University of Magdalena
  • Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia
Recent publications
The present study evaluated the efficacy of an Italian school-based intervention programme adapted in three Colombian sites (Medellín, Manizales, and Santa Marta) in promoting prosocial behaviour among adolescents. Using a pre-test-post-test design with a multi-informant approach, the present study assessed 451 students (Mage = 12.77, SD = 1.06) of the intervention group and 428 students (Mage = 12.64, SD = 1.01) by using self-report and peer rating measures of prosocial behaviour. After establishing the measurement invariance across time and informants, a latent difference score model showed the positive effect of the intervention programme in improving prosocial behaviour evaluated by peers (Cohen’s d = .379) among Colombian adolescents, across all three sites. Implications of the study will be discussed.
Until March 2021, marine Chondrichthyans in Colombia were fishery resources, administered under the Ministry of Agriculture (MinAgricultura) with the fisheries authority had an NPOA Sharks as a guide for their management. After that, and under the Decree 281 of 18 March 2021 issued by the Ministry of Environment of Colombia, a new policy (called the Environmental Plan for the protection and conservation of sharks, marine rays, and chimaeras of Colombia)emerged, and the management duty of Chondrichthyans changed from a fishery resource to a hydrobiological resource, thereby prohibiting commercial use of those species and transferring its management to the government’s environmental sector. This paper discusses the two policy instruments created for the same group of fishes, the consequences of changing the government management duty from one sector to another by the new policy created, and the implications for the environmental, fisheries, control, and surveillance sectors, civil organizations, and even for sharks. In addition, a logical framework analysis method was carried out to identify shark vulnerability and stakeholders, and to analyze both policy instruments and their positive and negative outputs. Part of the environmental sector celebrated the issued decree as an unprecedented achievement for Colombia. In contrast, other stakeholders, including the fisheries sector, declared that the ban on sharks/batoids for trade and fishing indirectly affects marine fisheries and fishers since these species are commonly bycatch in most of them. Consequently, shark/batoid bycatch management was raised as the central management issue since fishing activity is the main threat for elasmobranchs. Alternatives are proposed for conservation and fisheries to coexist, obtaining mutual benefits, avoiding confrontation, and heading towards sustainable development from different perspectives.
The implementation of electrification programs in non-interconnected rural areas in Colombia is a challenge for the country to reduce the social gap in these regions. This task is responsibility of the mining and energy planning unit, which has as challenges the implementation of renewable energy projects that allow diversifying the national energy matrix. For this reason, this paper proposes a support framework for multicriteria decision-making in the electricity supply of non-interconnected rural areas for the Colombian Caribbean Region. The multicriteria method of the fuzzy analytical hierarchical process was used, which allows the incorporation of a fuzzy triangular scale to improve the imprecision in the judgments made by experts. A hierarchical structure with 6 renewable energy alternatives, 4 criteria and 16 sub-criteria was designed, which allowed the implementation of a paired comparison survey that was answered by 10 experts from the region. The results obtained show the relevance of all alternatives, which is evidenced by a percentage difference of less than 5% between all the options. The best alternative was solar PV (20.27%). Regarding the criteria, the most relevant were economic (39.6%) and environmental (30.8%). The most relevant sub-criterion was the renewable fraction, related to the possible reuse of equipment (20.2%).
Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the nonsurgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) compared with supragingival therapy in type II diabetics with periodontitis. Methods A decision tree analysis was used to estimate the costs and health outcomes of two periodontal therapies in a hypothetical cohort of type II diabetics with periodontitis. The analysis was developed from the perspective of a third-party payer at 1 year and 5 years. Probabilities were derived from two systematic reviews. The costs and resource use were validated by a Delphi expert panel. All costs were expressed in USD, using the 25 May 2021 Colombian pesos market exchange rate (USD 1 = COP 3,350). Results NSPT was a dominant alternative compared with subsidized supragingival therapy in type II diabetics with periodontitis, generating savings of USD 87 and 400, during the first year or up to 5 years, respectively, and improving dental survival from 32 to 69 percent. Conclusions NSPT can generate savings by reducing the complications derived from uncontrolled periodontitis and tooth loss.
Brachypterism is a common condition cited in passalid beetles, mainly associated to species with strictly montane distributions. In the New World Passalids, brachypterism has been reported especially in the tribe Proculini, for which almost all genera have brachypterous species; meanwhile, in Passalini, the other Netropical tribe, it has been cited only for the genus Passalus, mainly in the subgenus Passalus (Passalus). Here we present a commented list of the brachypterous species of the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax); we redescribed Passalus gravelyi Moreira, P. quitensis (Kaup), P. striatissimus Luederwaldt, and P. sulcifrons (Kuwert) and describe a new species from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia.
The present study examined the predictive effect of moral disengagement (within and between classrooms) on antisocial behaviors in Colombian adolescents, as well as the interaction of moral disengagement with classroom composition by age, socioeconomic status (SES), and perceived teacher–student relationship quality. Multilevel modeling was used to identify individual, compositional, and contextual effects on antisocial behaviors. The predictive variables were: (a) classroom mean score (i.e., between-classroom analysis), and (b) student deviation from the classroom mean score (i.e., within-classroom analysis). The sample included 879 students nested in 24 seventh-grade classrooms in three Colombian cities. The results showed that age, SES, and moral disengagement at the within-classroom level predicted antisocial behaviors. At the between-classroom level, antisocial behaviors were predicted by higher moral disengagement and lower aggregate SES. In addition, significant interactions were found between moral disengagement at the within-classroom level and SES at the between-classroom level. The findings expand our knowledge of the interdependence between individual and classroom contexts in the exercise of moral agency during adolescence.
Publications about COVID-19 have occurred practically since the first outbreak. Therefore, studying the evolution of the scientific publications on COVID-19 can provide us with information on current research trends and can help researchers and policymakers to form a structured view of the existing evidence base of COVID-19 and provide new research directions. This growth rate was so impressive that the need for updated information and research tools become essential to mitigate the spread of the virus. Therefore, traditional bibliographic research procedures, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses, become time-consuming and limited in focus. This study aims to study the scientific literature on COVID-19 that has been published since its inception and to map the evolution of research in the time range between February 2020 and January 2022. The search was carried out in PubMed extracting topics using text mining and latent Dirichlet allocation modeling and a trend analysis was performed to analyze the temporal variations in research for each topic. We also study the distribution of these topics between countries and journals. 126,334 peer-reviewed articles and 16 research topics were identified. The countries with the highest number of scientific publications were the United States of America, China, Italy, United Kingdom, and India, respectively. Regarding the distribution of the number of publications by journal, we found that of the 7040 sources Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, PLoS ONE, and Sci. Rep., were the ones that led the publications on COVID-19. We discovered a growing tendency for eight topics (Prevention, Telemedicine, Vaccine immunity, Machine learning, Academic parameters, Risk factors and morbidity and mortality, Information synthesis methods, and Mental health), a falling trend for five of them (Epidemiology, COVID-19 pathology complications, Diagnostic test, Etiopathogenesis, and Political and health factors), and the rest varied throughout time with no discernible patterns (Therapeutics, Pharmacological and therapeutic target, and Repercussion health services).
Acropora cervicornis have suffered massive mortalities in the Caribbean, and decades later are yet to recover. Coral recruitment through larval settlement is critical for the recovery of this species. Currently, there is little information available regarding the requirements for the settlement and post-settlement survival of A. cervicornis, and the mechanisms by which larvae are induced to settle are poorly understood. We determined the rates of larval settlement and early survival in the presence of five crustose coralline algae (CCA) species and tested the effect of CCA chemical compounds and the physical structure of the algae on larval settlement. Settlement on CCA was higher (20–38%) compared to the negative control (sterilized seawater, 9%). Settlement also occurred in the absence of CCA, indicating that larvae settlement might be induced by bacterial biofilms. Settlement of A. cervicornis on CCA under controlled conditions is low compared to other Acropora species, and this may have implications for its recovery. There was a direct relationship between settlement and survival; higher survival was associated to the most inductive CCA species (i.e., Hydrolithon boergesenii 67% and Titanoderma prototypum 50%), while striking mortality was observed in presence of Neogoniolithon sp. (100%), which may be related to allelopathy or tissue sloughing. More larvae attached to substrates with CCA extract (52%) than in the negative control (4%). We conclude that settlement of A. cervicornis is initiated by chemical compounds present in CCA, and A. cervicornis prefers CCA species which favor post-settlement survival.
Background and objectives Depressive episodes are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. These episodes are related to a vast number of clinical and psychosocial variables. Nevertheless, the relationship between the number of COPD exacerbations and depression has not been extensively studied in the Colombian Caribbean. The objective was to determine the relationship between COPD exacerbations and depression in a sample of outpatients in Santa Marta, Colombia. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study was designed in which COPD adult patients participated. The number of COPD exacerbations (none versus one or more) and the risk of depression were documented. The crude and adjusted association was established by calculating the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results The study included 408 patients aged between 40 and 102 years (mean 72.9 ± 10.2), and 58.8% were male. 105 patients (25.9%) reported one or more exacerbations in COPD, and 114 patients (27.9%) were at risk for depression. The crude relationship between exacerbations and depression was statistically significant (OR = 1.80; 95%CI, 1.12-2.89) and after adjusting for sex (OR = 1.99; 95%CI, 1.23-3.23). Conclusions The number of COPD exacerbations among outpatients in Santa Marta, Colombia is related to depression. Longitudinal studies are needed in Colombia.
Using a standardized SNP array, we identified two populations of Acropora cervicornis and one population of A. palmata in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. San Andrés was the most genetically differentiated location for both species. An average pairwise F ST value of 0.131 and 0.050 between San Andrés and neighboring collection sites was estimated, for A. cervicornis and A. palmata, respectively. Based on population patterns of both acroporid species, we inferred that Magdalena River is not a barrier of genetic connectivity among Colombian populations. Genetic comparisons between the Colombian coast of Caribbean with other Caribbean locations agree with previous studies for both species, where four populations were identified in A. cervicornis and three in A. palmata. Our results support published bio-physical model predictions and highlight the Panama-Colombia gyre as a possible isolating mechanism within the western Caribbean. However, the genetic diversity in both species was about half (mean HE per site = 0.321 in A. palmata and 0.369 in A. cervicornis) than previous estimates in acroporid populations in the Caribbean. The lower genetic diversity as well their relative isolation and high levels of reef degradation may be of particular conservation concern that may require species-specific management coupled with science-based restoration efforts.
Passalini comprises 209 species divided into six genera. To date there is no published work that addresses the phylogenetic relationships among the genera of Passalini. Additionally, the monophyly of Passalus , the largest genus of the tribe (81% of its species) is contested. We performed a phylogenetic analysis based on morphological data and partial sequence of the 16S ribosomal subunit, to elucidate the relationships among the genera of Passalini, and test their monophyly. Of the genera for which we tested their monophyly, Passalus was the only genus found to be non-monophyletic, the same occurred for the subgenera Passalus ( Passalus ) and Passalus ( Pertinax ). The results indicated the subgenus Pertinax is divided into at least four distinct lineages, one of them corresponding to Rodocanthopus ; thus, we propose the revalidation of Rhodocanthopus Kaup, 1869.
Purpose: Overuse of short-acting β2-agonists (SABAs) for asthma is associated with a significant increase in exacerbations and healthcare resource use. However, limited data exist on the extent of SABA overuse outside of Europe and North America. As part of the multi-country SABA use IN Asthma (SABINA) III study, we characterized SABA prescription patterns in Colombia. Patients and methods: This observational, cross-sectional cohort study of SABINA III included patients (aged ≥12 years) with asthma recruited from seven sites in Colombia. Demographics, disease characteristics (including investigator-defined asthma severity guided by the 2017 Global Initiative for Asthma report), and asthma treatments prescribed (including SABAs and inhaled corticosteroids [ICS]) in the 12 months preceding the study were recorded using electronic case report forms during a single study visit. Results: Of 250 patients analyzed, 50.4%, 33.2%, and 16.4% were enrolled by pulmonologists, general medicine practitioners, and allergists, respectively. Most patients were female (74.0%) and had moderate-to-severe asthma (67.6%). Asthma was partly controlled or uncontrolled in 57.6% of patients, with 15.6% experiencing ≥1 severe exacerbation 12 months before the study visit. In total, 4.0% of patients were prescribed SABA monotherapy and 55.6%, SABA in addition to maintenance therapy. Overall, 39.2% of patients were prescribed ≥3 SABA canisters in the 12 months before the study visit; 25.2% were prescribed ≥10 canisters. Additionally, 17.6% of patients purchased SABAs over the counter, of whom 43.2% purchased ≥3 canisters. Maintenance medication in the form of ICS or ICS/long-acting β2-agonist fixed-dose combination was prescribed to 36.0% and 66.8% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that prescription/purchase of ≥3 SABA canisters were common in Colombia, highlighting a public health concern. There is a need to improve asthma care by aligning clinical practices with the latest evidence-based treatment recommendations to improve asthma management across Colombia.
Knowledge about ticks and Rickettsiae in Colombia is still limited and the areas of the country where studies have been conducted are scarce. In this study, ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) associated with reptiles and amphibians in San Juan de Carare, Santander department, were morphologically and molecularly identified and tested for the presence of Rickettsia. For the molecular characterization of ticks, CO1, 12S and 16S sequences were generated and compared with other sequences available in genbank. Our analyses confirmed that the collected ticks were Amblyomma dissimile, and we provide the first report of this species parasitizing the snake Leptodeira septentrionalis. Of the samples analyzed, 69% were positive for Rickettsia sp. using the gltA, ompA and sca1 genes. Rickettsia sequences generated in this study were also compared to sequences downloaded from genbank by Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analyzes. The presence of a single Rickettsia species, Candidatus Rickettsia colombianensi, was identified. This study expands the knowledge regarding the distribution of A. dissimile ticks and Rickettsiae in Colombia.
Community-based tourism (CBT) in Colombia was identified as a strategy to reduce rural poverty and social inequalities in regions affected by political violence. The objectives of CBT are met through community and multilevel governance. Strong social capital is a necessary condition to meet such objectives. This article contributes to the theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationships among community-based tourism, social capital and governance in post-conflict contexts. Based on a set of indicators to measure social capital, and economic, sociocultural and environmental benefits perceived by the community, the case study in Minca, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia), demonstrates that tourism barely benefits communities when there is insufficient social capital and unstructured governance due to the low presence of the government. Despite the existence of legislation favorable to the empowerment of peripheral communities, rulers lack the political incentives to strengthen the social capital required for the development of community-based tourism.
Background: Stigma-discrimination against people who meet the criteria for mental disorders is frequent in Colombian adolescents; however, there is no valid and reliable instrument for measurement. The study aimed to establish the Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS) psychometric performance among Colombian adolescents. Methods: A validation study was carried out with 350 students aged between 10 and 17, 53.7% of whom were girls. The authors estimated frequencies for reported behaviors and measured internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for intended behaviors. The RIBS has two sub-scales -reported and intended behaviors, with four items each. Results: The reported behavior sub-scale ranged from 10.0 to 24.9%, whereas the intended behavior sub-scale presented a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.88 (95%CI 0.86-0.90) and a McDonald omega of 0.88. For the CFA, KMO was 0.81; Bartlett chi squared, 771.1 (df=6, p=0.001); and Eigen value, 2.95 that explained 73.9% of the total variance. For the goodness-of-fit tests, chi squared was 21.9 (df=2, p=0.001); RMSEA, 0.17 (90%CI 0.11-0.24); CFI, 0.97; TLI, 0.92; and SRMR, 0.03. Conclusions: The RIBS can measure reported behaviors, and the intended behavior sub-scale shows high internal consistency. However, the dimensionality of the intended behavior sub-scale presents modest goodness-of-fit indexes. These findings need replications.
La crisis del modelo de desarrollo en Colombia se ha visto reflejada en la crisis civilizatoria y el impacto ha sido particularmente en el sector rural. En este artículo se busca analizar alternativas de desarrollo rural con el fin de generar propuestas para la post pandemia en el sector rural en Colombia a través de una metodología cualitativa basada en un método de revisión de la literatura. Inicialmente, se presentan algunos elementos teóricos sobre los modelos de desarrollo rural implementados en Colombia. Finalmente se proponen alternativas alrededor de la economía solidaria y particularmente para el sector cooperativo, el cual cobra fuerza en el debate actual como potencial modelo de desarrollo para nuevos horizontes civilizatorios en el marco de post pandemia. Se presentan cuatro estrategias que podrían desarrollar las organizaciones solidarias: la conformación de organizaciones de segundo piso que tengan peso en la gobernanza participativa de sus territorios, ser lideres en la prestación del servicio de asistencia técnica, generar autonomía de sus asociados mediante el fortalecimiento de la identidad y ofrecer opciones de distribución y comercialización a partir de la recuperación de lo local.
This article presents some of the results of an investigation that, following the framework of ecological psychology, explores the relationship between the indigenous Kogi people and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Based on ethnographic research, it investigates the particular relationship with the Sierra in bodily and affective terms, under the notion of affordances, problematized by the ethnographic information collected in two communities in relation to this link. To this end, we used the ethnographic method guided by the affective component proposed by Favret-Saada. The study was based on fieldwork with participants belonging to two Kogi communities in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, from 2016 to 2020. The article highlights the relevance of the concept of affordances to think about the relationships that the Kogi have with the Mother, which includes its strong affective component. By recognizing that these relationships exceed the understandings proposed in ecological psychology, it opens the possibility of altering the concepts with which we reach the field. In this sense, the Mother, a living entity connected to the indigenous people, complicates the notion of environment in ecological psychology. The article thus offers a reflection on the possibility of allowing oneself to be affected analytically and corporeally, as a way of broadening the research horizons of ecological psychology, while presenting an alternative to culturalist approaches to the study of the relationship that indigenous peoples maintain with their territories.
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Lídice Alvarez Miño
  • Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud
Juan Carlos Narváez Barandica
  • Facultad de Ciencias Básicas
J. Sierra-Ortega
  • Facultad de Ciencias Básicas
Cesar E. Tamaris-Turizo
  • Facultad de Ciencias Básicas
Carrera 32 No 22 - 08, 2-1-21630, Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia
(57)(5) 4217940