Autologous mosaicplasty is a common approach used to treat osteochondral defects in clinical practice. Gap integration between host and transplanted plugs requires bone tissue reservation and hyaline cartilage regeneration without uneven surface, graft necrosis and sclerosis. However, poor gap integration is a serious concern, which eventually leads to deterioration of joint function. To deal with such complications, this study has developed a strategy to effectively enhance integration of the gap region following mosaicplasty by applying injectable bioactive supramolecular nanofiber-enabled gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogel (BSN-GelMA). A rabbit osteochondral defect model demonstrated that BSN-GelMA achieved seamless osteochondral healing in the gap region between plugs of osteochondral defects following mosaicplasty, as early as six weeks. Moreover, the International Cartilage Repair Society score, histology score, glycosaminoglycan content, subchondral bone volume, and collagen II expression were observed to be the highest in the gap region of BSN-GelMA treated group. This improved outcome was due to bio-interactive materials, which acted as tissue fillers to bridge the gap, prevent cartilage degeneration, and promote graft survival and migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by releasing bioactive supramolecular nanofibers from the GelMA hydrogel. This study provides a powerful and applicable approach to improve gap integration after autologous mosaicplasty. It is also a promising off-the-shelf bioactive material for cell-free in situ tissue regeneration.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects the nervous system and is characterized by recurrent seizures. Experimental data shows that increase in the extracellular potassium concentration can support the generation of seizures and that the T-type calcium channel antagonists can be effective as anti-epileptic drugs. To investigate these two phenomena in detail, we combine microscopic level modelling using Hodgkin–Huxley formalism and a macroscopic level approach using a neural mass model. The microscopic level approach describes the initiation of action potentials in individual neurons using conductance-based model. The macroscopic (neural mass model) approach is a low-dimensional phenomenological model that describes the activity of a large population of neurons. The neural mass model replicated the interactions between inhibitory and excitatory neuronal populations by using a sigmoidal function that converts neuronal postsynaptic potential into the average spiking rate of a given population. This sigmoidal function links two levels of modelling: microscopic and macroscopic. Our results are in agreement with experimental data and show that an increase in the extracellular potassium concentration or an increase in the T-type calcium conductance can cause brain network transitions from normal background to pathological seizure-like dynamics. In addition, the results show that these transitions only happen for a limited range of network parameters and that the slow-inhibitory synaptic gain has a stronger effect on network dynamics during transitions than the fast-inhibitory synaptic gain.
Background: Immigration detention is associated with detrimental mental health outcomes but little is known about the underlying psychological processes. Moral injury, the experience of transgression of moral beliefs, may play an important role. Objective: Our aim was to explore moral injury appraisals and associated mental health outcomes related to immigration detention on Nauru. Methods: In this retrospective study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 13 individuals who had sought refuge in Australia and, due to arriving by boat, had been transferred to immigration detention on Nauru. At the time of the study, they lived in Australia following medical transfer. We used reflexive thematic analysis to develop themes from the data. Results: Major themes included 1) how participants' home country experience and the expectation to get protection led them to seek safety in Australia; 2) how they experienced deprivation, lack of agency, violence, and dehumanization after arrival, with the Australian government seen as the driving force behind these experiences; and 3) how these experiences led to feeling irreparably damaged. The participant statement 'In my country they torture your body but in Australia they kill your mind.' conveyed these three key themes in our analysis. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that moral injury may be one of the processes by which mandatory immigration detention can cause harm. Although refugees returned to Australia from offshore detention may benefit from interventions that specifically target moral injury, collective steps are needed to diminish deterioration of refugee mental health. Our results highlight the potentially deleterious mental health impact of experiencing multiple subtle and substantial transgressions of one's moral frameworks. Policy makers should incorporate moral injury considerations to prevent eroding refugee mental health.
Aim: Periodontitis is a site-specific, chronic disease treated by non-surgical debridement of subgingival plaque. We aimed to determine the microbiome of sites that did not respond to this treatment (NR) compared with paired good responding (GR) sites before and after treatment. Materials and methods: In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical parameters of disease and biological samples were taken prior to and 3 months after treatment. Twelve NR sites from six participants were paired with GR sites within the same participant. Subgingival plaque samples were subjected to bacterial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: There were no significant differences in clinical parameters and microbial communities at baseline between GR and NR sites. Bacterial communities in deep pockets were dominated by a small number of species, notably Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola. In NR sites three months after treatment there was no significant change in bacterial composition whilst there was a collapse in the abundance of pathobionts in GR sites. Conclusion: NR sites were not identifiable prior to treatment by clinical or microbiological parameters. Treatment failed to disrupt pathogenic bacterial community in NR sites. Targeted suppression of particular species should be considered to initiate community collapse and aid disease resolution.
Background Trauma- and stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are more common in females than in males. Sex hormones affect learning and emotional memory formation and may be associated with the development of PTSD. Most previous studies have indexed these hormones in isolation. Objectives: To investigate associations of sex hormones and cortisol during memory consolidation on the development of intrusive memories. Methods: We employed an experimental trauma film paradigm in 61 healthy women and indexed salivary testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, and cortisol on day one and day two post experimental trauma exposure and their effects on intrusion frequency, distress, and vividness. Intrusive trauma memories were indexed by means of a diary in which participants documented intrusion frequency, distress, and vividness. Results and conclusion: Participants reported an average of 5.3 intrusions over the course of seven days (SD = 4.6, range 0-26). Progesterone, and estradiol indexed on day one predicted intrusion frequency, with higher progesterone and lower estradiol predicting more intrusive memories (p-values AUC progesterone 0.01 and estradiol 0.02). There was no evidence for associations between hormone concentration indices on day two and intrusion outcomes. Further research on the roles of gonadal and adrenal hormones in trauma memory formation is needed to advance our efforts to understand their influence on PTSD development.
Background: The long-term health effects of bushfires include the potential to trigger new and exacerbate existing mental health problems. Objective: This review aimed to determine the prevalence of long-term mental health issues in Australian populations exposed to bushfires. Method: A systematic search was conducted in five databases (Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science) to identify studies focusing on Australian populations impacted by bushfires with the prevalence of mental health issues reported at 2+ years after bushfire. The Joanna Briggs Institute prevalence critical appraisal tool was utilised. We conducted meta-analyses to determine the prevalence of general psychological distress in the general population, and a narrative synthesis. Results: We included 21 articles based on 5 studies and conducted on 3 bushfire events. Meta-analyses showed a pooled prevalence of 14% (95% CI 12%-16%) for psychological distress in the general population at 2-4 years post bushfire. The overall prevalence of long-term psychological problems in firefighters at 2-7 years ranged from 28% to 47.6%. The prevalence of some psychological issues decreased with time and was directly proportional to the level of bushfire impact. Conclusions: As the magnitude of long-term bushfire-related mental health impacts in Australia is severe, it is important to monitor psychological problems and assist communities in future. Future research needs include: (a) more studies on the full range of long-term psychological impacts of bushfires, and (b) consensus on instruments and diagnostic criteria to define mental health issues. Highlights: First systematic review of long-term bushfire mental health issues in Australia.Indicating substantial mental health problems among affected populations.Long-term issues were linked to bushfire impact and elevated among firefighters.Highlighting need for further rigorous research on long-term disaster sequalae.
Background: Human microbiomes assemble in an ordered, reproducible manner yet there is limited information about early colonisation and development of bacterial communities that constitute the oral microbiome. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to breastmilk on assembly of the infant oral microbiome during the first 20 months of life. Methods: The oral microbiomes of 39 infants, 13 who were never breastfed and 26 who were breastfed for more than 10 months, from the longitudinal VicGeneration birth cohort study, were determined at four ages. In total, 519 bacterial taxa were identified and quantified in saliva by sequencing the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results: There were significant differences in the development of the oral microbiomes of never breastfed and breastfed infants. Bacterial diversity was significantly higher in never breastfed infants at 2 months, due largely to an increased abundance of Veillonella and species from the Bacteroidetes phylum compared with breastfed infants. Conclusion: These differences likely reflect breastmilk playing a prebiotic role in selection of early-colonising, health-associated oral bacteria, such as the Streptococcus mitis group. The microbiomes of both groups became more heterogenous following the introduction of solid foods.
Despite their common use in research, monoclonal antibodies are currently not systematically sequenced. This can lead to issues with reproducibility and the occasional loss of antibodies with loss of cell lines. Hybridoma cell lines have been the primary means of generating monoclonal antibodies from immunized animals, including mice, rats, rabbits, and alpacas. Excluding therapeutic antibodies, few hybridoma-derived antibody sequences are known. Sanger sequencing has been "the gold standard" for antibody gene sequencing, but this method relies on the availability of species-specific degenerate primer sets for amplification of light and heavy antibody genes and it requires lengthy and expensive cDNA preparation. Here, we leveraged recent improvements in long-read Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to develop Nanopore Antibody sequencing (NAb-seq): a three-day, species-independent, and cost-effective workflow to characterize paired full-length immunoglobulin light- and heavy-chain genes from hybridoma cell lines. When compared to Sanger sequencing of two hybridoma cell lines, long-read ONT sequencing was highly accurate, reliable, and amenable to high throughput. We further show that the method is applicable to single cells, allowing efficient antibody discovery in rare populations such as memory B cells. In summary, NAb-seq promises to accelerate identification and validation of hybridoma antibodies as well as antibodies from single B cells used in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
Microscopic electric fields govern the majority of elementary excitations in condensed matter and drive electronics at frequencies approaching the Terahertz (THz) regime. However, only few imaging schemes are able to resolve sub-wavelength fields in the THz range, such as scanning-probe techniques, electro-optic sampling, and ultrafast electron microscopy. Still, intrinsic constraints on sample geometry, acquisition speed and field strength limit their applicability. Here, we harness the quantum-confined Stark-effect to encode ultrafast electric near-fields into colloidal quantum dot luminescence. Our approach, termed Quantum-probe Field Microscopy (QFIM), combines far-field imaging of visible photons with phase-resolved sampling of electric waveforms. By capturing ultrafast movies, we spatio-temporally resolve a Terahertz resonance inside a bowtie antenna and unveil the propagation of a Terahertz waveguide excitation deeply in the sub-wavelength regime. The demonstrated QFIM approach is compatible with strong-field excitation and sub-micrometer resolution—introducing a direct route towards ultrafast field imaging of complex nanodevices in-operando.
Background Careful development of interventions using principles of co-production is now recognized as an important step for clinical trial development, but practical guidance on how to do this in practice is lacking. This paper aims (1) provide practical guidance for researchers to co-produce interventions ready for clinical trial by describing the 4-stage process we followed, the challenges experienced and practical tips for researchers wanting to co-produce an intervention for a clinical trial; (2) describe, as an exemplar, the development of our intervention package. Method We used an Integrated Knowledge Translation (IKT) approach to co-produce a telehealth-delivered exercise program for people with stroke. The 4-stage process comprised of (1) a start-up planning phase with the co-production team. (2) Content development with knowledge user informants. (3) Design of an intervention protocol. (4) Protocol refinement. Results and reflections The four stages of intervention development involved an 11-member co-production team and 32 knowledge user informants. Challenges faced included balancing conflicting demands of different knowledge user informant groups, achieving shared power and collaborative decision making, and optimising knowledge user input. Components incorporated into the telehealth-delivered exercise program through working with knowledge user informants included: increased training for intervention therapists; increased options to tailor the intervention to participant’s needs and preferences; and re-naming of the program. Key practical tips include ways to minimise the power differential between researchers and consumers, and ensure adequate preparation of the co-production team. Conclusion Careful planning and a structured process can facilitate co-production of complex interventions ready for clinical trial. Graphical Abstract
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear. Methods Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes. Results Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions. Conclusion This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
The importance of integrating biomarkers into the TNM staging has been emphasized in the 8 th Edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging system. In a pooled analysis of 2148 TNBC-patients in the adjuvant setting, TILs are found to strongly up and downstage traditional pathological-staging in the Pathological and Clinical Prognostic Stage Groups from the AJJC 8 th edition Cancer Staging System. This suggest that clinical and research studies on TNBC should take TILs into account in addition to stage, as for example patients with stage II TNBC and high TILs have a better outcome than patients with stage I and low TILs.
Background Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, is the leading reason for paediatric unplanned hospital readmission, some of which are potentially avoidable. Reducing unplanned hospital revisits would improve patient safety and decrease use of healthcare resources. This study aimed to describe the incidence, timing and risk factors for any surgery-related hospital revisits (both emergency presentation and readmission) following paediatric tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy in a large state-wide cohort. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked administrative datasets capturing all paediatric tonsillectomy and adenotonsillectomy surgeries performed between 2010 and 2015 in the state of Victoria, Australia. The primary outcome was presentation to the emergency department or hospital readmission within 30-day post-surgery. Results Between 2010 and 2015, 46,583 patients underwent 47,054 surgeries. There was a total of 4758 emergency department presentations (10.11% total surgeries) and 2750 readmissions (5.84% total surgeries). Haemorrhage was the most common reason for both revisit types, associated with 33.02% of ED presentations (3.34% total surgeries) and 67.93% of readmissions (3.97% total surgeries). Day 5 post-surgery was the median revisit time for both ED presentations (IQR 3–7) and readmission (IQR 3–8). Predictors of revisit included older age, public and metropolitan hospitals and peri-operative complications during surgery. Conclusions Haemorrhage was the most common reason for both emergency department presentation and hospital readmission. The higher risk of revisits associated with older children, surgeries performed in public and metropolitan hospitals, and in patients experiencing peri-operative complications, suggest the need for improved education of postoperative care for caregivers, and avoidance of inappropriate early discharge. Graphical Abstract
The reported frequency and types of adverse events following initial vaccination and revaccination with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) varies worldwide. Using active surveillance in a randomised controlled trial of BCG vaccination (the BRACE trial), we determined the incidence and risk factors for the development of BCG injection site abscess and regional lymphadenopathy. Injection site abscess occurred in 3% of 1387 BCG-vaccinated participants; the majority (34/41, 83%) resolved without treatment. The rate was higher in BCG-revaccinated participants (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7–7.5), in whom abscess onset was also earlier (median 16 vs. 27 days, p = 0.008). No participant with an abscess had a positive interferon-gamma release assay. Regional lymphadenopathy occurred in 48/1387 (3%) of BCG-vaccinated participants, with a higher rate in revaccinated participants (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.9). BCG-associated lymphadenopathy, but not injection site abscess, was influenced by age and sex. A previous positive tuberculin skin test was not associated with local reactions. The increased risk of injection site abscess or lymphadenopathy following BCG revaccination is relevant to BCG vaccination policy in an era when BCG is increasingly being considered for novel applications.
While protein-truncating variants in RAD51C have been shown to predispose to triple-negative (TN) breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer, little is known about the pathogenicity of missense (MS) variants. The frequency of rare RAD51C MS variants was assessed in the BEACCON study of 5734 familial BC cases and 14,382 population controls, and findings were integrated with tumour sequencing data from 21 cases carrying a candidate variant. Collectively, a significant enrichment of rare MS variants was detected in cases (MAF < 0.001, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.00–2.44, p = 0.05), particularly for variants with a REVEL score >0.5 (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.40–12.01, p = 0.006). Sequencing of 21 tumours from 20 heterozygous and 1 homozygous carriers of nine candidate MS variants identified four cases with biallelic inactivation through loss of the wild-type allele, while six lost the variant allele and ten that remained heterozygous. Biallelic loss of the wild-type alleles corresponded strongly with ER- and TN breast tumours, high homologous recombination deficiency scores and mutational signature 3. Using this approach, the p.Gly264Ser variant, which was previously suspected to be pathogenic based on small case–control analyses and loss of activity in in vitro functional assays, was shown to be benign with similar prevalence in cases and controls and seven out of eight tumours showing no biallelic inactivation or characteristic mutational signature. Conversely, evaluation of case–control findings and tumour sequencing data identified p.Ile144Thr, p.Arg212His, p.Gln143Arg and p.Gly114Arg as variants warranting further investigation.
At least 10% of the BRCA1/2 tests identify variants of uncertain significance (VUS) while the distinction between pathogenic variants (PV) and benign variants (BV) remains particularly challenging. As a typical tumor suppressor gene, the inactivation of the second wild-type (WT) BRCA1 allele is expected to trigger cancer initiation. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the WT allele is the most frequent mechanism for the BRCA1 biallelic inactivation. To evaluate if LOH can be an effective predictor of BRCA1 variant pathogenicity, we carried out LOH analysis on DNA extracted from 90 breast and seven ovary tumors diagnosed in 27 benign and 55 pathogenic variant carriers. Further analyses were conducted in tumors with PVs yet without loss of the WT allele: BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of BRCA1/2 , and BRCAness score. Ninety-seven tumor samples were analyzed from 26 different BRCA1 variants. A relatively stable pattern of LOH (65.4%) of WT allele for PV tumors was observed, while the allelic balance (63%) or loss of variant allele (15%) was generally seen for carriers of BV. LOH data is a useful complementary argument for BRCA1 variant classification.
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