In this work, a numerical method for the singularly perturbed parabolic convection–diffusion turning point problem with Robin boundary condition was developed. The solution to the considered problem has a boundary layer on the left side of the domain. The present method comprises an implicit trapezoidal method for time discretization on a uniform mesh and second-order central difference schemes for space discretization on a Shishkin mesh. The resultant scheme has been shown that the numerical approximation converges uniformly to the solution of the continuous problem regardless of the diffusion parameter. Finally, to validate the resultant scheme, numerical experiments were performed.
Background: The cardiovascular crisis is advancing rapidly throughout the world. A large number of studies have shown that plant polyphenols affect major mechanisms involved in cardiovascular events through their action on the antioxidant system, signaling, and transcription pathways. D-limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene obtained from citrus fruits, is reported to possess many pharmacological activities. Methods: The experiment was designed to determine the protective effect of D-limonene against cardiac injury induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats. Rats were treated with two doses of D-limonene against cardiac injury induced by CCl4. Serum toxicity markers, cardiac toxicity biomarker enzymes, inflammatory mediators, anti-oxidant armory, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histology were done. Results: CCl4 intoxication resulted in a substantial rise in FFA, TC, TG, PL, LDL, VLDL, and a reduction in HDL, restoring these changes with the administration of D-limonene at a dosage of 200 mg/kg. CCl4 administration also resulted in lipid oxidation and decreased antioxidant activity. At the same time, D-limonene at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight inhibited LPO and restored in vivo antioxidant components to normal. CCl4 intoxication also resulted in a significant increase in inflammatory markers like IL-6, TNF-α, high sensitivity Corticotropin Releasing Factor (Hs-CRF), and biomarkers of cardiac toxicity like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), and Troponin I & troponin-t activities. D-limonene reversed all these changes to normal. Histology further confirmed our obtained results. Conclusion: These findings indicate that D-limonene can ameliorate cardiac injury at a 200 mg/kg body weight dosage. Henceforth, D-Limonene intervenes in mediating CCl4 induced toxicity by various signaling pathways. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Objective Isolating high-quality RNA is a basic requirement while performing high throughput sequencing, microarray, and various other molecular investigations. However, it has been quite challenging to isolate RNA with absolute purity from plants like Crocus sativus that are rich in secondary metabolites, polysaccharides, and other interfering compounds which often irreversibly co-precipitate with the RNA. While many methods have been proposed for RNA extraction including CTAB, TriZol, and SDS-based methods, which invariably yield less and poor quality RNA and hence it necessitated the isolation of high-quality RNA suitable for high throughput applications. Results In the present study we made certain adjustments to the available protocols including modifications in the extraction buffer itself and the procedure employed. Our method led to the isolation of clear and non-dispersive total RNA with an RNA Integrity Number (RIN) value greater than 7.5. The quality of the RNA was further assessed by qPCR-based amplification of mRNA and mature miRNAs such as Cs-MIR166c and Cs-MIR396a.
In this paper, we establish some new inequalities in the complex plane that are inspired by some classical Turán-type inequalities that relate the norm of a univariate complex coefficient polynomial and its derivative on the unit disk. The obtained results produce various inequalities in the supremum-norm and in the integral-norm of a polynomial that are sharper than the previous ones while taking into account the placement of the zeros and some of the extremal coefficients of the underlying polynomial. Moreover, our results besides derive polar derivative analogues of some classical Turán-type inequalities also include several interesting generalizations and refinements of some integral inequalities for polynomial as well. Some numerical examples are given in order to graphically illustrate and compare the obtained inequalities with some classical results.
The municipal solid waste land filling results in generation of highly toxic leachate that has significant impacts on different components of environment. Various processes are available for the treatment of landfill leachate; however, biological treatment is considered as the environmentally friendly technology. In this context, the present study was undertaken to isolate landfill bacteria and evaluate their leachate degradation potential. The physicochemical analysis of leachate samples revealed that the leachate was highly concentrated with values of different parameters above the permissible limit. Further, the biological analysis resulted in the isolation of five morphologically different bacterial isolates at lower ambient temperature and they were screened via their degradation potential of leachate samples. The flask containing the leachate and inoculated with the isolate LF3 showed significantly (p < 0.05) maximum percentage of reduction of different physicochemical parameters, viz. EC (89.2%), BOD (87.3%), COD (90.6%), TKN (86.6%) and TP (95.0%) after 48 h. Based on biochemical and 16SrRNA sequence analysis, the isolate LF3 was identified as Bacillus pumilus with similarity of 98%. The application of isolate LF3 was found to be a viable strategy for biological treatment of landfill leachate in vitro and might potentially be encouraged for large-scale waste water treatment. The biological treatment of landfill leachate is an environmental and economically friendly technology.The naturally available bacterial population possess an efficient leachate degradation potential through their adaptive capacity.The bacterial isolate LF3 displayed maximum leachate degradation potential after 48 h of treatment period by showing significantly highest % reduction of physicochemical characteristics (COD, BOD, TN, TP) of leachate samples.The parameters of the biologically treated leachate in the present study were well within the standards given by MSW management rules, 2016. The biological treatment of landfill leachate is an environmental and economically friendly technology. The naturally available bacterial population possess an efficient leachate degradation potential through their adaptive capacity. The bacterial isolate LF3 displayed maximum leachate degradation potential after 48 h of treatment period by showing significantly highest % reduction of physicochemical characteristics (COD, BOD, TN, TP) of leachate samples. The parameters of the biologically treated leachate in the present study were well within the standards given by MSW management rules, 2016.
This study examines the determinants of international tourism demand in India using time series data from 1991-2019 from the top 15 source tourist countries. To do this, the study employed an augmented gravity model estimated using a two-step panel fixed-effect model to identify the factors affecting tourism demand in India. These factors include the income of both India and its origin countries. The domestic exchange rate of both India and the source country is included to capture the impact of the cost of living and prices of goods and services. Supporting variables like distance, common border, and common language between India and source of origin country were also identified. Further, it includes the impact of similarity and common membership to SAARC. Empirical results indicate that the level of Indian income, language, and similarity have a positive impact on tourism inflow to India. On the other hand distance and the domestic exchange rate of India have negative impacts. Further, the income level of origin countries has a significant positive impact. Also, common membership to SAARC and the common border between India and the origin country have a significant positive impact on tourism demand in India. Furthermore, international demand for Indian tourism is not affected by the relative price in the origin country.
Reliable predictions of future distribu- tion ranges of ecologically important species in response to climate change are required for develop- ing efective management strategies. Here we used an ensemble modelling approach to predict the dis- tribution of three important species of Abies namely, Abies pindrow, Abies spectabilis and Abies densa in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region under the current and two shared socioeconomic pathways (SSP245 and SSP585) and time periods of 2050 and 2090s. A correlative ensemble model using presence/absence data of the three Abies species and 22 environmen- tal variables, including 19 bioclimatic variables and 3 topographic variables, from known distributions was built to predict the potential current and future distri- bution of these species. The individual models used to build the fnal ensemble performed well and pro- vided reliable results for both the current and future distribution of all three species. For A. pindrow, pre- cipitation of the driest month (Bio14) was the most important environmental variable with 83.3% contri- bution to model output while temperature seasonality (Bio4) and annual mean diurnal range (Bio2) were the most important variables for A. spectabilis and A. densa with 48.4% and 46.1% contribution to fnal model output, respectively. Under current climatic conditions, the ensemble models projected a total suitable habitat of about 433,003 km2 , 790,837 km2 and 676,918 km2 for A. pindrow, A. spectabilis and A. densa, respectively, which is approximately 10.36%, 18.91% and 16.91% of the total area of Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Projections of habitat suitability under future climate scenarios for all the shared soci- oeconomic pathways showed a reduction in poten- tially suitable habitats with a maximum overall loss of approximately 14% of the total suitable area of A. pindrow under SSP 8.5 by 2090. A decline in total suitable habitat is predicted to be 9.6% in A. specta- bilis by 2090 under the SSP585 scenario while in A. densa 6.67% loss in the suitable area is expected by 2050 under the SSP585 scenario. Furthermore, there is no elevational change predicted in the case of A. pindrow while A. spectabilis is expected to show an upward shift by about 29 m per decade and A. densa is showing a downward shift at a rate of 11 m per dec- ade. The results are interesting, and intriguing given the occurrence of these species across the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. Thus, our study underscores the need for consideration of unexpected responses of species to climate change and formulation of strate- gies for better forest management and conservation of important conifer species, such as A. pindrow, A. spectabilis and A. densa.
As the run-of-river (RoR) hydropower projects remain understudied, we conducted this study to understand how these projects affect the hydro-chemical dynamics and water quality index (WQI) of the Sindh River in the Kashmir Himalayas. We used multivariate statistical techniques and WQI to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics of 18 physico-chemical parameters from 11 sampling stations distributed along the length of river Sindh from December 2017 to December 2019. The dataset was classified into three groups using hierarchical cluster analysis based on similarities between hydro-chemical characteristics, and the results were confirmed by discriminant analysis. Wilk’s quotient distribution further showed that ions, nutrients, free carbon dioxide, water temperature, and pH contributed to the formation of clusters. Principle component analysis revealed that the chloride (Cl−), total phosphorus (TP), ortho-phosphorus (PO4–P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3–N), nitrite-nitrogen (NO2–N), and sulfate ion (SO42−) are significant factors that influence the water quality. Furthermore, our results suggest that diverting water for RoR operation did not significantly raise the WQI value to the point where water in the bypassed reaches could be declared unfit for drinking. Our analysis concluded that inclusive assessments are vital for framing policies on expanding RoR hydropower in the region.
The ethnic knowledge of alternative medicines of Tehsil Uri was documented for its diverse eco-edaphic and floral features. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaire, face-to-face interviews, and group discussions. The 573 informants were selected through snowball sampling. For quantification of the data Relative Importance Index (RII), Relative Frequency Citation (RFC) and Use Value (UV) were used. A total of 97 medicinal plants were reported for their medicinal values. The informants of age 40 years or above were more knowledgeable. Most of the local people (73.08%) used medicinal plants to cure digestive problems. The dominant family was Asteraceae (N = 16) and the most dominant life form was herb (73 Sp.). Leaves (38 Sp.) were the most commonly used plant part and decoction (N = 22) was the most common mode of preparation. The highest RFC value was reported for Juglans regia (0.88); the highest RII value was obtained for Achillea millefolium (0.97), and Punica granatum had the highest UV of 0.100. ARTICLE HISTORY
Odd-mass nuclei are the excellent candidates for studying the possible structure variations which are away from the valley of stability. Highly deformed odd-mass nuclei have been found in the A∼110 mass region, provide opportunities to study the deformed rotational bands. The description of the odd-mass 103-117Ag isotopes with the projected shell model is presented in this paper. Calculations are comprehensively performed for the quasi-particle excitations. Reasonable agreement between theory and experiment is obtained which supports the adequacy of the parameters and the configuration used for the calculation and some important characteristics of these nuclei are discussed which include the kinetic moment of inertia 2J(1), backbending effects, E-GOS plots, AMR, etc.
In an era of climate change, quantifying forest biomass and carbon stock along elevational gradients in moun- tainous areas assumes immediate relevance for carbon budgeting and forest management. Here, we carried out extensive field studies to quantify the tree biomass and carbon stock of major forest types along a wide eleva- tional gradient (350–3450 m) in Jammu and Kashmir, a region located in the northwestern Himalaya. We adopted a stratified random cluster sampling approach to generate ground-based data on structural variables (diameter at breast height-DBH, stem height, basal area, stem density, species richness), and quantified biomass and carbon stock volume using allometric equations in 12 major forest types in the region. We found a significant difference in all the tree structural variables among the forest types. Our results show a significantly positive correlation between DBH and height, but a significantly negative correlation of stem density with DBH and height. We observed a higher basal area in the forest types between 1750 and 3350 m elevation, with the highest value (104.4 ± 29.0) found in Fir forest. We also found higher stem density values at mid- and high-elevations in comparison to low-elevation, but the trend was inconsistent. To evaluate the influence of elevation on the structural attributes, we fitted a Linear Regression Model (LM) for each variable, followed by F-test. We observed a significant effect (p < 0.008) of elevation on all the forest tree structural variables, species richness, biomass and carbon stock. All these variables, except species richness, showed a positive relationship with elevation. We found the highest aboveground-, belowground-, total biomass, and carbon stock in the forest types at high elevation above 1750 m. The most significant tree species in terms of biomass and carbon stock contribution was Abies pindrow, followed by Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii, thus making them suitable tree species for forest conservation and restoration in this Himalayan region. Principal component analysis of anthropogenic distur- bances revealed the fire mostly associated with the forest types dominated by P. roxburghii, stem cutting with those dominated by C. deodara, P. wallichiana and A. pindrow, and grazing with the high-elevation forest types. Overall, our study unravels the patterns of forest carbon stock along a wide elevational gradient in this Hima- layan region, with immediate implications for climate change mitigation policy and practice in mountainous landscapes.
Conventional machine learning techniques may have lesser performance when they deal with complex data. For addressing this issue, it is important to build data mining frameworks coupled with robust knowledge discovery mechanisms. One of such frameworks, which addresses these issues is ensemble learning. It fuses data, builds models and mines data into a single framework. In spite of the work done on ensemble learning, there remain issues like how to manage the complexity, how to optimize the model, and how to fine-tune the model. Natural data processing schemes use parallel processing and are robust and efficient, hence are successful. Taking a cue from natural data processing architectures, we propose a parallelized CNN tree ensemble approach. The proposed approach is compared against the baseline which is the deep network used in the ensemble. The ResNet50 architecture is utilized for initial experimentation. The datasets used for this task are the ImageNet and natural images datasets. The proposed approach outperforms the baseline on all experiments on the ImageNet dataset. Further, benchmarking of the proposed approach against different types of CNNs is done on various datasets including CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, Fashion-MNIST, FEI face recognition, and MNIST digits. Since our approach is adaptable for CNNs, it outperforms the baseline CNNs as well as the state-of-the-art techniques on these datasets. The CNNs architectures used for benchmarking are ResNet-50, DenseNet, WRN-28-10 and NSGANetV1. The code for the paper is available in https://github.com/mueedhafiz1982/CNNTreeEnsemble.git.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.), a millet with a smaller genome and shorter life cycle, growing in arid and semi-arid areas, is severely affected by salt stress with reduced biomass and yield. In this study, we report that salt stress poses deleterious effects on foxtail millet and in response foxtail millet shows flexibility in terms of decarboxylation under salt stress conditions. Our results indicate a significant increase in enzymatic activities as well as the expression levels of genes encoding NADP-Malic Enzyme (NADP-ME), NAD-Malic Enzyme (NAD-ME), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), NADP-Malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH), NAD-Malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH), Alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) under salt stress. Thereby, suggesting that foxtail millet switches to mixed mode of decarboxylation mechanisms for better adaptability under salt stress. We also report that lower doses of selenium (Se) alleviated the effects of salinity. 1 µM Se supplementation enhanced the activity and gene expression of NADP-ME, NAD-ME, NADP-MDH, NAD-MDH and AlaAT. The gene expression and the activity of ATP-dependent PEPCK and AspAT were reduced by Se, making the process more energy-efficient. Hence, suggests that Se alleviated the deleterious effects of salinity by enhancing the mixed mode of decarboxylation in energy-efficient way.
The current article aims to analyse the effectiveness of the conversion of the Siachen Glacier into a peace park on India–Pakistan relations. It further investigates how the peace park can build mutual understanding leading to cooperation and peace between the two countries. The article presents the conceptual framework for adequate supervision of the Siachen Glacier jointly by India and Pakistan to mitigate the existing tensions and conflicts through tourism within the context of the tourism–peace nexus and peace park concept. The Siachen Peace Park proposition offers an amazing way out for the policymakers to diffuse tensions between the military establishments of India and Pakistan. Both the nations have been losing the lives of their soldiers among the snow-capped peaks not due to any gunfight but mainly because of climatic extremities and frostbite. The suggestion of the Siachen Peace Park has been explicated with the help of a four-stage peace park conversion model conceived by the authors, which gives a conceptual understanding of the outcomes of this Peace Park for both countries.
In the context of chronic viral infections, the hepatic microenvironment dictates the outcome of the disease by influencing propagation of virus and regulation of cytotoxic CD8 + T cell response. Nevertheless, such regulation could be beneficial as it resolves the disease or could be detrimental as it causes liver pathological consequences. Liver pathology is a hallmark of chronic viral infection in both human and murine models. Such models show viral infection of hepatocytes and subsequent direct hepatic damage. Other compelling studies showed that liver injury was a consequence of overshooting CD8 + T cells response in experimental mice, so-called immune-mediated liver pathology. This review highlights the viral-induced immune mediated aspects of liver pathology based on the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Hepatitis virus settings.
Background Environmental noise is a pervasive pollutant that is one of the greatest environmental threats to mental, physiological and psychological well-being and has a significant global health burden associated with it. Many epidemiological studies indicate long-term relationship of noise pollution with wide range of metabolic, cardio-vascular and respiratory disorders and diseases. Objective The goal of this study was to thoroughly analyse available literature on public health implications and various underlying biological mechanisms associated with ambient noise exposure, taking into account both objective and subjective measures of noise exposure. Methods A search of literature for review on environmental noise and associated cardiovascular, mental health and metabolic implications on human health was done using Web of Science, Google Scholar and PubMed databases. Discussion Experimental studies indicate that noise exposure leads to endocrine effects, increased incidence of diabetes, impairment of cognitive performance, sleep disturbance and annoyance. Epidemiological evidence indicates that high levels of noise, particularly at night, may cause arterial hypertension and endothelial dysfunction due to higher level of stress hormones and oxidative stress. An increased incidence of cardio-vascular diseases like myocardial infarction, heart rate, ischemic heart disease, stroke and heart failure is associated with noise-induced mental stress. Furthermore, psychological and mental health issues like anxiety and depression are also related with exposure to noise pollution. Conclusion This article summarises a comprehensive and systematic knowledge established in recent noise research with the spotlight on cardiovascular, metabolic and mental health disorders of environmental noise, providing unique understanding into underlying mechanisms.
Apple scab is caused by an ascomycete fungus, Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., which is one of the most severe disease of apple (Malus × Domestica Borkh.) worldwide. The disease results in 30–40% fruit loss annually and even complete loss in some places. Owing to the evolving susceptibility of resistant apple genotypes harboring R-genes to new variants of V. inaequalis, a comparative transcriptome analysis using Illumina (HiSeq) platform of three scab-resistant (Florina, Prima, and White Dotted Red) and three susceptible (Ambri, Vista Bella, and Red Delicious) apple genotypes was carried out to mine new scab resistance genes. The study led to the identification of 822 differentially expressed genes in the tested scab-resistant and scab-susceptible apple genotypes. The most upregulated genes uniformly expressed in resistant varieties compared to susceptible ones were those coding for 17.3 kDa class II heat shock protein-like, chaperone protein ClpB1, glutathione S-transferase L3-like protein, B3 domain-containing protein At3g18960-like, transcription factor bHLH7, zinc finger MYM-type protein 1-like, and nine uncharacterized proteins, besides three lncRNAs. The genes that were downregulated in susceptible and upregulated in resistant cultivars were those coding for non-specific lipid transfer protein GPI-anchored 1, rust resistance kinase Lr10-like, disease resistance protein RPS6-like, and many uncharacterized proteins. DESeq2 analysis too revealed 20 DEGs that were upregulated in scab-resistant cultivars. Furthermore, a total of 361 genes were significantly upregulated in scab-susceptible variety, while 461 were found downregulated (P value < 0.05 and Log2 (FC) > 1). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to various pathways, i.e., metabolic, protein processing, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, plant hormone signal transduction, autophagy, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, plant-pathogen interaction, lipid metabolism, and protein modification pathways. Real-time expression of a set of selected twelve DEGs further validated the results obtained from RNA-seq. Overall, these findings lay the foundation for investigating the genetic basis of apple scab resistance and defense pathways that might have a plausible role in governing scab resistance in apple against V. inaequalis.
Seawater ingress is a widespread environmental issue posing threat to the fresh groundwater reserves of the coastal aquifers of Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI) particularly after the great Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004, and the comprehensive investigations of seawater ingress in this region are relatively uncommon. In this context, the spatial distribution and vertical movement of seawater ingress in the coastal and catchment areas were mapped using geo-spatial techniques and the extensive geoelectrical resistivity surveys (96 vertical electric soundings (VES) and profiling) along and across the identified and affected coastlines. The geoelectrical surveys unravels very low resistivity formations (≤10 Ω m) at varying depths interpreted as the lateral and vertical intrusion of seawater. The hydro-chemical and other physical analyses of groundwater samples reveal critical concentrations of the different major elements and other physical parameters like TDS, pH as well the EC above its permissible limit for drinking water standards. The integrated approach allows to delineate the site specific hydrogeological setting including the saline/fresh aquifer geometry (transition zone) and stratigraphic−geomorphological reconstruction of coastal aquifers. Further, various assessment parameters including very low formation resistivity, surface manifestation of salt tolerant plants, high chloride concentration, low formation factor and high ionic strength were employed to infer the various levels of contamination. The present study show that impact of seawater intrusion is intense in sedimentary formations than Ophiolite suite and needs site specific mitigation measure to prevent further deterioration of aquifer health.
Over the past few decades, many countries have attempted to carry out forest landscape restoration over millions of hectares of degraded land. Such efforts, however, have met with limited success because of several factors, including a lack of adequate emphasis on ectomycorrhization of the nursery seedlings. A similar scenario is seen in the Kashmir Himalaya, where the natural regeneration of degraded forests is poor despite ample restoration efforts by forest managers. To overcome this challenge, we identified two promising ectomycorrhizal species, namely Clitocybe nuda and Cortinarius distans , for their use in ectomycorrhization of seedlings of three common conifers, namely Abies pindrow , Cedrus deodara , and Picea smithiana . Laboratory studies were carried out to investigate the requirements for optimum mycelial growth of these ectomycorrhizal fungi. Best ECM mycelial growth was obtained in the basic MMN medium containing glucose as the source of carbon and nitrogen in ammonium form. C. distans showed higher growth than C. nuda across all the treatments and also proved significantly more effective in enhancing the survival and growth of the conifer host plant seedlings. The present study resulted in standardizing the requirements for mass inoculum production of the two mycobionts which could help in successful forest restoration programmes.
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