion of lipophilic compounds such as hydrocarbons. Finally, differences in physiological response within the exposure to polystyrene particles, fluoranthene, or particles with adsorbed fluoranthene were assessed by the variation of heart rate patterns studied by the noninvasive laser fibre-optic method. The uniform response of individual biomarkers within the exposure groups was not recorded. There was no clear pattern in variation of acetylcholinesterase or glutathione S-transferase activity which could be attributed to the treatment. Exposure to polystyrene increased DNA damage which was detected by the comet assay but was not confirmed by micronucleus formation. Data of genotoxicity assays indicated differential responses among the groups exposed to fluoranthene alone and fluoranthene adsorbed to polystyrene. Change in the heart rate patterns within the studied groups supports the concept of the Trojan horse effect within the exposure to polystyrene particles with adsorbed fluoranthene.
In this paper, we analyze the influence of corruption perception, experiences of corruptive behavior, and healthcare autonomy on the public trust in Montenegrin healthcare, by surveying the general population before and after the global COVID-19 pandemic. By providing a quasi-replication of a previous empirical study of corruption and trust in the Croatian public healthcare sector, we introduce the COVID-19 pandemic as a new research context. Before the pandemic, we found a consistent and significant negative influence of the corruptive practices and the generally perceived level of corruption (corruption salience) on the trust in public healthcare. The emergence of COVID-19 had mixed effects: while there is a slightly higher effect of corruption salience to the preference of public healthcare, corruptive experiences still matter but are tolerated much higher than before the pandemic. Public assessment of the autonomy of the health system increases preference for public healthcare, both before and after the pandemic, although the emergence of COVID-19 somewhat lowers this effect. The obtained results point to the most significant challenges of the ‘post-COVID-19’ social context to public health policymaking and management of public healthcare institutions. These include focusing the public healthcare reforms on corruption, reducing waiting times for different diagnostics and medical procedures in the public healthcare system, and regulating the ‘dual practice’ (simultaneous work in public and private healthcare institutions).
Background Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects up to 5% of pregnancies, but with no consensus on the definition. Inherited thrombophilia has been postulated as a risk factor for RPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of RPL with polymorphisms of five genes that influent the coagulation and fibrinolysis. Methods This study was conducted on total of 224 women, 129 women with ≥2 early RPL or ≥1 late pregnancy loss, 95 women with at least two normal life births and no history of pregnancy loss. Five gene polymorphisms F2 20 210G>A (rs1799963), F5 1691G>A (rs6025), MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133), SERPINE1 − 675 4G/5G (rs1799762) and ACE I/D (rs1799752) were genotyped by PCR-based methods. Results A significant relationship was found between SERPINE1 4G/4G and ACE D/D polymorphisms and RPL (p<0.001 both, OR 2.91 and 3.02, respectively). In contrast, no association was found between F2 20 210G>A, F5 1691G>A and MTHFR 677C>T polymorphisms and risk for RPL. A combination of hypofibrinolytic homozygotes SERPINE1 4G/4G+ ACE D/D was observed as a highly associated with RPL (Cochran-Armitage test, p<0.001), and their strong independent association with RPL risk was confirmed by logistic regression analysis (both p values <0.001, OR 3.35 and 3.43, respectively). Conclusion Our data have demonstrated that SERPINE1 and ACE gene polymorphisms, individually or in combination, appear to be a significant risk for RPL. This data may be useful in adding to the knowledge on inherited thrombophilia as an important contributor to RPL pathogenesis.
In this article, a novel multiplex-multicast approach for virtual reality (VR) applications is proposed. High data rate and low latency are some of the key requirements for these services. Thus, new spatial multiplexing, for increasing overall spectral efficiency, is performed between one gateway (GW) and predefined VR relaying devices (VR-RDs) that act as relays toward other VR devices (VR-D) in a certain cluster. At the first hop, the novel, full-rate, quasi-orthogonal space–time line code (QOSTLC) multiplexing is implemented, while, at the second hop, the multicast channels are performed through a well-known full-rate QOST block code (QOSTBC). Furthermore, in order to facilitate utilization of this dual-hop, downlink, transmission scheme for VR services, it was necessary to deploy low-complexity processing at VR-RDs. Decoding and full-channel state information (CSI) obtaining can affect the processing delay, thus, there is no decoding at VR-RDs, and they do not need full CSI, either for receiving or transmitting. Besides achieving these features, the novel processing at VR-RDs emulates full-orthogonality within the new multiplexing scheme. VR-RDs are equipped with four antennas, while the number of transmitting and receiving antennas at the GW and VR-Ds can be arbitrary. The simulated bit error rate (BER) results are presented for the different simulation parameters.
This study explores the use of content-oriented questions in British and Montenegrin university lectures. It examines their formal realisation, their frequency and their contextual functions, as well as the differences and similarities related to these questions between British linguistics lectures taken from the standard British corpora, and a specially compiled corpus of Montenegrin linguistics lectures. Compared to previous studies on content-oriented questions, one modified and five new functions are revealed, alongside one new formal realisation. The main differences between the corpora include the greater frequency of content-oriented questions in the Montenegrin lectures and a new questioning realisation, found only in the Montenegrin corpus, which is potentially attributable to differences between academic cultures. The major similarities relate to the use of the four most common question forms, which perform the same contextual functions. This contrastive study thus provides insights into the additional communicative functions and forms of content-oriented questions in university lectures.
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• Biotechnical Faculty