University of Lodz
  • Łódź, łódzkie, Poland
Recent publications
Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative (noninflammatory) diseases characterized by the deposition in the CNS and some peripheral organs of a misfolded isoform of prion protein (PrPSc). Prion diseases of humans include kuru, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia, sporadic fatal insomnia, and variably protease-sensitive prionopathy. In animals, they include scrapie in sheep, goats, and mouflons; bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle; chronic wasting disease in cervids; and transmissible mink encephalopathy in farmed mink. The conversion of the normal cellular isoform of the prion protein (PrPC) into its misfolded pathological isoform, PrPSc, underlies their pathogenesis. There is recent concern that other neurodegenerations, e.g., Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, tauopathies, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in which misfolded proteins play a major role, may also exhibit prion-like properties. This chapter reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, molecular subtypes, and neuropathology of prion diseases, as well as the mutations causing hereditary forms of prion diseases. Sections on variant CJD and prionoids are also included.
Demographic changes and population aging have been recognized as key priorities to ensure global health and social care systems sustainability. The increase in life expectancy of individuals is a very positive achievement of modern societies, but people’s health in the last decades of life is highly at risk due to the burden of chronic diseases and multimorbidity. Therefore, providing innovative solutions to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases is a demanding need both for individuals and societies. A relevant percentage of chronic conditions in later life is associated with inadequate lifestyles adopted by individuals across the life cycle. Therefore, population education to support adoption of healthy lifestyles, across all ages, is the most immediate and effective way to support good health status of individuals in future generations. In the present chapter (chapter 2), we introduce regional collaborative innovation networks as originators and replicators of innovative good practices to support healthy living and active ageing – European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Aging Reference Sites.
The main purpose of this article is to identify the local determinants for self-evacuation during a flooding event and the impact that the changes related to its individual stages and forms exert on the operational efficiency of the regional transport system. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey, the results of which were used to perform a series of traffic simulations. Six scenarios were analysed, each exemplifying various stages and forms of self-evacuation. Base volumes of traffic flows, speeds within the congested network, and travel times between individual transport regions were determined on the basis of a multi-modal and multi-motivational model of the area which takes into account the following types of traffic: internal, source-external, source–destination, and transit. The study showed that the evacuation from flood hazard areas following non-typical disruptions has a considerable impact on changes in the spatial distribution of the load on the road network.
Carbonic anhydrases IX and CAXII (CAIX/CAXII) are transmembrane zinc metalloproteins that catalyze a very basic but crucial physiological reaction: the conversion of carbon dioxide into bicarbonate with a release of the proton. CA, especially CAIX and CAXII isoforms gained the attention of many researchers interested in anticancer drug design due to pivotal functions of enzymes in the cancer cell metastasis and response to hypoxia, and their expression restricted to malignant cells. This offers an opportunity to develop new targeted therapies with fewer side effects. Continuous efforts led to the discovery of a series of diverse compounds with the most abundant sulphonamide derivatives. Here we review current knowledge considering small molecule and antibody-based targeting of CAIX/CAXII in cancer.
The paper presents new data on the nesting habits of the digger wasp Alysson spinosus (Hymenoptera: Bembicidae). As food for larvae, the female provisioned about 7–8 hemipteran nymphs or imagines per cell. The collected prey belongs to two families of true hoppers (five species of Delphacidae and one species of Cicadellidae). Nests are built in sandy, shaded areas, and consist of a 10–12 cm long main burrow with 1–3 brood cells. Both sexes search for food (honeydew) on the leaves of lilac or small-leaved linden. The nests were infested by the dipteran kleptoparasitic Metopia argyrocephala (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The mature larva is similar to that of the Nearctic Alysson melleus, from which it differs in having a blunt apical mandibular tooth and more prominent setae on the clypeus and labrum.
The Gulf of Guinea is characterised by a complex hydrology and supports a high species diversity. A recent study has indicated that the area can be considered a refuge for rare taxa. Intensive sampling off the coast of Ghana (Gulf of Guinea) in 2012 on board the R/V F. Nansen resulted in the discovery of a large number of benthic invertebrates, including peracarid crustaceans. A preliminary investigation demonstrated a high diversity of the Cumacea, with 95% of the species being new to science. The most species-rich genus was Eocuma with seven species; six of them proved new to science and are described here. Additionally, the global distribution of Eocuma was analysed with the help of a phylogenetic tree based on morphological characters, Bayesian Binary Markov chain Monte Carlo biogeographic analysis and literature data. The radiation centres of the west African fauna are discussed.
Background: To compare the clinical features of two time cohorts of patients: "pre-COVID-19" and "COVID-19"-admitted as emergency with intracranial otogenic complications, with special regard to sigmoid sinus thrombosis (CVST). Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients documentation concerning urgent procedures of intracranial otogenic complications at tertiary-referral otolaryngology department. Analysed database-pre-COVID-19 cohort (January-February 2019/2020): 1434 otological outpatient visits, 509 planned otosurgeries and 17 urgent otological procedures; COVID-19 cohort (March-April 2020/2021): 1150, 566 and 20 respectively. Overall intracranial complications: 5 and 9 respectively. Analysed outcome measures: incidence proportion of otogenic intracranial complications in relation to planned and urgent otosurgical procedures; incidence proportion of intracranial complications in relation to the total number of emergency and planned outpatient consultations and the total number of planned surgical procedures. Results: There were 14 intracranial complications, 5 in the pre-COVID and 9 in the COVID cohort, including 1 and 5 sigmoid sinus thrombosis, respectively. Out of them, 3 and 5 patients reported a prior history of chronic otitis media, respectively. In COVID period, CVST was more prevalent, with 2 cases (22.2%) presenting solitary CVST, and 3 cases (33.3%) CVST and a simultaneous brain abscess or meningitis. CVST was much more frequent in the COVID period (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Despite the published data which suggest that CVST is a rare event associated with COVID-19 infection, based on our experience, CVST can be expected as a frequent component of intracranial otogenic complications during COVID-19 pandemic time. Trial registration This research study was conducted retrospectively from data obtained for clinical purposes. We consulted extensively with the Bioethics Committee at Poznan University of Medical Sciences who determined that our study did not need ethical approval. An official waiver of ethical approval was granted from the Bioethics Committee at Poznan University of Medical Sciences.
Etiopathogenesis of fluoroquinolone-associated disability (FQAD) syndrome is not fully understood, yet research could progress by utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSc) from people with this syndrome. Similarly, iPSc, or rather their derivatives, could be used in their therapy, not only for FQAD but also for other disorders in which generated autologous iPSc and their derivatives might be helpful. Urine was collected from ten donors with FQAD, and reprogramming of these cells was conducted with the use of Epi5TM Episomal iPSC Reprogramming Kit. IPSc were generated in one out of ten person’s urine cells. While urinary cells are considered the easiest mature cells to be reprogrammed into iPSc, the urinary cells from six consecutive donors quickly became senescent. Stable urine primary cell cultures could not be obtained from the three remaining donors. Repeated attempts to reprogram epithelial cells were not successful. During parallel studies conducted for healthy donors, reprogramming success was achieved in six out of ten cases. These data may suggest serious limitations in the regeneration system of individuals with FQAD. Consequently, it indicates that therapy with autologous iPSc derivatives may face serious difficulties in their case, still, the first iPSc cell line from a person with FQAD was established.
The results of calculations of permeability of coal beds by Kozeny-Carman model are reported. The applicability of the model is proven in the case of known total porosity and specific surface of pore volume of fossil coal that are measured by small-angle neutron scattering experiments. By means of the fractal theory, it is shown that when the depth of coal bed increases, the reduction of the fractal dimension results in enlarged volume of macropores that provide enhanced permeability and gas content of deep seated coal beds.
The global climatic trend of the Younger Dryas is clearly registered in the Greenland ice core archives and is printed in terrestrial biogenic deposits. Abiotic landscape components, too, were subjected to changes. The article aims to indicate the dynamics of geomorphological processes activated in response to the cooling and to detect markers of these processes printed within a core of sediments of lacustrine origin and a lake catchment. The article also aims to quantify the extent to which the climate-influenced palaeobotanical record is correlated with local abiotic determinants. The study site lies in an isolated upland location in an old glacial area. The studies include geomorphological and geological analysis of the Younger Dryas palaeolandscape and studies of biogenic deposits of one of the thickest Younger Dryas lacustrine series in Central Poland using biotic proxies and geochemical analysis. A chronology is provided by an age–depth model based on series of radiocarbon datings. The studies demonstrated that for over a thousand years after the beginning of the Younger Dryas (12,653–11,764 modelled cal BP) environmental changes were gradual and thresholds were not exceeded. The morphogenetic processes intensified at the end of the Younger Dryas (11,764–11,533 modelled cal BP) but they also were not catastrophic. The palaeobotanical record is also gradual and reflects the vegetation cover’s smooth adaptation to global climate changes, with three clear phases of vegetation development. However, the stability of the landscape system was disturbed, as supported by changes in organic life registered in the palaeolake. Traces of wildefires suggest the factor that triggered abiotic processes and affected the biotic sphere. A comprehensive regional case study has shown the importance of tracking local conditions to modify a global approach and will contribute to a better understanding of the complex environmental impact of the Younger Dryas.
Greening and green regeneration have been developed as a major strategy for improving quality of life in cities and neighbourhoods. Greening policies and projects are being applied at both the citywide and the neighbourhood level for various reasons, such as adaptation to climate change and the improvement of housing and living conditions as well as wellbeing and health. Urban policies, plans, and programmes have increasingly employed greening strategies to make urban neighbourhoods more attractive, to improve quality of life, and to provide residents with recreational space. At the same time, greening is increasingly “exploited” by market-oriented regeneration and construction strategies. The new critical debates on eco-gentrification—or distributional, procedural, and interactional injustices—are discussing emerging conflicts or trade-offs between green regeneration and the social or housing market impacts, as well as analysing the role of greening and green regeneration with respect to the (re)production of socio-spatial inequalities and injustices. Set against this background, our paper provides a comparative analysis of two cases—Łódź Stare Polesie (Poland) and Leipzig’s inner east (Germany)—and has a threefold purpose: first, it seeks to analyse interconnections between greening policies and justice concerns. To operationalise the aforementioned interconnections, we will, second, develop an operational model that looks at interconnections as a process and applies a justice perspective that focuses on a multidimensional, intersectional, relational, and context- and policy-sensitive understanding of justice. Third, the paper seeks to detect how a contrasting comparison can help us to come to a better and more comprehensive understanding of the interconnections between green regeneration and justice. The study itself builds on primary research about the two cases from earlier projects.
The Białowieża Primeval Forest is one of the most pristine forested and peatland areas in Europe, as recognized by its status as the World Biosphere Reserve. Palaeoecological analyzes offer the possibility of establishing a record of ecosystem change over time, and therefore setting reference conditions for their assessment, protection and restoration. To assess the impact of hydrological changes, fire and pollution (dust, metals from smelting) on peatland and forest ecosystems, we carried out high-resolution, multi-proxy palaeoecological investigations of two peat cores (50 cm long) from nearby locations at a peatland located in the protected area (nature reserve) of the Białowieża Forest (CE Poland). Our study revealed that: i) between about 1780 and 1920 CE high fire activity likely caused by humans led to a partly decline in dwarf shrubs at the sampling sites; ii) between about 1910 and 1930 CE distinctive changes in local and regional plant succession took place that can be considered as a sign of disturbance in the peatland ecosystems; iii) during the last three decades we recorded a recent decrease of trace metals and pollen indicating a decrease in human activity. These changes are synchronous with a decrease of industrial activity and curbing of emission through legislation as well as the ongoing depopulation of villages in E Poland that started in 1990. Our data suggest that even well-preserved peatlands, located in protected areas might be far from their pristine state, predominantly due to disturbance effects from the past still lingering on. Nevertheless, the studied area remains one of the best-preserved forest ecosystems in Europe, despite the negative impact of human activity (deforestation, fires, hunting) over the past few centuries.
Context: Overall survival (OS) benefit from upfront treatment with new over existing approaches has never been shown in first-line (1L) classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). With newer therapies for relapsed/refractory disease, demonstrating improved OS with 1L therapy has been challenging. In ECHELON-1 (NCT01712490), 5-year follow-up analyses supported a long-term progression-free survival (PFS) benefit with 1L brentuximab vedotin, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (A+AVD) vs doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) in patients with stage Ill/IV cHL. A+AVD had a manageable long-term safety profile, with fewer second malignancies and more pregnancies reported vs ABVD (Connors et al, NEJM 2018; Straus et al, Lancet Haematol 2021). We report a prespecified OS analysis after approximately 6 years' follow-up. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive up to 6 cycles of A+AVD (n=664) or ABVD (n=670) on day 1 and 15, every 28 days. Main Outcomes Measures: OS was the key prespecified secondary endpoint. Results: At a median follow-up of 73 months, 39 and 64 deaths occurred in A+AVD and ABVD arms, respectively; OS significantly favored A+AVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.590; 95% confidence interval [Cl] 0.396–0.879; p = 0.009). Estimated 6-year OS rates (95% Cl) were 93.9% (91.6–95.5) vs 89.4% (86.6–91.7) with A+AVD vs ABVD, respectively, with a consistently higher OS across prespecified subgroups. The 6-year PFS estimate was 82.3% (79.1–85.0) vs 74.5% (70.8–77.7) with A+AVD vs ABVD, respectively (HR 0.678 [95% Cl 0.532–0.863]). Overall, A+AVD and ABVD had comparable long-term safety profiles. By the last follow-up, 86% (379/443) of treatment-related peripheral neuropathy cases in the A+AVD arm and 87% (249/286) in the ABVD arm either completely resolved (72% vs 79%, respectively) or were improving (14% vs 8%, respectively). Fewer second malignancies (23 vs 32) and more pregnancies (49 vs 28) were reported in the A+AVD vs ABVD arm, respectively. No new safety signals were identified. Conclusions: In this updated analysis, A+AVD treatment resulted in a 41% reduction in risk of death vs ABVD, with a manageable safety profile. These outcomes are important in advancing treatment of patients with previously untreated stage Ill/IV cHL.
Context: The Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor, zanubrutinib, was designed for high BTK specificity and minimal toxicity. SEQUOIA (NCT03336333) is a global, open-label, randomized phase 3 study in treatment-naïve patients with CLL/SLL without del(17p) who were unsuitable for fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab. Design: Patients were randomized to receive zanubrutinib (160 mg twice daily) or bendamustine (day 1-2: 90 mg/m²) and rituximab (cycle 1: 375 mg/m²; cycles 2-6: 500 mg/m²); stratification factors were age (<65 years vs ≥65 years), Binet Stage, IGHV mutation, and geographic region. Main Outcome Measures: Primary endpoint was an independent review committee (IRC)-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included investigator-assessed (INV) PFS, overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and safety. Results: From October 31, 2017, to July 22, 2019, 479 patients were enrolled (zanubrutinib=241; BR=238). Baseline characteristics (zanubrutinib vs BR): median age, 70.0 years versus 70.0 years; unmutated IGHV, 53.4% versus 52.4%; del(11q), 17.8% versus 19.3%. With median follow-up of 26.2 months, PFS was significantly prolonged with zanubrutinib by IRC (HR 0.42; 2-sided P<.0001) and INV (HR 0.42; 2-sided P=.0001). Zanubrutinib treatment benefit occurred across age, Binet stage, bulky disease, del(11q) status, and unmutated IGHV (HR 0.24; 2-sided P<.0001), but not mutated IGHV (HR 0.67; 2-sided P=.1858). For zanubrutinib versus BR, 24-month PFS-IRC=85.5% versus 69.5%; ORR-IRC=94.6% versus 85.3%; complete response rate=6.6% versus 15.1%; ORR-INV=97.5% versus 88.7%; and 24-month OS=94.3% versus 94.6%. Select adverse event (AE) rates (zanubrutinib vs BR): atrial fibrillation (3.3% vs 2.6%), bleeding (45.0% vs 11.0%), hypertension (14.2% vs 10.6%), infection (62.1% vs 55.9%), and neutropenia (15.8% vs 56.8%). Treatment discontinuation due to AEs (zanubrutinib vs BR)=20 patients (8.3%) versus 31 patients (13.7%); AEs leading to death=11 patients (4.6%) versus 11 patients (4.8%). No sudden deaths occurred. Conclusions: In summary, zanubrutinib significantly improved PFS-IRC versus BR and was well tolerated, supporting the potential utility of frontline zanubrutinib in treatment-naïve CLL/SLL.
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4,191 members
Mariusz Nieniewski
  • Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics
Michal Grabowski
  • Department of Invertebrate Zoology and Hydrobiology
Tomasz Kowalczyk
  • Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Genetics
Grzegorz Mloston
  • Department of Organic and Applied Chemistry
Dariusz Stępiński
  • Department of Cytophysiology
ul. Narutowicza 68, 90-136, Łódź, łódzkie, Poland
Head of institution
Elżbieta Żądzińska
0048 (042) 635 40 00
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