Due to the potential role of the gut microbiota and bile acids in the pathogenesis of both inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and sporadic colorectal cancer, we aimed to determine whether these factors were associated with colorectal cancer in IBD patients. 215 IBD patients and 51 non-IBD control subjects were enrolled from 10 French IBD centers between September 2011 and July 2018. Fecal samples were processed for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bile acid profiling. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histological outcomes were recorded. Characteristics of IBD patients included: median age: 41.6 (IQR 22); disease duration 13.2 (13.1); 47% female; 21.9% primary sclerosing cholangitis; 109 patients with Crohn's disease (CD); 106 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The prevalence of cancer was 2.8% (6/215: 1 CD; 5 UC), high-grade dysplasia 3.7% (8/215) and low-grade dysplasia 7.9% (17/215). Lachnospira was decreased in IBD patients with cancer, while Agathobacter was decreased and Escherichia-Shigella increased in UC patients with any neoplasia. Bile acids were not associated with cancer or neoplasia. Unsupervised clustering identified three gut microbiota clusters in IBD patients associated with bile acid composition and clinical features, including a higher risk of neoplasia in UC in two clusters when compared to the third (relative risk (RR) 4.07 (95% CI 1.6-10.3, P < .01) and 3.56 (95% CI 1.4-9.2, P < .01)). In this multicentre observational study, a limited number of taxa were associated with neoplasia and exploratory microbiota clusters co-associated with clinical features, including neoplasia risk in UC. Given the very small number of cancers, the robustness of these findings will require assessment and validation in future studies.
Circular economy enables to restore product value at the end of life i.e. when no longer used or damaged. Thus, the product life cycle is extended and this economy permits to reduce waste increase and resources rarefaction. There are several revaluation options (reuse, remanufacturing, recycling, …). So, decision makers need to assess these options to determine which is the best decision. Thus, we will present a study about an End-Of-Life (EoL) decision making which aims to facilitate the industrialization of circular economy. For this, it is essential to consider all variables and parameters impacting the decision of the product trajectory. A first part of the work proposes to identify the variables and parameters impacting the decision making. A second part proposes an assessment approach based on a modeling by Generalized Colored Stochastic Petri Net (GCSPN) and on a Monte-Carlo simulation. The approach developed is tested on an industrial example from the literature to analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of the model. This first application showed the feasibility of the approach, and also the limits of the GCSPN modelling.
The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18–19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year’s focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1–5, and STEP 1–5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed. Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10–11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org )
Background epi-cblC is a recently discovered inherited disorder of intracellular vitamin B12 metabolism associating hematological, neurological, and cardiometabolic outcomes. It is produced by an epimutation at the promoter common to CCDC163P and MMACHC, which results from an aberrant antisense transcription due to splicing mutations in the antisense PRDX1 gene neighboring MMACHC. We studied whether the aberrant transcription produced a second epimutation by encompassing the CpG island of the TESK2 gene neighboring CCDC163P. Methods We unraveled the methylome architecture of the CCDC163P–MMACHC CpG island (CpG:33) and the TESK2 CpG island (CpG:51) of 17 epi-cblC cases. We performed an integrative analysis of the DNA methylome profiling, transcriptome reconstruction of RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) of histone H3, and transcription expression of MMACHC and TESK2. Results The PRDX1 splice mutations and activation of numerous cryptic splice sites produced antisense readthrough transcripts encompassing the bidirectional MMACHC/CCDC163P promoter and the TESK2 promoter, resulting in the silencing of both the MMACHC and TESK2 genes through the deposition of SETD2-dependent H3K36me3 marks and the generation of epimutations in the CpG islands of the two promoters. Conclusions The antisense readthrough transcription of the mutated PRDX1 produces an epigenetic silencing of MMACHC and TESK2. We propose using the term 'epi-digenism' to define this epigenetic disorder that affects two genes. Epi-cblC is an entity that differs from cblC. Indeed, the PRDX1 and TESK2 altered expressions are observed in epi-cblC but not in cblC, suggesting further evaluating the potential consequences on cancer risk and spermatogenesis.
Objectives ‘Integrative and Conjugative Elements’ (ICEs) and ‘Integrative and Mobilizable Elements’ (IMEs) are two classes of mobile genetic elements that are complex to detect and delineate. Therefore, they are yet poorly annotated in bacterial genomes. FirmiData provides to the scientific community of microbiologists and bioinformaticians a reference resource of annotated ICEs and of IMEs from Firmicutes. It illustrates their prevalence and their diversity but also gives information on their organization. FirmiData was designed to assist the scientific community in identifying and annotating these elements by using the sequences of these ICEs and IMEs for the identification of related elements in other genomes of Firmicutes. Therefore, Firmidata meets the needs of the scientific community. Data description Firmidata provides a manually curated annotation of 98 ICEs and 148 IMEs identified in 40 chromosomes of Firmicutes. The delineation at the nucleotide level of almost all of these elements allows for the characterization of the genes they carry.
Background Hypotension and blood pressure (BP) variability during endovascular therapy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to an anterior large vessel occlusion (LVO) is associated with worse outcomes. However, the optimal BP threshold during EVT is still unknown given the lack of randomized controlled evidence. We designed the DETERMINE trial to assess whether an individualized BP management during EVT could achieve better functional outcomes compared to a standard BP management. Methods The DETERMINE trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial (PROBE design). AIS patients with a proximal anterior LVO are randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to an experimental arm in which mean arterial pressure (MAP) is maintained within 10% of the first MAP measured before EVT, or a control arm in which systolic BP (SBP) is maintained within 140–180 mm Hg until reperfusion is achieved or artery closure in case of EVT failure. The primary outcome is the rate of favorable functional outcomes, defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) between 0 and 2 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes include excellent outcome and ordinal analysis of the mRS at 90 days, early neurological improvement at 24 h (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale), final infarct volume, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates, and all-cause mortality at 90 days. Overall, 432 patients will be included. Discussion DETERMINE will assess the clinical relevance of an individualized BP management before reperfusion compared to the one size fits all approach currently recommended by international guidelines. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT04352296. Registered on 20th April 2020.
This paper investigates two maintenance strategies for wind turbine gearboxes. The first one is frequently adopted in practice. It consists in monitoring the state of the gearbox through its temperature. As soon as the latter reaches a predefined threshold level, production rate is drastically reduced by slowing down the wind turbine while cooling the gearbox for a certain period before recovering the desired output rate. As it becomes more frequent with time, the wind turbine operators will decide to renew the gearbox. The latter is replaced by a new identical one or submitted to an overhaul based only on the judgement of the maintenance agents. For this first strategy, an analytical model is developed to optimize the renewal period of the gearbox considering the balance between the cost of production loss and cooling each time the threshold temperature is reached, and the cost of renewal. The second strategy is a new one proposed in this paper. It suggests performing an imperfect preventive maintenance (PM) action each time the temperature threshold is reached, reducing hence the failure rate of the gearbox to a value between the current one and the one of a new gearbox. The imperfect preventive action is performed N times before the gearbox must be renewed. A mathematical model is also developed to simultaneously find the optimal number of PM actions to be performed before renewing the gearbox, and the optimal period for the maintenance crew to start the PM or renewal action after the instant at which the temperature threshold level is exceeded. This period being longer or shorter depending on the logistics in place to move the maintenance crew to the site and prepare for the intervention. Numerical examples are presented, a sensitivity analysis is performed, and the two strategies are compared. Optimal solutions are obtained for each strategy. Also, the result of the comparison shows that each strategy can be more economical depending on the reliability of the gearbox, and the different costs incurred, particularly the PM and the renewal related logistics costs.
In this work, we address an optimized integrated maintenance strategy and spare parts management problem for wind turbine system, with an observable level of degradation. The purpose of the study consists in establishing an improved maintenance strategy integrating a spare parts policy, according random production of energy over a given period. The wind turbine system failure rate is being modeled as a function of the current operating mode. Therefore, an improved maintenance strategy, characterized by a switching between both perfect and imperfect preventive maintenance actions, is developed and optimized. Formally, our objective is realized by the optimization of a total cost integrating maintenance action and spare parts management over a finite planning horizon, with considering the impact of the production rate on wind turbine system failure rate. A numerical study is realized in order to proof the robustness of the analytical model developed.
The economical decision of whether leasing or selling used vehicles remains a challenging task for several enterprises that are willing to renew their fleet of vehicles. We consider a fleet of used vehicles of different types (Diesel, Electric, Hybrid, …). Considering demand from different prospects interested in leasing a number of second-hand vehicles for a given mission profile, a mathematical model is developed to determine to which prospects it is the most profitable to lease the used vehicles and furthermore the number of vehicles to be leased, and the remaining ones to be sold. The mathematical model consists in the expression of the expected leasing profit function which integrates revenues from leasing, resale, and penalty on one hand, and maintenance costs on the other hand. A numerical example is presented and discussed to illustrate the use and relevance of the proposed model. The obtained results show that for each type of vehicles, expected usage rates and maintenance costs that are borne by the company have a significant impact on the decision about leasing and selling.
Lignocellulosic and algal biomass feedstocks are the most plentiful and cost-effective renewable sources of biofuels (sugar, bioethanol, biodiesel, and bio-oil), value-added chemicals (organic compounds), and advanced materials (hydrogels and composites). The lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose complex's recalcitrance, which leads to ineffective conversion into valuable compounds, is one of the most significant challenges in biomass valorization. Some ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to be efficient decomposers of lignocellulosic and algal biomass. In reality, ILs offer a unique green alternative compared to harmful volatile organic solvents and severe process conditions. Enhanced productivity in the conversion of biomass feedstocks could result from advancements in IL-based pretreatment technologies. The capability of the different types of ILs for conversion, as well as the impact of different properties and operating parameters, are comprehensively reviewed and discussed in this paper. The known methods for the dissolution of three main components of lignocellulosic and algal biomass with ILs are also described. Furthermore, the challenges to be addressed when utilizing IL for biomass pretreatment and processing on a commercial scale are highlighted. The significant promise of ionic liquids for this objective is anticipated to stimulate research and lead to considerable technological advancements in this field.
Cover crops have multiple benefits, such as improving water quality, providing a green manure effect, and storing carbon in the soil. They can, however, reduce drainage significantly during key periods of hydrosystem recharge, especially in winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cover crops and/or crop diversification at the watershed scale on water in the downstream watershed of the Aveyron River, based on three scenarios with different management practices. It is an illustrative case study of situations of water imbalance involving 1150 farms, with agricultural fields covering 40,000 ha, of which ca. 40% may be irrigated. The MAELIA model was used to simulate 10 years (2007–2016) of dynamics to estimate the influence of cover crops on water flows. Simulations showed that short-duration cover crops terminated in autumn generally had little influence on water: they decreased drainage slightly in autumn, but the recharge in winter compensated for this decrease and thus did not influence the water dynamics or yields of the succeeding cash crops. Although long-duration cover crops grow for a longer period and are sown more frequently in fields, they also had relatively little influence on water in the region, except for decreasing drainage. A scenario with long-duration cover crops and diversification of rotations was a good compromise for quantitative water management. Diversifying rotations, notably by replacing maize with crops that required less water, compensated for potential negative effects of long-duration cover crops. Although this scenario increased variability depending on the weather year and reduced autumn drainage, it influenced irrigation withdrawals and river flows little over the 10-year period. However, greater variability occurred at the field scale, where cover crops can have more influence. Thus, it is important to adapt the management practices for cover crops in rotations to decrease negative effects, particularly on water availability, which could increase withdrawals in an area that already has a water deficit, and not to decrease yields and thus farmers' profits. Our results are valid for the study area, but these scenarios should be extrapolated to other soil and climate conditions and other rotations and management systems.
An easy-to-use and environmentally friendly method is proposed to increase the fire retardancy of natural fibers. Hemp fibers were phosphorylated by the grafting of phytic acid, a renewable and environmentally friendly phosphorous flame retardant and urea in aqueous solution. The fibers were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, solid state ¹³C and ³¹P NMR analysis, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and tensile testing. The swelling behavior of the fibers evaluated by optical microscopy observations showed that urea promotes swelling and consequently the grafting of P and N in the fiber. It has been also shown by a bleaching step that delignification makes the cellulose slightly more accessible for grafting. Non-flammable fibers were produced with relatively low P and N contents (> 0.5 % w/w and > 0.7 % w/w respectively). However, the phosphorylation process significantly decreased cellulose crystallinity and mechanical properties of the resulting fibers. For P = 0.9 %, a 30 % decrease in the tensile strength of hemp fibers was observed. The production of phytic pyrophosphate by thermal dehydration of phytic acid has been proposed from ³¹P NMR results.
Infrared Spectroscopy is a very useful tool studying clay minerals in a structural level as well as interactions on their surfaces. In this study, middle- and far- infrared spectroscopy was utilised to better understand how iron-bearing smectites and more specifically the nontronite-1 (NAu1) alters upon iron reduction. Changes in the middle-infrared spectral range have been studied extensively, such as the 3570 cm⁻¹, 1020 cm⁻¹ and 823 cm⁻¹, while far-infrared spectral range changes have not drawn much attention. In this study, NAu1 spectra of oxidised, partially, and fully reduced state are presented noting the differences that occur on different vibration bands at this low frequency infrared range. Key changes took place at the region of 430–494 cm⁻¹, as well as the 145 cm⁻¹ band. From the 175 cm⁻¹ to the 380 cm⁻¹ region, vibrating bands disappeared or convoluted in a wider spectral envelope, upon full iron reduction. At the same time, NAu1 is saturated with different cations, such as Na⁺, Ca²⁺, K⁺, isolating effects on vibrating bands, depending on these cations, across the oxidation states and infrared range examined. These effects are more prominent at the region of 1620–1650 cm⁻¹, where adsorbed H2O bending vibration takes place, for the middle-infrared range. Far-infrared range changes, due to the cation present, are less prominent, but recorded and discussed in detail. Eventually, the redox state of iron-bearing clay minerals controls the structural configuration of the lattice and consequently the interaction strength of clay mineral/saturating cations. The increasing interaction strength observed was Ca²⁺ < Na⁺ < K⁺, which will govern clay mineral hydration and cation exchange processes taking place on the clay mineral surface, as demonstrated, and discussed in this study. These outcomes can be useful in agriculture, waste disposal, and the oil & gas industry.
Superhydrophobic surfaces have been widely used in surface protection. Dyed wood (D-wood) easily fades when exposed to water, but to improve its the color fastness, a superhydrophobic coating can be applied to reduce the D-wood’s interaction with water. In this work, dyed-superhydrophobic wood (DS-wood) was successfully prepared by in-situ growth and transformation of Si-sol and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to enhance the color fastness of D-wood. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the Si-sol deposited on the D-wood surface generated a rough coating and combined with the construction of PDMS acted to improve the superhydrophobicity. The water contact angle (WCA) of the DS-wood was around 151.6° and the sliding angle (SA) was about 7°. Because the superhydrophobic coating can form a protective layer on the D-wood surface, DS-wood does not suffer from severe fading under long-term water washing conditions. In addition, even after other rigorous tests (abrasion, chemical and solvent corrosion), DS-wood has excellent superhydrophobic stability and does not suffer color degradation. Last, DS-wood has been shown to exhibit excellent self-cleaning properties. This method provides a new strategy and paradigm for the application of superhydrophobic coating and the surface protection of D-wood.
Torrefaction is a promising method for producing microalgal solid biofuel. This study compared conventional torrefaction and oxidative torrefaction for microalgal solid biofuel production. Particular attention was paid to evaluating energy efficiency analysis and life cycle assessment, and several parameters and indexes were adopted and calculated. The results showed that mild oxidative torrefaction was the most energy-efficient operation, with the maximum value of relative upgrading energy index and relative energy return on investment. The life cycle assessment indicates that oxidative torrefaction had a lower environmental impact than conventional torrefaction, mainly due to its lower carrier gas consumption and electricity input. The environmental impact positively correlated with the torrefaction severity. The obtained results in this study can provide new insights on improving the cognition of energy efficiency evaluation and environmental impact assessment of the torrefaction process, which helps select optimal torrefaction conditions.
The expanded use of water-intensive crops, such as maize, has exacerbated soil drying and water scarcity in watersheds with large irrigated surfaces. As we face climbing drought risks, water can be conserved in such areas by adopting agricultural systems that limit water deficits at the watershed level. In this study, integrated modeling was used to assess how different approaches to cultivating irrigated maize influenced water balance in France’s Aveyron watershed, which experiences strong and recurrent water deficits. Ten-year simulations were performed using the MAELIA model, which can simulate at fine-scale spatial and temporal interactions among agricultural activities, the functioning of soil-crop systems, hydrological dynamics, and water resource management. Three specific scenarios were modeled in addition to the benchmark situation representing current management practices: 1) maize irrigation was carried out on an as-need basis, where all farms were equipped with a decision‑support tool for assessing water stress in real time; 2) maize monocultures were replaced by a wheat/maize succession; and 3) the two previous scenarios were combined. In the first two scenarios, irrigation withdrawal volumes declined substantially, eliminating approximately 30 % of the watershed’s water deficit due to a better scheduling of the irrigation to the needs and by the replacement of maize by wheat with lower water requirements. There was also a slight increase in river flow rates in the summer and a slight decrease in annual drainage. The third scenario went even further in lowering withdrawal volumes and increasing flow rates thanks to additive effects: withdrawal volumes declined by 28 %, and river flow rates increased by 4 %. This study demonstrated that combining water-saving practices with crop diversification holds promise for limiting water deficits in irrigated watersheds while having a negligible impact on crop yields. It also demonstrated the usefulness of a multiagent integrated modeling platform that can conduct simulations at fine levels of spatial and temporal resolution on both agronomic and hydrologic aspects
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the relationship between cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and myocardial infarction (MI) in adulthood and to examine the role of potential confounding factors that may have contributed to the association. Studies examining the association of cumulative ACEs with MI among adults were identified by searching PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis. Individual estimates of odds ratios were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Articles were pooled separately according to whether findings were adjusted for sociodemographic factors, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and psychological factors. Several moderators were also examined: age, gender, race/ethnicity, type of MI assessment, type of cumulative ACEs assessment, and quality assessment of included studies. A total of 10 eligible studies met our inclusion criteria. The pooled ORs for the magnitude of the relationship between ACEs and MI were OR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.40–2.53, before adjustment for CVD risk factors, and OR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.24–2.57, after adjustment for CVD risk factors. The association between ACEs and MI was OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.43–3.06, after further adjustment for psychological factors. Effect sizes were larger when studies included participants predominantly over 55 years of age than younger participants. Cumulative ACEs is associated with an increased risk of MI in adulthood. However, further prospective studies are needed to better understand potential moderators that attenuate or amplify observed relations.
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