In-vessel composting machine with the agitating system, circulating aeration system, and heating system on vegetable and food waste with coco peat additives and biochar obtained from coco peat was investigated. The composting process was tested at 55 °C, at three fresh inlet air rates of 20%, 30%, and 50%, three initial carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 18, 22, 26, and the addition of coco peat biochar of 5%, 10% w.b. (wet basis). To predict compost evaluation indicators of Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, C/N & GI, artificial neural network (ANN), and neural-fuzzy inference systems were used. The evaluation of the output parameters of compost showed high efficiency of the process. The amount of EC, acidity, and GI increased for all treatments, and the C/N ratio decreased. Also, the initial C/N ratio of 22 and fresh inlet air (FIA) of 30% were considered as the optimal setting conditions of the device. Treatment containing 5% biochar in the C/N of 22 resulted in the highest germination index of 93.55%. The best values of the coefficient of determination for the output parameters of the compost production process (EC, pH, C/N & GI) in the artificial neural network were 0.9252, 0.9863, 0.9691, and 0.9909 respectively. Moreover, the best values of the coefficient of determination in the fuzzy neural inference system for the output parameters of the compost include EC, pH, C/N and GI were 0.999, 0.999, 0.994, and 0.992, respectively. Also, the lowest values of MAE and RMSE in the fuzzy neural inference system for the output parameters of the compost include EC, pH, C/N, and GI were 0.0308, 0.0001, 0.2420, and 0.003 for MAE; and 0.0021, 3.66E−05, 0.1908 and 0.0041 for RMSE, respectively.
Three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds are often used in tissue engineering applications to produce an environment that is conducive to the integration of cells or growth factors to repair or replace damaged tissues or organs. These scaffolds are utilized to mimic the microenvironment seen in vivo, where cells interact and respond to mechanical cues from their three-dimensional surroundings. Consequently, cellular response and fate depend greatly on the material properties of scaffolds. These three-dimensional scaffolds' porous, net-worked pore structures enable the movement of nutrients, oxygen, and waste. This article looks at the many manufacturing procedures (such as conventional and rapid prototyping techniques) used to create 3D scaffolds with variable pore sizes and porosities. The various methods for determining pore size and porosity will also be covered. It has also been investigated if scaffolds with graded porosity may more accurately mimic the in vivo situation in which cells are exposed to layers of various tissues with changing characteristics. Following a look at the extracellular matrix, nature's own scaffold, the ability of scaffold pore size and porosity to affect biological responses and mechanical qualities will also be investigated. We will talk about the problems with the current ways of building scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and offer some new and exciting alternatives.
Purpose Overhead squat assessment (OHSA) is a pre-activity dynamic movement analysis tool used to define deviations from an ideal motion pattern which known as compensation. Compensatory movements may result from abnormality in myofascial activity, length-tension relationships, neuro-motor control strategies, osteokinematics and arthrokinematics. The aim of this study is to identify the association between selected biomechanical variables of the ankle, knee, hip, pelvis, torso during OHSA and 16 km/h treadmill running tasks. Methods Thirteen national long distance male runners (17.3 ± 0.5 age (years); 5.89 ± 1.95 experience (years), 57.9 ± 3.7 body mass (kg); 175.4 ± 5.7 height (cm)) participated in this 2controlled laboratory study. Three-dimensional kinematics were collected at 250 Hz using a 9-camera Qualisys motion analysis system (Qualisys AB, Goteborg, Sweden) while participants performed 16 km/h treadmill running and OHSA tasks. Results Correlation coefficients demonstrated that OHSA pelvic anterior tilt angle was in a positive association with foot strike (FS), mid-stance (MS), and toe-off (TO) pelvic anterior tilt angles and MS tibial internal rotation on talus, MS ankle pronation, MS hip internal rotation. OHSA pelvic anterior tilt angle was in a negative association with TO hip extension. OHSA maximal hip adduction was positively correlated with MS and stance maximal knee adduction. FS, MS, stance maximal angular dorsiflexion values were positively correlated with OHSA dorsiflexion. Increased OHSA dorsiflexion angle was negatively associated with TO plantar flexion. OHSA pronation was positively associated with MS and stance pronation. MS hip internal rotation, MS hip adduction angles were increased, and MS ankle dorsiflexion was significantly decreased with the increase of trunk forward lean relative to tibia during OHSA. Conclusions OHSA was associated with some important and dysfunction-related hip, knee and ankle kinematics. Running coaches, may use OHSA as an assessment tool before the corrective training plan to detect injury-related compensation patterns to reduce the risk of injury and improve running technique.
We evaluated the genetic structure and ecological niche segregation of Apis florea Fabricius 1787 (Apidae: Apini) across its native range using genetic and ecological niche data. The bee samples were from 62 colonies representing 40 localities across Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Oman, and Egypt. Ecological niche divergence was estimated based on a principal component analysis of climatic/ecological variables. We confirmed the presence of two distinct lineages (eastern and western) for the species using mtDNA. There was no significant climatic heterogeneity between the lineages and their ecological niches are likely to be somewhat conserved. They were probably separated from each other during the Pleistocene and evolved in isolation. The two lineages of A. florea can be considered separate conservation units and used to develop strategies for effectively conserving this keystone pollinator species in Asia.
This paper proposes a mixed‐integer non‐linear programming (MINLP) model for the multi‐period active low voltage (LV) distribution network expansion planning problem, which can be solved by off‐the‐shelf optimization solvers. In addition, the wide‐spread penetration of solar resources, optimal loading of transformers, and modeling of the multiple solar generation patterns are considered in the model. The solar resources are of roof‐top household‐scale photovoltaic panel type, developed using a host‐owned business model and are able to exchange energy with the distribution company (DISCO). This model enables the DISCO, as the owner of the network, to minimize the investment and operation costs while being able to determine the optimal location and capacity of the distribution transformers, the service zone of distribution transformers, the optimal route of the distribution lines, and the total and annual planning costs. In order to check the efficiency of the proposed model, a 0.4 kV distribution test network is considered to plan the LV network of a residential district over a planning horizon of 5 years. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed model in dynamic expansion planning of the active LV distribution network. Also, results illustrates that the penetration of solar sources can be a great tool to improve the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for planning studies. Specifically while reducing the billing costs of customers, it favors the government to reduce the pollution costs, and it enables the DISCO to reduce the loss costs and maintain the voltage in the standard boundaries.
This study presents an effective one-pot strategy for the synthesis of hydroxylated 1,3-dithiane-pyrazolone hybrids. The process involves a reaction between pyrazolone derivatives and carbon disulfide in the presence of epichlorohydrin (ECH). The structural elucidation of the products was accomplished using various spectroscopic techniques. To further corroborate the proposed reaction mechanism, enantiomerically pure ECH was utilized.
This chapter examines the load-frequency control (LFC) problem for an islanded fully-renewable microgrid (MG) that meets all users’ power demands with renewable energy sources (RESs). Islanded MGs with substantial RESs penetration face uncertainty. If we want to reap the advantages of RESs, we must equip the MG with a strong and effective control system since these sources, notably wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, are weather-dependent. For LFC, a multistage controller is designed. It removes PID controller flaws and operates quickly and reliably. The proposed controller is a Proportional Derivative (PD) cascaded with One + Proportional Integral (1+PI). The PD controllers operate as filter to speed up controller response, while PI controllers overcome steady-state error. This control approach combines these two controllers in the first and second stages to decrease steady-state error and achieve system stability faster to increase system responsiveness. Demand response programs (DRPs) make up for the MG’s lack of auxiliary services. This chapter discusses how a frequency-based control method for responsive loads in smart MGs may involve in the LFC issue. The DRP presence or absence and response loads involvement amount have been examined. The MG faces uncertainty and nonlinear variables, making LFC controller design challenging. Metaheuristic algorithms are used to find optimum controllers for the LFC issue. The particle swarm optimization with nonlinear time-varying acceleration coefficients (PSO-NTVAC) is used to find the best controller settings. To adjust for frequency variations in a 100% renewable MG, the cascade PD-(1+PI) controller is evaluated under a number of situations, including system modelling uncertainty and nonlinearity, and the existence of the DRP.
Purpose of Review: Dietary consumption of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics has been suggested to improve human health conditions. Functional food products containing live probiotics are flourishing, and their demand seems to be increasing since consumers are more aware of the health benefits of such products. However, specific food packaging is needed to maintain the viability and stability of these products, hence, necessitating advanced technology and processing. This study intends to give academics and industry an overview of food packaging evaluations that concentrate on prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics for consumers to gain a wide and clear image. Recent Findings: This review provides recent findings from the consumer point of view on the prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics incorporated in food packaging based on consumer behavior models. Additionally, various obstacles in the preparation of packing film or coating added with biotics are identified and described. The health benefits of prebiotics-, probiotics-, or synbiotics-containing edible film or coating are also discussed. Future works needed to excel in the preparation and potential of packaging film or coatings with biotics are provided. Summary: The development of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics in food packaging is discussed in this study from the consumer’s point of view. With this review, it is hoped to be able to provide precise recommendations for the future development of food packaging that will promote the growth of the food business.
There are differing views on cannabis and phytocannabinoid usage in diverse domains of application. This review explores the advantages and drawbacks of using cannabis and phytocannabinoids, including their effects on human health, in addition to highlighting the need for precise and repeatable analytical methods for quantifying controlled phytocannabinoids in consumer cannabidiol (CBD) products and foods. The composition and characteristics of the phytochemicals found in cannabis, the advantages and disadvantages of controlled and uncontrolled phytocannabinoids, and the need for regulation and standardization in the use of cannabis and products containing phytocannabinoids are all covered in this review of the pertinent literature. Cannabinoids used illegally can have negative consequences, but controlled phytocannabinoids found in consumer CBD products are relatively safe and unlikely to cause any adverse effects. It is necessary to restrict the amount of CBD in foods and consumer products in order to ensure safety. To measure the amount of restricted phytocannabinoids in these products, accurate analytical techniques are also required. In order to increase the use of cannabis among consumers, more research is needed to improve our understanding of the bioavailability and metabolic pathways of these compounds. Furthermore, consumers want clear and uniform federal rules governing the amount of CBD in food products in order to ensure correct dosing. To promote safe and responsible use, cannabis and phytocannabinoids must be carefully considered, regulated, and standardized. It is necessary for consumers to have clear, consistent standards governing the percentage of CBD in their food products. As a result, they would know the exact amount of CBD in their products.
Advancements in solar energy harvesting technologies call for innovative approaches to meet the ever-growing energy demand. Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites and transition metal dichalcogenides are promising materials for solar cells and other optoelectronic devices and specially for luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The efficiency of silicon-based solar cells can be significantly improved by incorporating a layer of optically active centers. These active centers convert a part of the absorbing solar radiation into a specific emitting wavelength to increase the short wavelength response of photovoltaic (PV) modules. In this study, we investigate the possibility of using a WS2/perovskite layer as an active layer in LSCs to enhance the performance of silicon-based solar cells. It was found that CH3NH3PbCl3/WS2 structure, with 1.5 wt% concentration in Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), leads to the highest efficiency with the least loss mechanisms in the LSC. The efficiency of the coated Si PV cell is increased by about 50%, compared to an uncoated cell.
Object recognition technology in the field of computer vision for finding and identifying objects in an image or video sequence. Humans recognize a multitude of objects in images with little effort, although the image of the objects may vary somewhat in different viewpoints, in many different sizes and scales or even when they are translated or rotated. Objects can even be recognized when they are partially obstructed from view. This task is still a challenge for computer vision systems. Many approaches to the task have been implemented over multiple decades In many computer vision systems, object detection is the first task being performed as it allows us to obtain further information regarding the detected object and about the scene. In recent years, the use of deep learning has attracted the attention of researchers, Deep learning uses multiple layers to extract raw features from high-level features the machine divides each complex concept into simpler concepts. The proposed method is based on AlexNet architecture. In this method, a convolutional neural network-based architecture with a small amount of data can detect objects in the image, the data used is the March database, so this process identifies thirty pictures in four separate classes with 100% accuracy.
Mobile Edge Computing is an innovative network architecture in the 5G era that aims to provide low-latency services to end users.By utilizing network slicing technology, infrastructure providers can create separate slices for each service and offer them to service providers (SP). In order to ensure the effectiveness of the network, InP must accept slice requests from SP, thus increasing their revenue and avoiding degradation of the services when scaling up is necessary. Reinforcement learning methods have been increasingly used to address this challenge, particularly Q-learning. However, one major limitation of this method is its lack of compatibility with increasing state-action spaces. To overcome this limitation and enable control over slice acceptance in continuous environments, we propose an approximate Q-learning method that addresses the weaknesses of the Q algorithm. This method achieves fast convergence of the algorithm through modifications to crucial algorithmic functions, including defining and weighting important network features. Extensive evaluations were conducted to validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach. Metrics such as coverage, cumulative rewards, resource utilization, slice acceptance, penalty ratio, and revenue were considered. The results demonstrate significant improvements in terms of network efficiency, revenue generation, and resource allocation.
Introduction Nutrition is vital in health and sports performance by improving anthropometric-related parameters and dietary habits, especially in the youngest ages. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been highly recognized for its positive health effects and low adverse environmental impact. Objectives We aimed to characterize adherence to the MD and analyze its association with anthropometric parameters in young soccer players. Methodology In the present study, 132 male young soccer players from under 9 to under 15 categories (aged 7 to 15 years) from a Portuguese football club participated. The Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for Children and Adolescents (KIDMED) questionnaire was applied to assess adherence to the MD. Anthropometric-related parameters, including body mass, height, triceps skinfold thickness (TSKF), suprailiac skinfold thickness (SISKF), body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF), were determined. The differences between groups were performed accordingly to normal and non-normal distribution. Spearman’s correlations were performed to analyze the hypothetical correlation between KIDMED and BMI. Results Players reached an average KIDMED score of 8.36 ± 1.92, showing that 68.2% (n = 90) reached high adherence to the MD, 31.1% (n = 41) had moderate adherence to the MD, and 0.78% (n = 1) had poor adherence to the MD. When the analysis was made for age group and BMI classification, no significant differences were observed in adherence to the MD. Considering the main characteristics of the MD, 50.8% consumed fruit (vs. 49,2%), 52.3% consumed vegetables (vs. 47,7%), and only 20% consumed oleaginous dried fruits (vs. 80%). Dairy consumption throughout the day was 49,2% (vs. no: 50,8%). Conclusion Data from the present study showed that many soccer players adhered to the MD, and no differences were observed for age group or BMI classification.
Utilization of acellular scaffolds, extracellular matrix (ECM) without cell content, is growing in tissue engineering, due to their high biocompatibility, bioactivity ad mechanical support. Hence, the purpose of this research was to study the characteristics and biocompatibility of decellularized rat skin scaffolds using the osmotic shock method. First, the skin of male Wistar rats was harvested and cut into 1 × 1 cm² pieces. Then, some of the harvested parts were subjected to the decellularization process by applying osmotic shock. Comparison of control and scaffold samples was conducted in order to assure cell elimination and ECM conservation by means of histological evaluations, quantification of biochemical factors, measurement of DNA amount, and photographing the ultrastructure of the samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to evaluate stem cell viability and adhesion to the scaffold, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) were seeded on the acellular scaffolds. Subsequently, MTT test and SEM imaging of the scaffolds containing cultured cells were applied. The findings indicated that in the decellularized scaffolds prepared by osmotic shock method, not only the cell content was removed, but also the ECM components and its ultrastructure were preserved. Also, the 99% viability and adhesion of AD-MSCs cultured on the scaffolds indicate the biocompatibility of the decellularized skin scaffold. In conclusion, decellularized rat skin scaffolds are biocompatible and appropriate scaffolds for future investigations of tissue engineering applications.
In recent years, global warming, climate change, and carbon emissions have emerged due to the uncontrolled use of fossil fuels and the lack of widespread use of renewable energy sources on a global scale. This research investigated specific energy consumption (SEC) and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions (carbon dioxide [CO2] and nitrogen oxides [NOX]) during the drying of pear samples by five different types of dryers, namely, convective (CV), infrared (IR), microwave (MW), combined IR/CV, and MW/CV. Moreover, the quality properties of dried pears, such as shrinkage, rehydration (RR), and color change were determined. The results showed that the highest shrinkage (72.53%) and color change (ΔE = 33.41) values were obtained in CV drying at 50 °C and thickness of 2 mm and IR dryer 1000 W and thickness of 6 mm, respectively. The greatest rehydration rate (4.25) was also determined in MW/CV drying at 450 W and an air temperature of 60 °C. The lowest SEC was observed for the MW/CV dryer with a power of 630 W and air temperature 70 °C (20.25 MJ/kg), while the highest SEC (267.61 MJ/kg) was obtained in the CV drying (50 °C, sample thickness of 6 mm). The highest CO2 and NOX emissions (GT-GO power plant) were 280.45 and 1.55 kg/kg water in the CV dryer at 50 °C and a thickness of 6 mm. In conclusion, the increases in IR and MW power and temperatures led to reduced CO2 and NOX emissions, while the increases in sample thickness led to increase CO2 and NOX emissions.
Statistical analysis of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the fundamental of engineering plans for water resource projects. In the other words, project solutions and designs depend directly on the accuracy of these statistical analyses and the methods that develop them to studied area. One of the recent methods was used to estimate the variables such as hydraulic conductivity is Kriging method. In this study, GIS software was used for this purpose and kriging method was used to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. Spherical model with nugget effect of 0.0039 and sill of 0.0262 was the best variogram for determining soil hydraulic conductivity in this method, which expressed the high strength of regional variable structure in the studied area. The results showed that the simple kriging method with a regression coefficient of 0.82 has the highest accuracy in modeling the saturated hydraulic conductivity function. Also, the results showed that the geostatistical kriging method for modeling soil hydraulic conductivity index has a higher accuracy in determining saturated soil hydraulic conductivity than the traditional Thiessen method.
Maize is one of the major crops in the world and the most productive member of the Gramineae family. Since cold stress affects the germination, growth, and productivity of corn seeds, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of seed biopriming with Trichoderma harzianum on the tolerance of two genotypes of maize seedlings to cold stress. This study was conducted in triplicates in factorial experiment with a complete randomized block design (CRBD). The study was conducted in the greenhouse and laboratory of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. Experimental factors include two cultivars (AR68 cold-resistant and KSC703 cold-sensitive maize cultivars), four pretreatment levels (control, biopriming with T. harzianum, exogenous T. harzianum, and hydropriming), and two levels of cold stress (control and cold at 5 • C) in a hydroponic culture medium. The present study showed that maize leaves' establishment rate and maximum fluorescence (Fm) are affected by triple effects (C*, P*, S). The highest establishment (99.66%) and Fm (994 units) rates were observed in the KP3 control treatment. Moreover, among the pretreatments, the highest (0.476 days) and the lowest (0.182 days) establishment rates were related to P0 and P3 treatments, respectively. Cultivar A showed higher chlorophyll a and b, carotenoid content, and establishment rate compared to cultivar K in both optimal and cold conditions. The highest root dry weight (11.84 units) was obtained in cultivar A with P3 pretreatment. The pretreatments with T. harzianum increased physiological parameters and seedling emergence of maize under cold and optimal stress conditions. Pretreatment and cultivar improved catalase activity in roots and leaves. Higher leaf and root catalase activity was observed in the roots and leaves of cultivar K compared to cultivar A. The cold treatment significantly differed in peroxidase activity from the control treatment. Cultivar K showed higher catalase activity than cultivar A. The main effects of pretreatment and cold on polyphenol oxidase activity and proline content showed the highest polyphenol oxidase activity and proline content in hydropriming (H) treatment. Cold treatment also showed higher polyphenol oxidase activity and proline content than cold-free conditions.
Due to the limited number and sparse distribution of meteorological and hydrometric stations in most watersheds, the runoff estimation based on these stations may not be accurate. However, the accurate determination of the Antecedent Soil Moisture (ASM) in watersheds can improve the accuracy of runoff forecasting. The objective of this study is to utilize the ASM derived from satellite imagery to enhance the accuracy of runoff estimation in a mountainous watershed. In this study, a range of Remote Sensing (RS) data, including surface biophysical and topographic features, climate data, hydrometric station flow data, and a ground-based measured SM database for the Balikhli-Chay watershed in Iran, were utilized. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method was employed to estimate runoff. Two approaches were used for estimating the ASM: (1) using the precipitation data recorded in ground stations, and (2) using the SM data obtained from satellite images. The accuracy of runoff estimation was then calculated for these two scenarios and compared. The mean Nash–Sutcliffe statistic was found to be 0.63 in the first scenario and 0.74 in the second scenario. The inclusion of ASM derived from the satellite imagery in the precipitation–runoff model resulted in a 51% increase in the accuracy of runoff estimation compared to using precipitation data recorded in ground stations. These findings have significant implications for improving the accuracy of ASM and runoff modeling in various applications.
The coating of Fe 3 O 4-NPs with SM and HS is a new strategy to increase the efficiency of nanofertilizers and improve the quality and resistance of plants against environmental stresses. In this study, aqueous extracts of spinach and guar were used for the green synthesis of Fe 3 O 4-NPs and CuO-NPs, respectively. The surface of the Fe 3 O 4-NPs was then coated with SM and HS. UV− vis, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spec-troscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses all confirmed the formation of nanoparticles. The first experiment was carried out as a factorial in a completely randomized design. The effect of nanoparticles and determination of the optimal concentration of Fe 3 O 4-NPs, SM, HS, Fe 3 O 4-SM, and Fe 3 O 4-HS with concentrations (control, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) and two methods of application (seed priming and addition to planting medium) were determined. The results showed that seed priming with 75 mg/L Fe 3 O 4-NPs and single-stranded and multibranched polyamines improves germination and increases the dry matter content and seedling length. Then, a pot test was performed for the effects of Fe 3 O 4-NPs and single-branched and poly branched polyamines under CuO stress conditions. The factors were six polymers (control, Fe 3 O 4 , SM, Fe 3 O 4-SM, HS, and Fe 3 O 4-HS) and CuO-NPs (control, 60, and 120 μL). Under stress conditions, the application of Fe 3 O 4-HS caused an increase of 34.11, 41, 39.37, and 68.25% in the activity of CAT, POX, PPO, and proline, respectively, and a decrease of 46 and 33.33% in MDA and hydrogen H 2 O 2 compared to the control treatment. Also, the use of NPs under stress conditions caused more absorption of N and Fe by the plant. Consequently, the plant's resistance to CuO stress conditions increased.
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