Chickenpox (varicella) is caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a neurotropic alpha herpes virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Chickenpox can cause life-threatening complications, including subsequent bacterial infections, central nervous system symptoms, and even death without any risk factors. Few studies have been reported to investigate genetic susceptibility implicated in chickenpox. Herein, our study identified global genetic variants that potentially contributed to chickenpox susceptibility by utilizing the established bioinformatic-based approach. We integrated several databases, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) catalog, GTEx portal, HaploReg version 4.1, and Ensembl databases analyses to investigate susceptibility genes associated with chickenpox. Notably, increased expression of HLA-S, HCG4P5, and ABHD16A genes underlie enhanced chickenpox susceptibility in the European, American, and African populations. As compared to the Asian population, Europeans, Americans, and Africans have higher allele frequencies of the extant variants rs9266089, rs10947050, and rs79501286 from the susceptibility genes. Our study suggested that these susceptibility genes and associated genetic variants might play a critical role in chickenpox progression based on host genetics with clinical implications.
Background: This study aims to prove the healing results (regeneration) in cartilage defects using a combination treatment of microfractures and transplantation synovium-platelet rich fibrin (S-PRF). Methods: A cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove of the knee of adult New Zealand white rabbits, and was classified into three treatment groups. The group 1 was cartilage defect without treatment, 2 with microfracture treatment, and 3 with microfracture covered with a synovium-platelet rich fibrin (S-PRF) membrane. Twelve weeks after the intervention, the animals were macroscopically and histologically examined, and evaluated by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS). Additionally, the expression of aggrecan and type 2 collagen was examined by real-time-PCR. Results: The ICSR scores for macroscopic were significantly higher in the microfracture and S-PRF transplant group than in the other groups. Also, the ICSR scores for histology were significantly higher in this group. The expression of aggrecan and type 2 collagen was higher in the group that received complete treatment. Conclusions: Microfractures and transplantation of synovium-platelet rich fibrin (S-PRF) can regenerate knee cartilage defects which have been shown to increase the expression of mRNA aggrecan and mRNA type 2 collagen resulting in excellent repair.
Background Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), which aims to help young people make responsible choices and acquire scientific knowledge and skills, has been promoted by UNESCO. Teachers experience conflicts in implementing CSE when teaching sexual topics in the local context, especially as the delivery of sexual knowledge and contraceptive methods is often prohibited by religious and traditional cultural norms. It was reported that there were multiple challenges in the implementation of sex education due to the religious and cultural background of societies and communities in Islamic countries. This study aimed to clarify the process of overcoming the conflicts, explore teachers’ recognition and perception related to the implementation of CSE, and to suggest recommendations for promoting CSE in Islamic areas. Methods This qualitative study combined the methods of focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) to explore the conflict among teachers. Ten ordinary public senior high schools in Mataram City, Indonesia, agreed to participate, and in total, 59 participants were involved in this study. FGDs were conducted with teachers ( n = 49), and IDIs were focused on school principals ( n = 10) in each school. The collected interview data were analyzed using a deductive thematic analysis and the findings triangulated for both the FGDs and IDIs. Results Overall, the teachers experienced conflicts in relation to religion, cultural background, and gender inequality in implementing CSE. The present study revealed the mutual recognition among teachers and acceptance of diverse backgrounds in the implementation of CSE at ordinary public senior high schools in Mataram City. Despite teachers reporting multiple conflicts, they made efforts to overcome these conflicts through mutual recognition and provided comprehensive guidance. The present findings indicated that teachers adapted CSE to follow multiple religions and cultural backgrounds. Conclusions The teachers accepted diverse backgrounds and provided CSE by collaborating with related educational subjects and external institutions to overcome conflicts. To provide more specialized education, it would be necessary to advocate a formal policy that might be accepted by diverse societies. Further research is necessary to apply the findings and recommendations for CSE implementation globally in the contexts of different countries.
The processing of ready–to–eat beef jerky generally produce a number of meat flakes that are not utilized and will be detrimental to the beef jerky processing business group. Adding fillers such as tapioca flour will be profitable for jerky producers. This study aims to determine the effect of filler concentration on characteristics of ready–to–eat ground beef jerky produced. The research method used was an experimental method with a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor, namely the concentration tapioca flour as filler consisted of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The parameters observed were chemical, physical, microbial, and sensory properties. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% significance level using Co–Stat Software. Different data of chemical, physical and microbial were further tested with HSD test, while sensory was tested with DMRT at 5 % significance level. The results showed that addition tapioca flour had significantly different effect on the properties of ground beef jerky ready to eat mainly on water and protein content, color, flavor, taste, texture, L value and total microbes. However, it had no different on Hue value and total mold. It is recommended to use 10 % of tapioca flour to produce good quality of Ready–to–eat ground beef jerky with 24.38%water content, 22.51% of protein content, sensory value with favorable criteria. While total microbe and fungi has met the quality requirements of the contamination limit set by Indonesian national Standard.
Covid-19 Pandemic has negatively impacted several aspects the life of people and businesses. Agribusiness is no exception in receiving impact of the pandemic. For further sustainable development, agribusiness needs to redirect its activities to provide products in line with market demand. The objectives of this paper are to describe the current conditions of agribusiness implementation, and to prescribe what needs to be carried out by and in agribusiness for meeting products, particularly quality foods, that are currently and in futures demanded in people efforts to survive from the attack and sickness of Covid-19 and carry on the living of the people. Data for this study are obtained from secondary and primary sources, capitalizing available data from others and author own research and extension activities, especially in Lombok Island. The study concluded that the implementation of agribusiness system and its subsystems in Lombok Island has not been operating in its full potentials, and therefore some activities are recommended to be done to improve the conditions of the agribusiness itself, as well as to fill in the demand for quality foods for consumers, who are in the needs of protection and curing from diseases caused by Covid-19.
The current laboratory-scale production of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks has the potential to be a large-scale industrial process. Thus, the energy balance of the production of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks must be studied. This study compares the energy balance of the production of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks to the production of biodiesel from palm oil in Indonesia. The energy balance study indicates that the biodiesel multi-feedstock plant is feasible to operate. The renewability of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks is 3.31 and that of palm oil biodiesel is 6.23. It is due to the fact that the energy content and demand of multi-feedstock biodiesel are much lower than palm oil biodiesel. The energy content of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks (and its co-products) is less than that of biodiesel from palm oil (and its co-products), 109,041 MJ vs 130,370 MJ, respectively. The energy demands for the production of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks and biodiesel from palm oil are 35 × 10³ MJ and 23 × 10³ MJ, respectively. Energy demands, including fossil and biomass, are attributable to plantation operations, including the usage of fertilisers. Plantations of multiple crops use more energy than plantations of oil palm alone because they require more fertilisers. It is not suggested to produce multi-feedstock biodiesel from sunflower, canola, and soybean since its energy balance is not better than biodiesel from palm oil.
This empirical study examines seafood consumption patterns in the province of West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia at the regency level, and analyzes changes in consumption patterns during the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) virus outbreak. We used a stratified semi-random general population survey administered online through mobile devices from November 24th-December 31st 2020 for rapid assessment and dissemination, which received 1518 respondents. Our findings enabled us to generate a COVID-19 impact index at the regency level, indicating an urban-to-rural gradient in the degree of change in seafood consumption patterns, with rural areas incurring more changes. During COVID-19, 61% of respondents ate less seafood than normal, 66% stated seafood was more expensive, and 37% stated that the seafood they normally buy was not available. Respondents also bought 5% less fresh or raw seafood, and 4.3% more pre-cooked seafood products during the pandemic. Traditional markets, mobile vendors, and food stands remain the most frequent access points for seafood, although access decreased during the pandemic for all, with mini- and supermarket access slightly increasing. Raw and fresh seafood purchases from travelling merchants decreased 12.5% during the pandemic. A larger percentage of women (~10% more than men) eat fish at least once per week, and women eat a larger diversity of seafood products. However, men classified themselves on average in a higher income class than women both before and during the pandemic, and men were significantly more likely to agree that they had enough money to buy the food they wanted during the pandemic. Overall, respondents who indicated eating a higher frequency of fish per week, were significantly more likely to agree that they ate less fish during the pandemic. Respondents on Sumbawa island were significantly more likely to agree that the fisheries products were not available during the pandemic.
The production of biodiesel from multiple feedstocks, which is now conducted on a laboratory scale, has the potential to be scaled up to an industrial level in the future. Consequently, it is essential to evaluate the environmental effect of multi-feedstock biodiesel production. This study compares the environmental performance at the end-point level of simulated multi-feedstock biodiesel production with that actual biodiesel production from palm oil in Indonesia. In general, multi-feedstock biodiesel production has a greater effect on the environment during the planting stage than palm oil biodiesel production. Human health, ecological diversity, and resource availability are caused by plantation activities, namely the use of fertilisers. Multiple crop cultivation is more detrimental to the environment than oil palm cultivation alone since it needs more fertiliser. The amount of available resources for multi-feedstock biodiesel is 126 $. It is more than the palm oil biodiesel alone, which was 79.7 $. It is not recommended to produce multi-feedstock biodiesel from soybean, canola, or sunflower since it causes more environmental damage than biodiesel produced from palm oil. Graphical Abstract
Mycorrhiza-biofertilizer and intercropping with legume crops have been proven to increase yield of various crops. Growing rice under aerobic irrigation system has an advantage to intercrop rice with legume crops. The objective of this study was to examine whether application of organic and mycorrhiza-biofertilizer with reduced doses of inorganic fertilizer can increased yield of two amphibious red-rice genotypes intercropped with mungbean under aerobic irrigation system. The experiment was arranged with Split Split-Plot design with three blocks and three treatment factors, namely red-rice genotypes (AM-G4, AM-G10) as the main plots, intercropping (I0= monocrop; I1= rice+mungbean intercropping) as the subplots, and application of organic combined with mycorrhiza-biofertilizer (F1= NPK only, F2= NPK+organic fertilizer, F3= 60%NPK+organic+mycorrhiza-biofertilizer) as the sub-subplots. The results indicated that additive intercropping with mungbean and fertilizer combinations significantly affected several growth and yield components of the red-rice while both genotypes were different only in tiller number and percentage of unfilled grains. However, there were also significant interaction effects, i.e. F*I interaction on panicle number, filled-grain number and grain yield per clump, and F*I*G interaction on percentage of unfilled grains. Additive intercropping with mungbean and addition of organic (F2) and/or mycorrhiza-biofertilizer combined with only 60% NPK doses (F3) on average significantly increased red-rice grain yield compared with application of NPK only (F1), which means that addition of organic and biofertilizer was still capable of increasing red-rice yield although the NPK doses were reduced by 40%. However, under intercropping, red-rice grain yield was 59.99 g/clump (highest) in F3 treatment compared with 40.37 g/clump in F1 treatment, while under monocropped rice, grain yield was 38.50 g/clump with F3 treatment compared with only 24.12 g/clump (lowest) with F1 treatment. Therefore, additive intercropping with mungbean increased red-rice grain yield and application of organic and mycorrhiza-biofertilizer further increased grain yield of red rice under aerobic irrigation systems.
This study aims to determine the physiological response of large-seeded soybean genotypes on the effect of drought and waterlogged stress conditions. The method used in this study was an experimental method by conducting the experiment in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mataram using polybags for drought and plastic buckets for waterlogged stresses. The experiment was carried out from April to November 2020, arranged with Split Plot Design with four replicates and two factors, i.e. stress conditions (S0 = normal, no stress, S1 = drought stress, and S2 = waterlogged (saturated water) stress) as the main plots, and soybean genotypes (G1 = KH-1, G2 = Argomulyo, and G3 = Grobogan) as the subplots. Variables observed includes: root/shoot ratio, root length, number of nodules, nodule weight, proline content, leaf chlorophyll content (chlorophyll a, b, total, a/b ratio), relative water content, stomata behavior (stomata open, close, open/close ratio). Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and LSD at 5% level of significance using CoStat for Windows. The results showed that: a) The physiological responses of the three large-seeded soybean genotypes were more influenced by stress factors than the genotype factors especially on proline and chlorophyll b contents, number of stomata opened and clossed, and root/shoot dry weight ratio. b) The highest proline content and the number of stomata clossed occured under drought stress, while the number of stomata opened, the stomata opened/clossed ratio, the chlorophyll b content of KH-1 and the ratio of root/shoot of Argomulyo were the highest under waterlogged stress condition.
Biofertilization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been reported to increase yield of various crops. Waxy maize is one of specialty maize that tastes good but yield normally low especially in local cultivars. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of mycorrhiza-biofertilizer application and additive intercropping with several rows of peanut on yield performance of waxy maize of local Bima variety grown following paddy rice. The experiment was arranged with Split Plot design with three blocks and two treatment factors, i.e. mycorrhiza-biofertilizer application as the main plots (M0= without, M1= with mycorrhiza-biofertilizer) and intercropping as the subplots (I0= monocropped maize, I1, I2, I3: relay-planting of 1, 2 or 3 rows of peanut between maize rows three weeks after seeding maize). The results indicated that application of mycorrhiza-biofertilizer was more affecting growth variables while intercropping was more affecting yield components of the waxy maize. However, there were significant interaction effects on plant height, green-leaf weight, dry stover weight, 100 grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, and proportion of grain to cob. In the plots with no application of mycorrhiza-biofertilizer, there were no differences in grain yield between different number of rows of peanut relay-planted between maize rows but when mycorrhiza biofertilizer was applied to the maize and peanut plants, relay-planting 2 rows of peanuts (I2) resulted in the highest maize grain yield (88.63 g/plant or 5.91 ton/ha), while the lowest maize grain yield (54.63 g/plant or 3.64 ton/ha) was in the monocropped maize with no mycorrhiza-biofertilizer (I0M0). The highest additional grain yield from peanut relay-planted between maize rows was in the I3M1 plot (708.5 g or 1174 grains per plot), followed with those in the I2M1 plot (539.8 g or 948 grains per plot). Therefore, there is a good prospect for peanut production by relay-planting it between rows of waxy-maize followed with application of mycorrhiza-biofertilizer.
One of the important diseases that can reduce the productivity of soybean is damping-off disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. This disease can be controlled by using synthetic pesticides. However, excessive use of pesticides can cause pollution to the environment and the resistance of the pathogen to pesticides. This study aims to determine the effect of compost tea of worm dropping in suppressing the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of damping-off disease of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr). This research was carried out in a glasshouse and Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Mataram. The experiments were arranged according to Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which consist of 2 types of compost tea, namely compost tea, which was produced through the aeration process (Aerated Compost Tea-ACT) and produced without aeration process (Non aerated Compost Tea-NCT). The experiment consisted of 7 treatments and replicated 3 times, namely; Control, ACT without dilution, ACT with 10⁻¹ dilution, ACT with 10⁻² dilution, NCT without dilution, NCT with 10⁻¹ dilution, and NCT with 10⁻² dilution. The results showed that in the in vitro experiments both types of compost tea could suppress the growth of the fungus S. rolfsii. In the in vivo experiment, the treatment of NCT 10⁻¹ dilution and ACT 10⁻¹ dilution were categorized as quite effective in reducing the incidence of damping-off disease with the effectiveness rates of 51.72% and 47.13%, respectively
Dry land is land that is never flooded or inundated most of the time of the year that is used for plant cultivation; Soybean is one of the secondary crops that are often planted by the community, because it is profitable and has high nutritional content; The need for soybeans continues to increase along with the increase in population; The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pod borer on soybean yield in dry land; The experiment used a split plot design with two factors and three replications; The research material was the seeds of five soybean varieties, namely Detap-1, Dega-1, Anjasmoro, Biosoy, and Dena-1 which were planted in 2 different lands, the first land was planted using recommended techniques, and the second was planted using traditional techniques; it was concluded that soybean plant height was influenced by genetic factors of soybean plants which caused different plant height characteristics; the number of branches in soybean plants is influenced by genetic factors of each variety; the weight of 100 seeds in soybean plants as a whole has almost the same weight; Soybean crop productivity can be affected by the interaction between the treatment of cultivation technology and varieties; The intensity of pod borer attack can reduce soybean productivity (Tonnes/ha).
Eichornia crassipes, ECs is an abundant source of natural fiber, environmentally friendly, and has a great potential to be used as filler in polymer composites. This literature review aims to provide the latest information on ECs synthesis, properties, and ECs-reinforced composites. Modification of the properties of ECs using alkaline chemicals is also discussed in detail through changes in physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, as well as fiber morphology. After being modified by alkaline chemistry, the fiber density of ECs can be reduced by around 20.69%, and the cellulose content of ECs can reach 90.24%. This literature review also discusses the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of ECs-filled polymer composites from the results of the latest research and innovations. Polyester reinforced ECs with a length of 10 cm have modulus of elasticity and tensile strength of 11,023.33 N/m² and 648 N/m², respectively. Potential applications of ECs composites for product development; cost-effective and efficient replacement of inorganic fillers such as; gypsum, cooling pad, and pulp and paper. This study is expected to be a reference for the development of Eichornia crassipes fiber-filled composite technology for both industry and scientists.
Objective: The study was conducted to determine the effect of inoculants of different types and doses on the nutrient quality and in vitro digestibility of fermented rice bran. Materials and methods: The study was designed using a completely randomized design with a 3 × 3-factorial pattern. The first factor was the type of inoculum, consisting of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC), Effective Microorganism-4, and Saus Burger Pakan (SBP). The second factor is inoculum doses, which are as follows: levels 2%, 4%, and 6%. The variables measured included chemical composition, fiber fraction content, dry matter digestibility and organic matter digestibility. Results: The results showed that the type of inoculation treatment and the doses of inoculation did not affect the dry matter (DM) content of fermented bran, and the organic matter content of fermented bran was only affected by the inoculation dose factor (p < 0.05). The highest crude protein and Extract Ether (EE) were obtained in the SBP inoculants, which increased linearly with increasing inoculation doses (p < 0.05). While a significant decrease (p < 0.05) occurred in crude fiber content. The cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) fractions were significantly lower in the SBP treatment as the dose increased. The SBP inoculant type produced the highest DMD (p < 0.05) but showed a response that was not different from the SC inoculant treatment for OMD. Increasing inoculation doses of 2%, 4%, and 6% linearly increased the DMD and OMD of fermented bran (p < 0.05). Overall, inoculant application on fermented bran showed an interaction effect except for the components of DM, EE, ADF, NDF, and DMD of fermented bran. Conclusions: It was concluded that the SBP at 6% and their combination resulted in the best chemical quality and digestibility of rice bran.
The practices of eco-journalism in West Nusa Tenggara local media have not been sufficient in journalistic performance in favor of environmental sustainability. This study aims to describe and analyze the news construction of West Nusa Tenggara or NTB local media in reporting the Mount Rinjani ecotourism industry during 2020. The study focuses on describing the pattern of power relations between the political-economic components of the West Nusa Tenggara local media institutions in reporting the issue of the Rinjani ecotourism business developments. The method used in this research is a case study. Using media-political analysis of news construction and the dynamics of power relations, the data were analyzed. Data collection uses related news clippings and in-depth interviews. The results show that in terms of quantity, the contents of Suara NTB, Lombok Post, and Kicknewstoday.com do not make Rinjani Ecotourism be the central issue in daily news headlines. Meanwhile, on the side of the discourse aspect, West Nusa Tenggara local media tend to describe government policies about Rinjani ecotourism as they are normal. West Nusa Tenggara local media lack in providing the news with critical notes on various aspects of Rinjani's ecotourism development. In addition, the results of the political-economic analysis reveal that the West Nusa Tenggara local media structurally tend to build a synergy of power with the local government regarding the development of Rinjani ecotourism.
The Covid-19 pandemic has affected the way students learn from face-to-face to online learning. This condition is a challenge for educators to provide online teaching materials. Teaching materials developed to facilitate students to learn independently. The characteristics of the teaching materials developed give students the freedom to learn and facilitate the development of their abilities and skills. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of blended learning-based laboratory inquiry teaching materials in improving students' self-regulated learning in terms of gender. This type of research is a quasi-experimental research. The test subjects in this study were class XI in one of the public high schools in Mataram City, which consisted of two classes, namely the experimental class and the control class, which consisted of 67 students. There are 34 male students and 33 female students. The data collection technique used a self-regulated learning questionnaire instrument. The instrument refers to seven indicators of self-regulated learning. Data analysis was carried out using N-gain and T-test. The results showed that blended learning-based laboratory inquiry teaching materials could increase students' self-regulated learning. Based on the results of the T test, there was a significant difference between the control class and the experimental class. The third self-regulated learning indicator, namely goal setting and planning, got the highest increase compared to other indicators. The second indicator, namely organization and information, obtained the lowest increase compared to other indicators. Self-regulated learning of male students is higher than female students. With the availability of online class media in the blended learning learning model that can be accessed anytime and anywhere by students, it can increase the readiness of students themselves before face-to-face learning in class takes place. Student activity also increases because by providing material earlier through media uploaded to online classes it will stimulate students to look for other material that is still related and be more active in asking things they do not understand.
Low nutrient retention and soil organic matter depletion are the major challenges of the cropping system in the sandy loam soils of Northern Lombok, Indonesia. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of biochar-based organic amendments on the soil quality of sandy loam soils under cassava (Manihot Esculenta, Crants)–peanut (Arachis Hypogeae L.) cropping sequence. The treatments were as follows: biochar (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) and rice straw (3 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) (B1); biochar (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), cattle manure (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>), and rice straw (3 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) (B2); biochar (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) and cattle manure (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) (B3); biochar (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) and cattle manure (10 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) plus rice straw mulch (3 ton ha<sup>-1</sup>) applied on surface soils (B4), and without organic amendments (B0) as control. Results showed that the biochar-based organic amendments significantly improved several soil quality indicators such as SOC, total N, available P, Ca, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), and aggregate stability but had no significant effect on pH, K, and Mg. Improvement in soil quality was strongly indicated by an increase in the growth and yield of cassava and peanuts. Treatments B1, B2, B3, and B4 generally had a comparable effect on soil parameters and tended to improve the growth and yield of cassava and peanuts. Cassava was responsive to treatments B2 (biochar, cattle manure, and rice straw) and B3 (biochar and cattle manure) with its actual yield of 27 tons ha<sup>−1</sup>, which is a 40% increase compared with that in the control. As a secondary crop growing after cassava, peanuts also exhibited higher yields in all amended plots compared with that in the control. The highest yield was obtained in B2 (1.38 ton ha<sup>−1</sup>), followed by B4 (1.36 ton ha<sup>−1</sup>), B1 (1.33 ton ha<sup>−1</sup>), and B3 (1.25 ton ha<sup>−1</sup>). In conclusion, the incorporation of biochar, cattle manure, and crop residues (rice straw) into soils is a promising option to maintain soil quality and sustainably produce cassava and peanuts in the sandy loam soils of the semi-arid tropics of Lombok, Indonesia.
Obesity is a condition that is highly associated with chronic disease. The number of obese individuals is increasing on a global scale every year. Energy intake that is imbalanced with energy expenditure causes the accumulation of excess fat. Regular exercise is part of a lifestyle that can reduce the risk of obesity by inducing adipose browning. One of the mechanisms of exercise in inducing browning is by modifying the gut microbiome profile. This profile may promote adipose browning by maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier, glucose homeostasis, regulating energy absorption, and appetite-regulating hormones.
This study aims to improve students' problem-solving skills in circular motion material using Google Classroom-based e-learning physics blended learning. The type of research used is (Research & Development) which refers to the 4D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate). The results obtained at the limited trial stage in the form of data on students' problem-solving abilities during learning activities obtained from student worksheets (LKPD) and data on students' problem-solving abilities after participating in learning activities as a whole obtained from the results of pretest and posttest. to 20 students of class X MIPA 2 SMAN 2 Taliwang. The results of the assessment using a Likert scale on students' problem-solving abilities during learning activities have an average percentage of 78.5% with practical criteria. The results of students' problem-solving abilities after participating in learning activities as a whole were analyzed using the N-Gain test and obtained a significant increase in problem solving abilities, namely 61.3% with quite effective criteria. So, it can be concluded that the e-learning based on google classroom which was developed is quite practical and effective to improve students' physics problem solving ability.
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