University of Mary Hardin-Baylor
  • Belton, Texas, United States
Recent publications
Moghaddam, M, Cervantes, M, Cheshier, B, and Jacobson, BH. Sprint interval training on stationary air bike elicits cardiorespiratory adaptations while being time-efficient. J Strength Cond Res 37(9): 1795-1801, 2023-Sprint interval training (SIT) refers to a set of brief intermittent exercises that are performed at maximal intensity. This study compared the effects of 2 SIT protocols (e.g., 10-5-SIT and 20-10-SIT) vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on cardiovascular adaptations, using stationary air bikes. Thirty-two recreationally active individuals were randomly assigned to the 3 performance groups, such as 10-5-SIT (n = 11), 20-10-SIT (n = 10), and MICT (n = 11), to train 3 days per week for 4 weeks. Moderate-intensity continuous training included 30 minutes of cycling at 75% of maximal heart rate reserve, whereas the SIT protocols consisted of 3 sets of 8 intervals at all-out intensity. The 10-5-SIT and 20-10-SIT were performed with 10-second work:5-second rest and 20-second work:10-second rest, with 2.5- and 5-minute recovery periods between sets, respectively. A ramp protocol was used before and after the intervention via cycle ergometer to assess aerobic performance. Time to exhaustion (TTE), absolute V̇o2max (A-V̇o2max), relative V̇o2max (R-V̇o2max), and metabolic equivalents (METs) were measured and analyzed with 2-way mixed factorial analyses of variance (ANOVAs). In addition, total work (TW) during 12 sessions were recorded and analyzed with 1-way ANOVA. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were found for TW (10-5-SIT: 907.3 ± 332.0, 20-10-SIT: 1230.0 ± 188.1, and MICT: 2263.0 ± 896.9 calories) between groups. A significant main effect of time was observed for 10-5-SIT, 20-10-SIT, and MICT (p < 0.05) in TTE (increased by 7.3, 8.7, and 8.2%), A-V̇o2max (increased by 13.0, 11.8, and 13.6%), R-V̇o2max (increased by 12.6, 12.1, and 14.8%), and METs (increased by 12.7, 12.3, and 14.9%), respectively. Despite less volume and duration, both SIT protocols induced cardiorespiratory adaptations similar to MICT. These findings suggest that performing SIT on a stationary air bike is valuable because of time-efficiency and cardiorespiratory adaptations.
Aims: Motor unit recruitment and firing rate patterns of the vastus lateralis (VL) have not been compared between sexes during moderate- and high-intensity contraction intensities. Additionally, the influence of fiber composition on potential sex-related differences remains unquantified. Methods: Eleven males and 11 females performed 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs). Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from the VL were decomposed. Recruitment thresholds (RTs), MU action potential amplitudes (MUAPAMP ), initial firing rates (IFRs), mean firing rates (MFRs), and normalized EMG amplitude (N-EMGRMS ) at steady torque were analyzed. Y-intercepts and slopes were calculated for MUAPAMP , IFR, and MFR versus RT relationships. Type I myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC) was determined with muscle biopsies. Results: There were no sex-related differences in MU characteristics at 40% MVC. At 70% MVC, males exhibited greater slopes (p = 0.002) for the MUAPAMP , whereas females displayed greater slopes (p = 0.001-0.007) for the IFR and MFR versus RT relationships. N-EMGRMS at 70% MVC was greater for females (p < 0.001). Type I %MHC was greater for females (p = 0.006), and was correlated (p = 0.018-0.031) with the slopes for the MUAPAMP , IFR, and MFR versus RT relationships at 70% MVC (r = -0.599-0.585). Conclusion: Both sexes exhibited an inverse relationship between MU firing rates and recruitment thresholds. However, the sex-related differences in MU recruitment and firing rate patterns and N-EMGRMS at 70% MVC were likely due to greater type I% MHC and smaller twitch forces of the higher threshold MUs for the females. Evidence is provided that muscle fiber composition may explain divergent MU behavior between sexes.
Purpose: To examine the effects of a 5-week continuous cycling training intervention on electromyographic amplitude (EMGRMS)- and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-torque relationships of the vastus lateralis (VL) during a prolonged contraction. Methods: Twenty-four sedentary, young adults performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and a prolonged isometric trapezoidal contraction at the same absolute 40% MVC for the knee extensors before (PRE) and after training (POSTABS). Individual b- (slopes) and a-terms (y-intercepts) were calculated from the log-transformed electromyographic amplitude (EMGRMS)- and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-torque relationships during the increasing and decreasing segments of the trapezoid. EMGRMS and MMGRMS was normalized for the 45-s steady torque segment. Results: At PRE, b-terms for the EMGRMS-torque relationships during the linearly decreasing segment were greater than the increasing segment (p < .001), and decreased from PRE to POSTABS (p = .027). a-terms were greater during the linearly increasing than decreasing segment at PRE, while the a-terms for the linearly decreasing segment increased from PRE to POSTABS (p = .027). For the MMGRMS-torque relationships, b-terms during the linearly decreasing segment decreased from PRE to POSTABS (p = .013), while a-terms increased from PRE to POSTABS when collapsed across segments (p = .022). Steady torque EMGRMS increased for POSTABS (p < .001). Conclusion: Although cycling training increased aerobic endurance, incorporating resistance training may benefit athletes/individuals as the alterations in neuromuscular parameters post-training suggest a greater neural cost (EMGRMS) and mechanical output (MMGRMS) to complete the same pre-training fatiguing contraction.
Response to intervention (RtI) is a multitiered system of support framework that focuses on best practices for intervention. Because many secondary students exhibit weak literacy skills, the focus of this study is reading interventions. This qualitative study examines administrators’ perspectives of implementing literacy interventions within a multitiered system of support, such as RTI, at secondary schools in Southeast Texas. Three primary themes emerged from the research. The first primary theme, time, represents difficulties administrators expressed with finding the time in the school day to schedule interventions that work with the constraints of secondary school requirements. The second primary theme, staffing, reflected the recognition that secondary schools, which typically include teachers with content specialties, do not necessarily have personnel trained to implement literacy interventions. The final primary theme, training, acknowledges the role of disciplinary literacy and ways professional development could support implementation of reading interventions to secondary students all while focusing on the campus vision.
In this article, we examine the process of conducting anti-racist research in Sport for Development, specifically Sport-Based Youth Development programs in the United States. We acknowledge that participatory methods have been both identified and problematized as approaches to challenge the racialized experiences of youth. We share examples of attempts at Youth Participatory Action Research utilized across six previously unpublished projects. Through sharing our efforts to co-create environments with youth to produce changes impacting their development, we provide insight on our experiences and shortcomings. Finally, we conclude with implications for the field of Sport for Development, and youth-focused scholars, on deconstructing contexts that preserve and privilege whiteness.
The Society for Birth Defects Research and Prevention (BDRP) strives to understand and protect against potential hazards to developing embryos, fetuses, children, and adults by bringing together scientific knowledge from diverse fields. The theme of 62nd Annual Meeting of BDRP, "From Bench to Bedside and Back Again", represented the cutting-edge research areas of high relevance to public health and significance in the fields of birth defects research and surveillance. The multidisciplinary Research Needs Workshop (RNW) convened at the Annual Meeting continues to identify pressing knowledge gaps and encourage interdisciplinary research initiatives. The multidisciplinary RNW was first introduced at the 2018 annual meeting to provide an opportunity for annual meeting attendees to participate in breakout discussions on emerging topics in birth defects research and to foster collaboration between basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, drug developers, industry partners, funding agencies, and regulators to discuss state-of-the-art methods and innovative projects. Initially, a list of workshop topics was compiled by the RNW planning committee and circulated among the members of BDRP to obtain the most popular topics for the Workshop discussions. Based on the pre-meeting survey results, the top three discussion topics selected were, A) Inclusion of pregnant and lactating women in clinical trials. When, why, and how? B) Building multidisciplinary teams across disciplines: What cross-training is needed? And C) Challenges in applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning for risk factor analysis in birth defects research. This report summarizes the key highlights of the RNW workshop and specific topic discussions.
Background Thermogenic supplements are often consumed by individuals seeking to improve energy levels and reduce body fat. These supplements are sold in powdered or ready-to-drink (RTD) forms and consist of a blend of ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, and other botanical compounds. While there is evidence that thermogenic supplements can positively affect resting energy expenditure (REE), the effect varies based on the combination of active ingredients. Additionally, there is some concern that thermogenic supplements may cause unwanted side effects on hemodynamic variables, like heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). Therefore, further investigation into the efficacy and safety of commercially available products is warranted. Methods Twenty-eight individuals (14 F, 14 M; age: 23.3 ± 3.9 yrs; height: 169.4 ± 8.6 cm; body mass: 73.3 ± 13.1 kg) completed two visits in a randomized, double-blind, crossover fashion. Each visit began with baseline REE, HR, and BP assessments, which were followed by ingestion of an active RTD thermogenic beverage (RTD; OxyShred Ultra Energy) or placebo (PL). Assessments were repeated at the intervals of 35–50- and 85–100-minutes post-ingestion. In addition, subjective outcomes of energy, focus, concentration, alertness, and mood were collected five times throughout each visit. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed with condition and time specified as within-subjects factors and sex and resistance training (RT) status as between-subjects factors. Statistical significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Results A significant condition × time interaction was observed for REE (p < 0.001). Higher REE values were demonstrated at 35–50 min (0.08 ± 0.02 kcal/min; p = 0.001; 5.2% difference) and 85–100 min (0.08 ± 0.02 kcal/min; p = 0.001; 5.5% difference) after RTD ingestion as compared to PL. No significant condition × time interactions were observed for respiratory quotient, HR, or BP. Condition main effects indicated lower HR (3.0 ± 0.9 bpm; p = 0.003), higher SBP (3.5 ± 1.1 mm Hg; p = 0.003) and higher DBP (3.5 ± 0.9 mm Hg; p < 0.001) in RTD as compared to PL, irrespective of time. Condition × time interactions were observed for all subjective outcomes (p ≤ 0.02). Post hoc tests indicated statistically significant benefits of the RTD over PL for energy, focus, concentration, and alertness, without significant differences for mood after correction for multiple comparisons. Sex and RT status were not involved in interactions for any outcomes, except for a Sex × RT status interaction for energy, indicating higher energy ratings in non-resistance-trained vs. resistance-trained males. Conclusions These data suggest that acute ingestion of a thermogenic RTD beverage significantly increases REE, and this elevated caloric expenditure is sustained for at least 100 minutes following ingestion. Furthermore, the RTD beverage increased measures of energy, focus, concentration, and alertness as compared to placebo. While minor differences in hemodynamic variables were observed between conditions, all values stayed within normal ranges. Individuals aiming to increase energy expenditure may benefit from acute ingestion of an RTD thermogenic supplement.
Prenatal arsenic exposure is a major public health concern, associated with altered birth outcomes and increased respiratory disease risk. However, characterization of the long-term effects of mid-pregnancy (second trimester) arsenic exposure on multiple organ systems is scant. This study aimed to characterize the long-term impact of mid-pregnancy inorganic arsenic exposure on the lung, heart, and immune system, including infectious disease response using the C57BL/6 mouse model. Mice were exposed from gestational day 9 till birth to either 0 or 1000µg/L sodium (meta)arsenite in drinking water. Male and female offspring assessed at adulthood (10-12 weeks of age) did not show significant effects on recovery outcomes after ischemia reperfusion injury but did exhibit increased airway hyperresponsiveness compared to controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly greater total numbers of cells in arsenic-exposed lungs, lower MHCII expression in natural killer cells, and increased percentages of dendritic cell populations. Activated interstitial (IMs) and alveolar macrophages (AMs) isolated from arsenic-exposed male mice produced significantly less IFN-γ than controls. Conversely, activated AMs from arsenic-exposed females produced significantly more IFN-γ than controls. Although systemic cytokine levels were higher upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in prenatally arsenic-exposed offspring there was no difference in lung Mtb burden compared to controls. This study highlights significant long-term impacts of prenatal arsenic exposure on lung and immune cell function. These effects may contribute to the elevated risk of respiratory diseases associated with prenatal arsenic exposure in epidemiology studies and point to the need for more research into mechanisms driving these maintained responses.
Objectives: Determine if there is an association between surgical approach and dislocation risk in patients with cognitive impairment compared to those without cognitive impairment treated with hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture. Design: Retrospective. Setting: Large, multicenter health system. Patients/participants: 1,481 patients who underwent hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures. 828 hips met inclusion criteria; 290 (35.0%) were cognitively impaired and 538 (65.0%) were cognitively intact. Intervention: Hemiarthroplasty. Main outcome measure: Prosthetic hip dislocation. Results: The overall dislocation rate was 2.1% (17/828), 3.4% (10/290) in the cognitively impaired group, and 1.3% (7/538) in the cognitively intact group with a median time to dislocation of 20.5 days (range 2-326 days), 24.5 days (range 3-326 days) and 19.0 days (range 2-36 days), respectively. In the entire cohort, there were no dislocations (0/58) with the direct anterior approach (DA); 1.1% (6/553) and 5.1% (11/217) dislocated with the modified Hardinge (MH) and posterior approaches (PA), respectively. In the cognitively impaired group, there were no dislocations with the DA (0/19); 1.5% (3/202) and 10.1% (7/69) dislocated with the MH and PA, respectively. In the cognitively intact group, there were no dislocations (0/39) with the DA; 0.85% (3/351) and 2.7% (4/148) dislocated with the MH and PA, respectively.There were statistically significant associations between surgical approach and dislocation in the entire cohort and the cognitively impaired group when comparing the MH and PA groups. This was not observed in the cognitively intact group. Patients who dislocated had 3.2 times (95% CI 1.2, 8.7) (p = 0.0226) the hazard of death compared to patients who did not dislocate. Dislocation effectively increased the risk of death by 221% (HR 3.2 95% CI 1.2, 8.7) (p = 0.0226). Conclusions: In this patient population, the PA has a higher dislocation rate than other approaches and has an especially high rate of dislocation when the patients were cognitively impaired. The authors of this study suggest careful consideration of surgical approach when treating these injuries.
Unlabelled: An elevated brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level has been shown to be associated with mortality and cardiac events in cardiac surgery, but its utility in the prediction of morbidity and mortality in hip fracture surgery is unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if there is a difference in BNP level at the time of injury between patients who do and do not develop complications after hip fracture surgery. The secondary aim was to determine if there is a predictive relationship between complications associated with the initial BNP level and mortality. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 455 hip fractures in patients ≥60 years old that were operatively treated between February 2014 and July 2018 was performed. Patients were included if they had a BNP level within 48 hours after injury (BNPi). Specific perioperative (≤7 days), 30-day, 1-year, and 2-year postoperative complications were recorded. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to determine if higher BNPi values were associated with greater morbidity. The complications associated with higher BNPi values were further analyzed to assess if they were predictive of mortality, using univariate and multivariable analyses. Results: Higher BNPi was significantly associated with greater morbidity at all postoperative time points and with higher mortality at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. Furthermore, several complications including cardiac failure or exacerbation and altered mental status were associated with mortality at all time points in univariate analysis and at many time points in multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Patients with higher BNPi levels were more likely to develop complications up to 1 year postoperatively, and several of these complications were associated with increased mortality. Future studies to determine if delaying surgery until BNP levels are normalized or lowered may help guide management, and may be useful in determining the need for further medical optimization. Future studies aimed at defining a threshold BNP value at the time of injury may also help in better managing patients preoperatively. Level of evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Background Thermogenic supplements are widely used in the general population to support attempted fat loss; however, the efficacy and safety of these supplements are questioned. Purpose To determine whether a thermogenic supplement affects metabolic rate, hemodynamic responses, and mood states. Methods In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 23 females (22.2 ± 3.5 years; 164.8 ± 6.4 cm; 73.5 ± 6.9 kg) who were moderate caffeine consumers (<150 mg/day) reported to the lab after a 12 h fast for baseline assessments of resting energy expenditure (REE) via indirect calorimetry, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (SBP and DBP), blood variables, and hunger, satiety, and mood states. Thereafter, subjects ingested the assigned treatment (active treatment containing caffeine, micronutrients, and phytochemicals [TR] or placebo [PL]). All variables were reassessed at 30-, 60-, 120-, and 180 min post-ingestion. Subjects repeated the same protocol with ingestion of the opposite treatment on a separate day. All data were analyzed using a 2 × 5 ANOVA with repeated measures and significance was accepted a priori at p < 0.05. Results In the TR group, mean increases in REE of 121 to 166 kcal/d were observed at 30-, 60-, and 180 min post-ingestion (p < 0.01 for all). PL group mean decreases in REE of 72 to 91 kcal/day were observed at 60-, 120-, and 180 min (p < 0.05 for all). Respiratory quotient decreased at 120 and 180 min in both treatments. Slight increases in SBP of 3–4 mmHg were observed at 30, 120, and 180 min (p < 0.05 for all) post-ingestion of TR, while no effects were observed for DBP. Observed increases in SBP were within normal blood pressure ranges. TR decreased subjective fatigue with no other significant changes in mood states. Glycerol was maintained in TR, while there was a decrease at 30, 60, and 180 min (p < 0.05 for all) post-ingestion of PLA. Free fatty acids increased in TR at 60 and 180 min (p < 0.05) post-ingestion as well as a significant difference between treatments at 30 min post-ingestion indicating greater circulating free fatty acids levels in TR vs. PL (p < 0.01). Conclusion These findings indicate that ingestion of a specific thermogenic supplement formulation produces a sustained increase in metabolic rate and caloric expenditure and reduces fatigue over 3 h without producing adverse hemodynamic responses.
We determined if skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) content and remodeling markers adapted with resistance training or were associated with hypertrophic outcomes. Thirty-eight untrained males (21±3 yrs.) participated in whole-body resistance training (10 weeks, 2x weekly). Participants completed testing (ultrasound, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)) and donated a vastus lateralis (VL) biopsy one week before training and 72 hours following the last training bout. Higher responders (HR, n=10) and lower responders (LR, n=10) were stratified based on a composite score considering changes in pQCT-derived mid-thigh cross-sectional area (mCSA), ultrasound-derived VL thickness, and mean fiber cross-sectional area (fCSA). In all participants, training reduced matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-14 protein (p<0.001) and increased satellite cell abundance (p<0.001); however, VL fascial thickness, ECM protein content per myofiber, MMP-2/-9 protein content, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1/-2 protein content, collagen-1/-4 protein content, macrophage abundance, or fibro-adipogenic progenitor cell abundance were not altered. Regarding responder analysis, MMP-14 exhibited an interaction (p=0.007), and post hoc analysis revealed higher protein content in HR versus LR prior to training (p=0.026) and a significant decrease from pre-to-post-training in HR only (p=0.002). In summary, basal skeletal muscle ECM markers are minimally affected with 10 weeks of resistance training, and these findings could be related to not capturing more dynamic alterations in the assayed markers earlier in training. However, the downregulation in MMP-14 in college-aged men classified as HR is a novel finding and warrants continued investigation, and further research is needed to delineate muscle connective tissue strength attributes between HR and LR.
The purpose of this phenomenology was to examine the lived experience of being a first-year music teacher during the COVID-19 pandemic. Across two data waves, the first in winter 2020 and the second in late spring 2021, we collected written reflections and conducted online interviews with 10 music teachers who began their careers in 2020 to 2021. We found that participants’ experiences were characterized by overwhelm, disconnection, a pervasive concern for well-being, and a sense of missing out. These experiences were shaped by contextual factors like being responsible for mixed instructional modalities, coping with inconsistent student attendance, and navigating safety protocols that presented barriers to learning. The essence of being a first-year music teacher during the pandemic was the feeling of being adrift amid a largely lost year, looking to the next year as another first year of teaching. We suggest that this cohort of novice music teachers is distinct from previous cohorts, having been shaped by an intensified teaching experience. Induction supports such as mentoring may need to be extended through the first 3 years of their careers, and researchers should continue to follow this cohort because their trajectory is unclear.
Helping family members engaged in the change process of therapy is an essential task of the therapist in the early part of the therapeutic process. Research demonstrates that fathers are frequently the least engaged family member in family therapy, but qualitative research into the nature of father engagement in family therapy is infrequent at best. This study aimed to understand factors that help or hinder fathers from becoming as fully engaged in therapy as mothers, in the fathers’ own words. The primary question that guided the development and execution of the study was, “What do fathers perceive as primary influences (i.e., barriers and facilitators) to their engagement in the therapeutic process?” A grounded-theory qualitative approach was used to assess what fathers with a child in family therapy believe makes therapeutic engagement easier or more difficult. The study used semi-structured interviews with 10 fathers whose child was the identified patient (IP) in family therapy to learn about their therapeutic experiences. These voices subsequently came together to demonstrate therapeutic influences in seven themes: the role of the therapist, the structure of therapy, fear of the unknown, the inherently difficult process of therapy, observation of therapeutic change, the child’s enthusiasm about therapy, and fathers’ role in therapy. Those themes led to a revised conceptual map that may lay the groundwork for a theory of therapist influence, helping therapists better identify the areas where they may have more influence and action about father engagement. Implications for further research and improved therapeutic engagement of fathers is discussed, including further studying the proposed conceptual map.
This study examined relationships between percent myosin heavy chain (%MHC) expression and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS). Fifteen females (age ± SD=21.3 ± 5.3 yrs) completed isometric trapezoidal contractions at 30% and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). MMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis (VL). Participants gave a muscle biopsy of the VL post-testing. MMGRMS-torque relationships during the linearly varying segments were log-transformed and linear regressions were applied to calculate b terms (slopes). For the steady torque segment, MMGRMS was averaged. Correlations were performed for type I%MHC with the MMG variables. Multiple regression was utilized to examine prediction equations for type I%MHC. Type I%MHC was significantly correlated with the b terms during the increasing segment of the 70% MVC (p = 0.003; r = -0.718), and MMGRMS during steady torque at 30% (p = 0.008; r = -0.652) and 70% MVC (p = 0.040; r = -0.535). Type I% MHC reduced the linearity of the MMGRMS-torque relationship during the high-intensity linearly increasing segment, and MMGRMS at a low- and high-intensity steady torque. A combination of MMG variables estimated type I%MHC expression with 81.2% accuracy. MMG recorded during a low- and high-intensity isometric trapezoidal contraction may offer a simple, noninvasive test for estimating type I%MHC expression of the VL in sedentary females.
Resistance exercise (RE) activates cell signaling pathways asso- ciated with myostatin. Decorin is located in the extracellular ma- trix (ECM) and can block the inhibitory effect of myostatin. This study sought to determine the impact of low-load (LL) and high- load (HL) RE on myostatin mRNA and protein expression along with changes in muscle decorin and circulating follistatin. Ten re- sistance-trained men performed a LL (50% 1RM) and HL (80% 1RM) RE session using the angled leg press and leg extension with load and volume equated. Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained prior to and at 3h and 24h following each RE session. Muscle myostatin mRNA expression was increased at 24h post-exercise (p = 0.032) in LL and at 3h (p = 0.044) and 24h (p = 0.003) post-exercise in HL. Muscle decorin was in- creased at 24h post-exercise (p < 0.001) in LL and HL; however, muscle myostatin was increased at 24h post-exercise (p < 0.001) only in HL. For muscle Smad 2/3, no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). Serum follistatin was increased and myo- statin decreased at 24h post-exercise (p < 0.001) in LL and HL. Muscle myostatin gene and protein expression increased in re- sponse to HL RE. However, serum myostatin was decreased in the presence of increases in decorin in muscle and follistatin in circulation. Therefore, our data suggest a possible mechanism may exist where decorin within the ECM is able to bind to, and decrease, myostatin that might otherwise enter the circulation for activin IIB (ACTIIB) receptor binding and subsequent canonical signaling through Smad 2/3.
Rodriguez, C, Florez, CM, Prather, J, Zaragoza, J, Tinnin, M, Brennan, KL, Taylor, L, and Tinsley, GM. Influence of upper-extremity and lower-extremity resistance exercise on segmental body composition and body fluid estimates. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this analysis was to determine if acute, localized resistance exercise (RE) artificially influences total and regional estimates of body composition from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Recreationally active male (n = 14) and female (n = 18) subjects completed 3 testing visits: rest (R), upper-extremity RE (U), and lower-extremity RE (L). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were completed before exercise and 60 minutes after exercise. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was completed immediately before and after exercise and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after exercise. Subjects were not allowed to intake fluid during the exercise session or during the postexercise assessment period. The effects of the acute RE session on DXA and BIA estimates were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models with a random intercept for subject. Condition by time interactions were observed for most BIA outcomes. Relative to the reference model (i.e., R condition at baseline), total body water and fat-free mass estimates were, on average, approximately 1 and approximately 1.2 kg higher, in the U condition. In contrast, lower-extremity RE exerted little or no impact on most BIA variables. Some DXA estimates exhibited time main effects, but the magnitude of changes was negligible. An acute bout of localized RE, particularly upper-extremity RE, can artificially influence BIA body fluid and composition estimates, whereas DXA may be robust to the acute biological error introduced by RE. Although body composition assessments should ideally be conducted under standardized conditions, DXA may be suitable in less standardized situations. In addition, BIA is differentially influenced by upper-extremity and lower-extremity resistance exercise.
Sharing multiliteracies goals of equitable access to educational success, the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework includes the use of contemporary technology tools, or new literacies, to customize ways to access information and processes and to construct and communicate knowledge. UDL also positions technology as a scaffold. In this commentary, we join other scholars in suggesting that identifying technology tools as scaffolds to traditional literacies is problematic because of two missing characteristics of scaffolding: (1) ongoing diagnosis and calibrated support and (2) fading. After presenting a review of scaffolding literature and examining key characteristics, we describe how technology use changes the nature of scaffolding. Next, we highlight the UDL guidelines and recommendations for the use of digital tools as well as uncover contradictions in technology's use as scaffolds. Additionally, we explore the intersection of UDL with multiliteracies and New Literacies highlighting the stances of equity, inclusion, and school success. We describe transitions from traditional scaffolding, to scaffolding in the UDL framework, to new literacy options that lead to multiliterate agency. We argue that everyday digital tools with inclusive features are new literacies options, that are readily available given equitable access to the Internet, devices, and software. They provide opportunities for learners to demonstrate their multiliterate agency and experience school success. Finally, we propose the concept of Universal Access to Learning in which UDL realigns with its architectural inspiration and foundation, Universal Design, to ensure consistent and continuing, or permanent, access to digital tools.
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699 members
Lem Taylor
  • School of Health Professions
Colin Wilborn
  • Graduate School
Cliffa Foster
  • M.Ed. Program in Exercise and Sport Science
William Tanner
  • Computer Science, Engineering and Physics
Chengli Wei
  • Department of Computer Science, Engineering and Physics
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Head of institution
Dr. Randy O'Rear
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