University of Malakand
  • Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Recent publications
Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/ mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R 2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC 50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3 rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC 90 values range from 424-7635.5ppm. The values of LC 50 for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC 90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT 50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT 90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.
This manuscript is devoted to establishing some theoretical and numerical results for a nonlinear dynamical system under Caputo fractional order derivative. Further, the said system addresses an infectious disease like COVID-19. The proposed system involves natural death rates of susceptible, infected and recovered classes respectively. By using nonlinear analysis feasible region and boundedness have been established first in this study. Global and Local stability analysis along with basic reproduction number have also addressed by using the next generation matrix method. Upon using the fixed point approach, existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution for the mentioned problem has also investigated. Some stability results of Hyers-Ulam (H-U) type have also discussed. Further for numerical treatment, we have exercised two numerical schemes including modified Euler method (MEM) and nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) method. Further the two numerical schemes have also compared with respect to CPU time. Graphical presentations have been displayed corresponding to different fractional order by using some real data.
We formulate an age-structured SEIR epidemic model using vaccination and treatment as control measures. Using the method of characteristics and fixed point arguments, we prove the existence of a unique positive solution to our proposed nonlinear model. We use a suitable objective functional and prove the existence of optimal control variables. Depending on the nature of the problem, the necessary conditions for the optimal control problem are established using the maximum principle of Pontryagin's type. Tools of control theory are used for obtaining optimal control characterizations in terms of state and adjoint variables. To illustrate theoretical results, parameter values are chosen to simulate both with and without control problems. Numerical findings reveal that when, where, and to whom control measures should be implemented for best results of a control program.
This work is devoted to study a class of fractional integro‐differential equations under Caputo‐Fabrizo derivative. Thank to Banach's and Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorems, the existence and uniqueness results are established for the considered problem. Further, we also derive some necessary conditions for Hyers‐Ulam and generalized Hyers‐Ulam type stability analysis to the considered problem. Finally, a pertinent problem is given to illustrate the main results.
Optoelectronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of BaLn2ZnO5 (Ln = Eu, Pr, Sm) insulators are investigated by the full-potential linearized augmented-plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic results show that the BaLn2ZnO5 compounds are wide-band-gap insulators and the optical threshold energies are suitable for the ultraviolet detectors and the LEDs. There is an inverse relation between the static dielectric function and the band gap value. The negative values of dielectric function with the high reflectivity are observed in the energy range of 10–12 eV. We find that the magnetic moment at the Ln sites decreases with a decrease in the number of electrons in the f state and the integer value of the total magnetic moment per unit cell confirms the non-metallic nature of BaLn2ZnO5 compounds. The thermoelectric results by GGA + U show that p-type BaEu2ZnO5 and BaSm2ZnO5 compounds by 1 × 10²² cm⁻³ doping can be used in thermoelectric devices.
The efficiency, temperature distribution, and temperature at the tip of straight rectangular, growing and decaying moving exponential fins are investigated in this article. The influence of internal heat generation, surface and surrounding temperatures, convection-conduction, Peclet number and radiation-conduction is studied numerically on the efficiency, temperature profile, and temperature at the tip of the fin. Differential transform method is used to investigate the problem. It is revealed that thermal and thermo-geometric characteristics have a significant impact on the performance, temperature distribution, and temperature of the fin's tip.The results show that the temperature distribution of decaying exponential and rectangular fins is approximately 15 and 7% higher than growing exponential and rectangular fins respectively. It is estimated that the temperature distribution of the fin increases by approximately 6% when the porosity parameter is increased from 0.1 to 0.5. It is also observed that the decay exponential fin has better efficiency compared to growing exponential fin which offers significant advantages in mechanical engineering.
Workplace stress is a common phenomenon worldwide. University teachers perform many types of duties apart from teaching load and are always under stress. The purpose of the study was to explore workplace factors causing stress among university teachers. A qualitative case study design was adopted to investigate the problem. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 20 university teachers based on purposive sampling. The collected data was analyzed using thematic analysis technique. The main finding of this study is that extra workload, working space, job security, delay in promotions, and work atmosphere were important workplace factors causing stress among university teachers. It is concluded that workplace stress among university teachers can be reduced by providing a conducive working environment and giving opportunities for continuous professional development.
In this paper, the mathematical modeling of the novel corona virus (COVID-19) is considered. A brief relationship between the unknown hosts and bats is described. Then the interaction among the seafood market and peoples is studied. After that, the proposed model is reduced by assuming that the seafood market has an adequate source of infection that is capable of spreading infection among the people. The reproductive number is calculated and it is proved that the proposed model is locally asymptotically stable when the reproductive number is less than unity. Then, the stability results of the endemic equilibria are also discussed. To understand the complex dynamical behavior, fractal-fractional derivative is used. Therefore, the proposed model is then converted to fractal-fractional order model in Atangana-Baleanu (AB) derivative and solved numerically by using two different techniques. For numerical simulation Adam-Bash Forth method based on piece-wise Lagrangian interpolation is used. The infection cases for Jan-21, 2020, till Jan-28, 2020 are considered. Then graphical consequences are compared with real reported data of Wuhan city to demonstrate the efficiency of the method proposed by us.
Dengue is a growing mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in 128 countries, while 3.9 billion people are at high risk of acquiring the infection. With no specific treatment available, the only way to mitigate the risk of dengue infection is through controlling of vector, i.e., Aedes aegypti. Nanotechnology-based prevention strategies like biopesticides with nanoformulation are now getting popular for preventing dengue fever. Metal nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by an eco-friendly process, through extracts of medicinal plants have indicated potential anti-dengue applications. Green synthesis of metal NPs is simple, cost-effective, and devoid of hazardous wastes. The recent progress in the phyto-synthesized multifunctional metal NPs for anti-dengue applications has encouraged us to review the available literature and mechanistic aspects of the dengue control using green-synthesized NPs. Furthermore, the molecular bases of the viral inhibition through NPs and the nontarget impacts or hazards with reference to the environmental integrity are discussed in depth. Till date, major focus has been on green synthesis of silver and gold NPs, which need further extension to other innovative composite nanomaterials. Further detailed mechanistic studies are required to critically evaluate the mechanistic insights during the synthesis of the biogenic NPs. Likewise, detailed analysis of the toxicological aspects of NPs and their long-term impact in the environment should be critically assessed.
The Weibull distribution has prominent applications in the engineering sector. However, due to its monotonic behavior of the hazard function, the Weibull model does not provide the best fit for data in many cases. This paper introduces a new family of distributions to obtain new flexible distributions. The proposed family is called a novel generalized- M family. Based on this approach, an updated version of the Weibull distribution is introduced. The updated version of the Weibull distribution is called a novel generalized Weibull distribution. The proposed distribution is able to capture four different patterns of the hazard function. Some mathematical properties of the proposed method are obtained. Furthermore, the maximum likelihood estimators of the proposed family are also obtained. Moreover, a simulation study is conducted for evaluating these estimators. For illustrating the proposed model, two data sets from the engineering sector are analyzed. Based on some well-known analytical measures, it is shown that the novel generalized Weibull distribution is the best competing distribution for analyzing the engineering data sets.
A parabolic trough collector (PTC) with internal helical axial fines is considered as a turbulator and is analyzed numerically. This research aims to plan a new geometry of absorbent pipes containing axial helical fines, which leads to enhancing solar collector efficiency (η) by increasing Nusselt number (Nu) and decreasing pressure drop (ΔP), especially at higher Reynolds numbers (Re). For numerical simulation, finite volume method and SIMPLEC algorithm are used. The heat transfer rate (HTR) and operating properties of ((CH2OH)2)/Cu-SWCNT hybrid nanofluid (NF) with different volume fractions and Reynolds numbers are investigated. The results are obtained for two cases of axial helical fins with a different number of turns along the pipe. The results show that the maximum efficiency of 78.197% is related to the pipe with the highest number of turns when Re = 12000 and φ = 1%, while η = 71.4785% for the pipe with the lowest number of turns under the same conditions. The maximum PEC value is 4.7 and belongs to Re = 12000 for a pipe with a lower number of turns (case 2) in which φ = 1%. Therefore, using more turns is more desirable from the point of view of thermal fluid dynamics.
Photodegradation of organic pollutants is the most suitable and cheaper technique to counter decontamination issues. Among the metal-based nanoparticles, TiO2 is considered to be the most effective heterogeneous photocatalyst for the photodegradation of organic pollutants. However, the large band gap and the high electron–hole pair recombination rate limit its practical applications. Herein, an approach was introduced to minimize the mentioned limitations by preparing CdTiO2 and ZnCdTiO2 nanocomposites by co-precipitation method. The as-synthesized TiO2, CdTiO2, and ZnCdTiO2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and UV–visible spectrophotometry. Morphological analysis revealed that TiO2 are mostly agglomerated with different shapes and sizes and the nanocomposites are mostly in dispersed form. The components of the nanocomposites are strongly intercalated in the ternary nanocomposite as confirmed from TEM analysis. XRD analysis confirmed the anatase TiO2 while the UV–visible analysis showed the shifting toward higher wavelength. The band gap energy of TiO2 (2.65) decreased to 2.6 and 2.56 eV for CdTiO2 and ZnCdTiO2, respectively. BET analysis has shown a 47.2 m2/g surface area for the ternary ZnCdTiO2 nanocomposite. The photodegradation results revealed that TiO2, CdTiO2, and ZnCdTiO2 degraded about 74%, 86%, and 97.61% methylene blue dye, respectively, within 2 h. Maximum photodegradation is achieved in the basic medium and the ternary ZnCdTiO2 nanocomposite degraded 98% dye at pH 10.
Structural, optoelectronic, elastic and thermoelectric properties of (Sr3N)Sb and (Sr3N)Bi perovskites are investigated by density functional theory. The calculated structural properties and geometry are found consistent with experiments. The electronic band profiles show that these perovskites are narrow and direct bandgap semiconductors with bandgap of 0.99 and 1.0 eV respectively. Optical properties show that both compounds are optically active and suitable for optoelectronic devices in the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Elastic properties demonstrate that both compounds are mechanically stable, stiffer, brittle and mechanically anisotropic. Seebeck coefficient and effective masses reveal the p-type semiconductor nature of both compounds. Thermoelectric properties; thermal conductivity and power factor demonstrate that these perovskites could be used as potential candidates for thermoelectric devices.
Biological soil crust (BSC) as a nature-based strategy has a great potential to restore soil and water in arid and semi-arid natural ecosystems. Yet, little is known about its effects on soil fertility and productivity as affected by the BSC inoculation in agroecosystems. We hypothesis that BSC inoculation can improve soil quality, while increasing crop productivity and economic benefits in semiarid rainfed region. To address this issue, we carried out field experiment using forage maize (Zea mays L.) from 2018 to 2019, with four treatments as follows: 1) conventional flat planting (control, CK), 2) flat planting with the inoculation of BSC (BSC), 3) ridge-furrow planting (RF), and 4) sectional ridge-furrow planting (SRF). The results showed that BSC inoculation significantly enhanced maize shoot and root biomass by 53–63 % and 30–67 % accordingly (P < 0.05), compared with CK in two growing seasons.Also, BSC treatment slightly increased soil water content and soil temperature, while significantly decreasing soil pH and soil bulk density, relative to CK, RF and SRF (P < 0.05). Compared with CK, the BSC inoculation markedly improved soil microbial biomass carbon by 54 % and nitrogen by 52%, soil organic carbon by 21 %, and total nitrogen by 30% respectively (P < 0.05) Critically, the contents of above four parameters were 42 %, 32 %, 19 % and 32 % greater in BSC than RF and SRF, respectively (P < 0.05). Simultaneously, the BSC significantly decreased soil C/N ratio by 7 %, while SRF and RF slightly decreased C/N ratio by 0.2 % and 2 % only, in comparison with CK. Interestingly, soil C&N mineralization efficiency were significantly greater in the BSC treatment than CK, RF and SRF (P < 0.05). In addition, the economic benefit under BSC was the highest relative to other three planting systems In conclusion, BSC can be used as a nature-based strategy (NbS) to improve soil properties, promote microbial C&N uptake and utilization via enhancing C&N mineralization and lowering C-N ratio. In conclusion, BSC can act as a green solution to achieve high productivity and promote soil fertility in semiarid agricultural ecosystem.
Melatonin is a natural indolamine that regulates many physiological functions in plants. The most prominent role of melatonin in plants has been its ability to work as an anti-stressor agent. Exogenous melatonin can prevent cell death and promote cell proliferation through its antioxidant properties, enhancement of polyamine biosynthesis, and the ability to shift cell metabolism in case of stressors like sugar starvation. Melatonin scavenges reactive oxygen species and thus preventing damage to cell membranes and other organelles. Its application in different plant culture systems reveals its important physiological and biochemical roles during the growth and development of these cultures. It has been observed that the exogenous melatonin protects callus culture, reduces cold-induced apoptosis in cell suspension, and stimulates adventitious and lateral roots formation. This review presents the physiological and biochemical effects of exogenous melatonin on in vitro culture systems, including its impact on biomass accumulation, growth, and development of plants.
This article discusses theory, properties, and applications of the novel integral transform known as J-transform (JT) for fractional differential equations. Several fundamental theorems on fractional Riemann-Liouville and Ca-puto derivatives as well as proofs of some important results and functions are presented using the proposed transform. The exact and approximate solutions to numerous fractional differential equations (nonlinear Whitham-Broer-Kaup and KdV equations) are presented with numerical illustrations for validity, accuracy, and efficiency. It is observed that this fast-converging transform is a functional and valuable method to study a wide range of nonlinear problems in science and engineering. A novel integral transform known as J-transform for fractional order differential equations is studied in this article. The proposed transform is used to investigate various properties, applications and some fundamental theorems on fractional Caputo and Riemann-Liouville derivatives. For validity, numerous fractional differential equations are presented with numerical illustrations. The general solutions of the considered equations are calculated as convergent power series with simply derived coefficients that reveal the novelty of the considered transform.
Atoms of four-level atomic medium are doped in a crystal slab of silica which is immersed in a four-level atomic medium. We incorporated Bragg law in the Rabi frequencies of driving fields and obtained absorption spectrum which exhibits atom localization inside the crystal plane and generation of waveguide channels. Varying the Bragg angle θ leads to several localized peaks and craters. The number of peaks decreases as we increase the Bragg angle "θ" from " π⁄8" to "π∕2" and the peaks disappear beyond this angle. The localization probability is independent of the Bragg angle, while the spatial resolution varies with change in Bragg angle. However, the probe detuning and amplitudes of Rabi frequencies change the localization probability. Inside the optical lattice of the silica crystal, waveguide channels and particle traps are generated which may be utilized to guide electromagnetic radiations and trap quantum particles. This work is useful for coherent control information of crystal planes, optical trapping, waveguide channels of nano-crystals and data storage.
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416 members
Amir Ali
  • Department of Mathematics
Ismail Shah
  • Department of Pharmacy
Manzoor Ahmad
  • Department of Chemistry
Muhammad Ayaz
  • Department of Pharmacy
Wadud Ali
  • Department of Pharmacy
Chakdara, 18300, Upper Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Gul Zaman