University of Kuala Lumpur
  • Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia
Recent publications
Mushrooms are experiencing a kind of renaissance as a part of the contemporary human diet. These valuable organisms are more than food, they fit in perfectly as a novel market group known as nutra-mycoceuticals. Immune-balancing mushroom dietary fibers and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols are the main focus of the healthcare industry. Wellness and cosmetic companies are increasingly using mushroom extracts rich in these ingredients. This review considers the basic molecular immunomodulatory mechanisms of action of the most commonly used mushroom dietary fibers, β-glucans. The literature data on their bioavailability, metabolic transformations, preclinical and human clinical research, and safety are discussed. Immunomodulatory mechanisms of polyphenol ingredients are also considered. These molecules present great potential in the design of the new immunity balancer formulations according to their widespread structural diversity. Finally, we draw attention to the perspectives of modern trends in mushroom nutraceutical and cosmeceutical formulations to strengthen and balance immunity.
The aspects of life and industry and also model and principles of business has changed significantly parallel with the phenomena of rapid growth in today’s digital age. In addition, the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) will give significant affects to digital economy. Therefore, in the case of fully utilizing the technology, conventional business systems is highly recommending to replace by ICT which is believed as the best platform that could lead the firm to be more competitive in the current market. On the other hand, one of the factor to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the business is management accounting information (MAI). MAI is a primary information source for planning, decision-making and control which is crucial for business in achieving competitive advantage. The main focus of this study is to investigate the relationship between MAI and performance moderated by digital inclusion among SMEs in Malaysia. Resource Based View (RBV) has been used as the underpinning theory, which expect that digital inclusion moderates the relationship between MAI and performance. The data was collected by survey method using questionnaires and distributed to SMEs in Malaysia. Based on the samples of 338 respondents the study employs Structured Equation Model (SEM) using SmartPLS 3 software to analyze the data. The results reveal that MAI (include broad scope, timeliness and integration) has a positive direct effect on performance. However, there is no evidence that digital inclusion moderating the relationship between MAI and performance. The finding of this study suggest that SMEs in Malaysia should include all information needed in their management accounting system., quickly and effectively disseminate the information to the relevant parties and integrate the information between departments in order to improve the performance of the organization.
A smart contract is a contract that brings together two or more parties that can be programmed electronically and then execute its terms automatically, once certain events or specific conditions are met and it depends on blockchain technology. This paper intends to elucidate this contract at the practical level, and then explains the legal frameworks from Islamic Perspective, by mentioning examples of legal contracts named in Islamic jurisprudence and shows similarities along with an analysis of the jurisprudential problems. The research concluded that there are jurisprudential contracts that are consistent with smart contracts, even in some parts through which the framework of the contract can be constructed from the jurisprudential point of view. The research used the descriptive and analytical method. The researchers concluded that a smart contract can be used in Islamic business framework as long as it meets the requisite legal elements as required under the Shariah principles.
This study intends to conduct a bibliometric analysis in the field of study of optimization in sports by analyzing articles published between 2011 and 2020. In this study, the year’s corresponding to the greatest number of articles published, significant journals, highest cited articles, important authors, and most dominant countries were analyzed. The VOSviewer software was implemented for providing a visualization of co-authorship, intercountry co-authorship, and keywords co-occurrences analysis. A total of 344 articles were retrieved from the Scopus database. In conclusion, this study provides the available literature on optimization in sports over the last 10 years.
Detecting termites in wood structures is complex, and the most available detection methods are potentially damaging to property. The goal of this study is to develop a proof-of-concept termite detection system for an indoor environment. Thermal imaging and microwave radar sensors are used to detect the presence of termites, while a mobile application is used to view the termites’ status using a heat map and a wave pattern. Testing is carried out based on the reliability and efficiency of the two methods for detecting termites. The results show that the thermal camera can detect hot and cold spots on the wooden surface up to 15 cm, while the microwave radar sensor can detect termite movement inside the wood up to 3 cm.
This study deals with the fabrication of composite matrix from Mangrove Bark Activated Carbon (MBAC) and epoxy resin with hardener. The MBAC were made from mangrove bark cut into pieces burn into oven to become charcoal. Then it is drained into strainer to get the small grain size of MBAC. The MBAC with different weight percentage (10–50wt%) are mixing with resin and hardener and laminated on the concrete prototype pile using PVC mold. The investigation on the barnacle growth on MBAC piles were monitored and water absorption was assessed as a function of mixing ratios according to the ASTM D570-98 standard. The barnacles were monitored frequently until 3 months and has been analysed using SCILAB image processing application. Water absorption has been measured after 24 h of immersion in water at 25 °C temperature by using two types of water such as seawater and freshwater. From observation, the results showed that barnacle’s growth is slowed with reduction 64% when MBAC content has been increased from 10 to 50 wt.% into the matrix. Types of seawater shows higher water absorption with increased 18% compared to freshwater as the nature mangrove that absorption when compared with freshwater type. Thus, these results could be indicated that the fabrication of MBAC and epoxy resin would technically feasible use for pilejax for rehabilitation jetty and others marine application.
Background Poor academic performance and failure can cause undesired effects for students, schools, and society. Understanding why some students fail while their peers succeed is important to enhance student performance. Therefore, this study explores the differences in the learning process between high- and low-achieving pre-clinical medical students from a theory of action perspective. Methods This study employed a qualitative instrumental case study design intended to compare two groups of students—high-achieving students (n = 14) and low-achieving students (n = 5), enrolled in pre-clinical medical studies at the Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. Data were collected through reflective journals and semi-structured interviews. Regarding journaling, participants were required to recall their learning experiences of the previous academic year. Two analysts coded the data and then compared the codes of high- and low-achieving students. The third analyst reviewed the codes. Themes were identified iteratively, working towards comparing the learning processes of high- and low-achieving students. Results Data analysis revealed four themes—motivation and expectation, study methods, self-management, and flexibility of mindset. First, high-achieving students were more motivated and had higher academic expectations than low-achieving students. Second, high-achieving students adopted study planning and deep learning approaches, whereas low-achieving students adopted superficial learning approaches. Third, in contrast to low-achieving students, high-achieving students exhibited better time management and studied consistently. Finally, high-achieving students proactively sought external support and made changes to overcome challenges. In contrast, low-achieving students were less resilient and tended to avoid challenges. Conclusion Based on the theory of action, high-achieving students utilize positive governing variables, whereas low-achieving students are driven by negative governing variables. Hence, governing variable-based remediation is needed to help low-achieving students interrogate the motives behind their actions and realign positive governing variables, actions, and intended outcomes. • Key Messages • This study found four themes describing the differences between high- and low-achieving pre-clinical medical students: motivation and expectation, study methods, self-management, and flexibility of mindset. • Based on the theory of action approach, high-achieving pre-clinical medical students are fundamentally different from their low-achieving peers in terms of their governing variables, with the positive governing variables likely to have guided them to act in a manner beneficial to and facilitating desirable academic performance. • Governing variable-based remediation may help students interrogate the motives of their actions.
Penjom deposit is an orogenic gold deposit located in the Central Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. Gold mineralization is associated with various styles and textures of quartz‐carbonate veins hosted within the metasedimentary as the main host rock and felsic igneous rock including minor volcanic rock. Vein textural features and morphologies have been investigated based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics to understand the process of veins formation, and the relationship with gold mineralization. At the hand specimen scale, veins show a variety of textures that are either primary or superimposed. Primary textures are comb, massive anhedral buck quartz veins, and laminae veins or vein septa representing early vein introduction without vein modification. Extension veins that are normally concordant to maximum compressive stress direction show either a common comb texture within these veins or buck texture inside thick veins. Secondary textures are ribbon, stylolites, breccias, and late spider veinlets that overprint early veins formed during repeated structural episodes. Later stage deformation events superimposed on the existing veins texture results in intensely deformed veins. The interrelationship of structure, vein‐type and texture, gold and sulfide mineralogy have been correlated to constrain the episodes of gold mineralization in the Penjom deposit. Characteristics of vein textures indicate physio‐environment under confining lithostatic pressure where fluids filled the space through crack and sealing mechanism. Vein systems and gold mineralization events that have been correlated with the D2D3 (fold‐fault) deformation events and inferred to be temporally related to the late‐stage regional orogenic event dated Late Triassic‐Early Jurassic that affected Peninsular Malaysia. Several style of vein textures reflect different structural control. Folding and thrust activity related to the shear vein and associated extension vein. Faulting reactivate and produce breccia vein and later fault displace the early vein system.
Palm oil is an incredibly efficient crop, but our dependence on this crop as a primary biodiesel feedstock has threatened food insecurity as it is still perceived as the main source for vegetable oil throughout the world rather than being utilized for fuel. Therefore, the idea of utilizing non-edible food crops and waste vegetable oils could help to overcome the major problems faced by the first generation of biodiesel feedstock. In this study, a ternary oil mixture comprises 50 vol% of waste cooking oil, 15 vol% of Jatropha curcas oil and 35 vol% of palm oil were premixed and developed into biodiesel via esterification and microwave irradiation-assisted transesterification using a modified household microwave in the presence of methanol and potassium hydroxide catalyst. The parameters affecting biodiesel yield were optimized via response surface methodology based on central composite design. The operating parameters were optimized at 0.78 wt% of catalyst concentration, 9.86:1 of methanol/oil molar ratio, 10.5 min of reaction time and 478 rpm of stirring speed with the predicted and experimental yields are at 96.81 and 96.91 %, respectively. The results indicate that the synergistic mixture of ternary oil in WJP biodiesel gives better cold flow properties as well as improves oxidation stability and cetane number.
Bacterial endotoxin contamination in dialysate may pass through haemodialysis membrane and cause a silent chronic microinflammation to kidney patients. Dual-layer hollow fibre (DLHF) membranes with dual function, biocompatible adsorptive and antibacterial effects were developed to solve the problem of incompatible membrane and endotoxin contamination. All membranes were fabricated via the co-extrusion dry-wet phase inversion technique. In this study, silica/α-mangostin nanoparticle was incorporated into the inner layer of membrane to enhance the biocompatibility of the membrane while maintaining its adsorption capacity. Activated carbon (AC) was incorporated in the outer layer of membrane for improved antibacterial property. The DLHF membranes were characterised based on its morphology and surface hydrophilicity. The performance of the DLHF membranes was evaluated in terms of permeability, urea, and creatinine removal capabilities, bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection and antibacterial properties. The dense and small pore size on the outer layer of AC created a smoother surface for the DLHF membrane. The BSA rejection of the DLHF membranes was enhanced by 6–8% compared to that of unmodified single layer hollow fibre membrane. Silica/α-mangostin nanoparticle in the inner layer of membrane enhanced the removal of urea and creatinine by chemisorption. Result also showed that the incorporation of AC in the outer layer of DLHF membrane successfully filtered bacteria by bacteria entrapment. DLHF membrane with the combination of silica/α-mangostin nanoparticle in the inner layer and AC in the outer layer possessed the higher bacteria inhibition into blood compartment against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with removal rate of 68% and 75%, respectively, and better urea and creatinine removal by 60.57% and 75.18%, respectively, compared to single-layer PSf based membrane. The development of co-adsorptive biocompatible DLHF membrane can play an important role in improvement of kidney patient life.
We surveyed primary care physicians in Malaysia for their knowledge, attitude and practice in screening and managing osteoporosis. We found a low level of screening and active management of osteoporosis in the primary care setting despite positive attitudes towards them. We advocate for the active management of osteoporosis at the primary care level. Introduction: Prevention of osteoporotic fracture is important in primary healthcare for healthy ageing. Little is known about the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers in the screening and managing osteoporosis among primary care doctors. Methods: A cross-sectional study, using an online pre-tested questionnaire after face and content validation, was conducted for primary care doctors from 1 June to 30 July 2021 across Malaysia. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression were employed. Results: A total of 350 primary care doctors in Malaysia, consisting of 113 (32.3%) family medicine specialists (FMS) and 237 (67.7%) medical officers, participated in this study. The mean ± SD score of osteoporosis knowledge was 50.46 ± 15.09 with minimum and maximum values of 0 and 83.64%, respectively. One hundred and ten (31.4%) respondents achieved a satisfactory overall knowledge score of ≥ 60%, 156 (44.6%) were confident in advising patients for initiation of anti-osteoporotic medication, and 243 (69.4%) perceived that bisphosphonate should be made available in health clinics. Only 97 (27.7%) practised osteoporosis screening. Inaccessibility of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) (90.6%), inadequate knowledge (87.7%) and inaccessibility of pharmacotherapy (87.1%) are perceived modifiable barriers to osteoporosis screening and management. Factors associated with a satisfactory knowledge of osteoporosis are designation as a family medicine specialist (AOR 3.034, p = 0.002), attendance at an osteoporosis management update course (AOR 2.095, p = 0.034) and the practice of osteoporosis screening for the elderly (AOR 2.767, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Given the insufficient knowledge and low level of osteoporosis screening, there is a need for a national structured health programme to address the knowledge gap, increase screening practices and enhance accessibility to BMD and anti-osteoporosis medication in primary care.
The performance of a metal oxide semiconductor during operation could be hindered significantly due to thermodynamic instability and mismatch between the gate oxide layer and the substrate. Owing to variation in temperature during thermal applications, the thin film layers and substrates in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) structures are subjected to high thermal stresses, which can result in large deformation and failure. In this study, the distribution of heat and thermal stress between the Ho2O3 thin film and the SiC substrate has been simulated numerically with finite element modelling and analysis software (ANSYS). This is necessary to emulate the thermal behaviour of the structure under different thermal loadings, and for each temperature loading, the effects of thermal stress and deformation on the structure were also evaluated. Based on the results of the simulation, an optimum temperature was suggested. The thermal stability and characteristics of the thin film layer/SiC structure were evaluated and validated for better electrical performance.
This research demonstrates mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) and thulium-holmium doped fiber laser (THDFL) using hafnium diselenide (HfSe2) as saturable absorber (SA). The Kelly's sidebands were observed in both spectra, showing that both lasers operated in an anomalous dispersion region. A polarization controller was used to achieve reliable mode-locking operation at a threshold power of ∼46 mW and ∼254 mW for the EDFL and THDFL respectively. The center wavelengths obtained for the EDFL and THDFL were 1557 nm and 1912 nm, respectively. In EDFL, the output soliton generates 0.75 ps of pulse width and a repetition rate of 14.8 MHz, while THDFL has a pulse width of 1.15 ps and a repetition rate of 12.5 MHz. The pulses were highly stable for both gain mediums, verified by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 68 dB and 63 dB for EDFL and THDFL, respectively. In addition, there were no significant changes during the three-hour stability test, suggesting a long-term stability. This work shows a low-cost laser with possible application in C-band and near the 2.0 μm region.
Pollution of phenolic effluent from spice and plastics factories has become increasingly serious. Thus, developing a green and highly efficient adsorbent to remove phenolic compounds from wastewater is of urgent need. In this study, cellulose graft copolymer was synthesized through grafting 4-vinylpyridine monomer and polyethylene glycol methacrylate to a molecular skeleton of cellulose by free radical polymerization. The supramolecular hydrogel was successfully synthesized by physical cross-linking of cellulose graft copolymer and α-cyclodextrin. These supramolecular hydrogels were thoroughly characterized and the adsorption performance (adsorption isotherms and adsorption kinetics) of phenol on the supramolecular hydrogel were investigated in batch operation. The supramolecular hydrogel not only exhibited excellent adsorption of phenol, but also demonstrated increased mechanical strength due to the introduction of a modified cellulose base material. The adsorption kinetics of phenol on the supramolecular hydrogel followed a quasi-second-order reaction, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9909. The adsorption isotherm conformed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacity of phenol can reach 80.71 mg∙g⁻¹, which was 2–3 times higher than traditional carbon-based materials. The results demonstrate the great promise of the waste-derived supramolecular hydrogel to be used as an efficient adsorbent in wastewater treatment.
This study was conducted to recover edible bird’s nest (EBN) hydrolysates from different grades of EBN, including the industrial by-products, using enzymatic treatment. The nutrient, physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the recovered hydrolysates at different hydrolysis times were evaluated. Results showed that the recovery yield of enzymatic hydrolysis was above 89 % for all grades of EBN and the degree of hydrolysis increased over time. Nitrite content (0.321–0.433 mg/L) was below the permissible tolerance level for all samples. Interestingly, the antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities and ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP) activity) were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in hydrolysates recovered from EBN by-products (EBNhC and EBNhD) as compared to the high grade EBN hydrolysates (EBNhA and EBNhB). The in-vitro probiotic activity of EBN and its hydrolysates were examined using the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum. Evidently, EBN by-products hydrolysate (EBNhD) recorded the highest number of L. plantarum (1.1 × 10¹¹ CFU/mL), indicating that low grade EBN has the potential as prebiotic material that promotes probiotic activity. This study demonstrated the concept of using EBN by-products hydrolysates for various applications, such as functional ingredients with enhanced bioactivities, to improve its economic value.
In order to progress towards a more sustainable energy future, Malaysia should reduce its reliance on fossil-based energy sources and shifting to green and renewable energy. Therefore, focus on energy education awareness programmes emphasising sustainable behaviours and frameworks are required. These programmes connect with Sustainable Development Goal 7 of the United Nations, which is to provide affordable and clean energy. In this study, dimensions and indicators of a framework for energy education were studied and evaluated in an effort to improve decision making. This study systematic approach comprised a review of relevant literature and consultation with an ad hoc panel of energy education experts via surveys, interviews, and questionnaires. This study also included an analytic hierarchy process to evaluate the framework’s criteria selection, alternative indicators, and priority or weights. The results indicated that the “Aim to minimise climate change” dimension is deemed the most essential criterion for selecting energy education dimension criteria. On the other hand, “National policy makers” is the most essential stakeholder across all parties. It has been determined that the use of analytic hierarchy process to the design of the framework for energy education in Malaysia could help simplifies a systematic decision-making process.
In many universities, peer mentoring is a popular practice aiming to ease cultural transition for newcomers. Despite the ubiquity of such practice, the factors involved in short-term mentoring programmes and how they relate to mentoring outcomes remain under-researched in Malaysia. This collective case study aims to address this gap by exploring the factors shaping participants’ intercultural mentoring practice in a one-month programme. Interviews were conducted with ten participants comprising equal numbers of Korean mentees and local mentors, backed up by observations. Subsequently, five factors were identified: interest in cultural exchange, building rapport, obstacles to meeting, group conformity, and language accessibility, together highlighting the key role of meaningful intercultural communication in achieving the mentoring objectives. Through the lens of activity theory (Engeström, 2001, 2015), this study helps to shed light on the dynamics of successful mentoring practice shaped by undercurrents from the institution, the local context, cultural variation, and personal characteristics of the participants.
The floating oscillating water column (FOWC) is an interesting wave energy extraction device attributable to its ability to be used in vast areas of the ocean, especially in offshore regions with large energy reserves. However, high construction costs render the technology less competitive when compared to other energy extraction systems. Adding a breakwater to the FOWC in a hybrid system helps to overcome this problem. Although many recent studies have focused on the hydrodynamic performance of a WEC-breakwater hybrid system, there is a dearth of research about a FOWC-breakwater hybrid system. This study looks into the hydrodynamic performance of a FOWC-breakwater hybrid system. Variables such as the wave period, gap between FOWC and breakwater, and breakwater size were tested to determine the optimal performance. A numerical wave tank with a k-epsilon turbulence model was used to calculate hydrodynamic coefficients such as the reflection, amplification, pressure, and transmission coefficients, energy extraction efficiency, gap wave elevation, and gap velocity ratio. The results demonstrate that the optimal performance for the studied FOWC-breakwater hybrid system was obtained for the highest wave frequency or lowest wave period, from the ranges studied. As for the FOWC-breakwater gap and breakwater size, a narrow gap and a small breakwater size, from the ranges studied, show a more favorable result.
Mangroves continue to be extensively replaced for alternative land uses despite global recognition of their value for ecosystem services. Limited effort has been directed into understanding how changes in mangrove ecosystems affect human well-being, especially in Asia. Using the inhabited Klang Islands, Selangor, Malaysia as a case study, this paper explores the relationships between mangrove ecosystem services and human well-being by adapting and modifying three existing conceptual frameworks. Semi-structured interviews with island residents were conducted to explore mangroves’ contribution to human well-being. Analysis revealed that respondents recognised examples of regulating, cultural, and provisioning ecosystem services resulted from their interaction with mangroves. While all three ecosystem services contributed to both basic human needs and subjective well-being, provisioning and cultural services were reported to also contribute to economic needs and regulating services, more strongly to environmental needs. These findings contribute to more inclusive decision-making processes concerning development and conservation planning in the fast-urbanised Klang which would affect the overall well-being of the communities in general, largely the Malay, Chinese and Mah Meri communities, and the fishers specifically.
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7,665 members
Sreenivas Sisinthy Patro
  • Royal College of Medicine Perak
Chean Ring Leong
  • Malaysian Institute of Chemical and Bio-Engineering Technology
Marzida Mansor
  • Royal College of Medicine Perak
Raja Rehan
  • Business School
Kushsairy Kadir
  • Section for Electrical Engineering
1016, Jalan Sultan Ismail, 50250, Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Shahrulniza Musa
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