University of Kashmir
  • Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Recent publications
Expanding population, industrialization and inadequate agricultural practices are complementing the ongoing environmental challenges and abiotic stressors. Heavy metals (HMs) are among the most common and hazardous pollutants and are posing a consistent threat to a plethora of crop plants as well as to the human population. However, plants produce certain endogenous molecules that vary from reactive oxygen species (ROS), phosphorylation cascades, phytohormones, and some of the gaseous signaling transmitters/gasotransmitters (GTs). GTs including methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have witnessed among the most potential gaseous signaling molecules which are well known to participate in the plant development as well as in the heavy metal stress amelioration. This chapter reviews the potential roles of GTs, their signaling cascades, and cross-talks between different GTs under heavy metal stress conditions.
Hurricanes can trigger widespread landslides and flooding creating compound hazards and multiple risks for vulnerable populations. An example is the island of Dominica in the Caribbean, where the population lives predominantly along the coast close to sea level and is subject to storm surge, with steep topography rising behind, with a propensity for landslides and flash river flooding. The simultaneous occurrence of the multiple hazards amplifies their impacts and couples with physical and social vulnerabilities to threaten lives, livelihoods, and the environment. Neglecting compound hazards underestimates overall risk. Using a whole island macroscale, (level-I) analysis, susceptibility scenarios for hurricanes, triggered landslides, and floods were developed by incorporating physical process parameters. The susceptibilities were combined with vulnerability indicators to map spatial patterns of hurricane multi-risks in Dominica. The analysis adopted a coupled approach involving the frequency ratio (FR), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and geographic information system (GIS). Detailed hazard modelling was done at selected sites (level-II), incorporating storm surge estimates, landslide runout simulations, and steady flow analysis for floods. High-resolution terrain data and simulation models, the Rapid Mass Movement Simulation (RAMMS) and the hydrologic engineering center’s river analysis system (HEC-RAS), were employed. Ground validation confirmed reasonable agreement between projected and observed scenarios across different spatial scales. Following the United Nations Office for disaster risk reduction (UNDRR) call for the inclusion of local, traditional, and indigenous knowledge, feedback, and expert opinion to improve understanding of disaster risk, 17 interviews with local experts and 4 participatory workshops with residents were conducted, and findings were incorporated into the analysis, so as to gain insights into risk perceptions. The study’s outcomes encompass projections and quantification of hurricane compound hazards, vulnerabilities, accumulated risks, and an understanding of local priorities. These findings will inform decision-making processes for risk mitigation choices and community actions by providing a new framework for multi-hazard risk assessment that is easy to implement in combining different data forms.
Cities and metropolitan areas are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including rising temperatures and extreme weather events. One of the most significant impacts of climate change on urban areas is the urban heat island effect, which occurs when a particular area in cities experiences higher temperatures than its surrounding areas owing to human activity and the built environment. Urban greenspaces play an influential role in regulating and mitigating to eliminate these adverse effects. This study presents a novel approach to develop a mathematical model to estimate the greenspace requirements based on the reduction of land surface temperature. This mathematical model is developed to estimate the greenspace requirement based on literature-based evidence and an observed data set considering the impact of green spaces on reducing the average land surface temperature. The study employed the curve fitting method to generate the coefficient of the twenty equations on the observed data set. Out of the generated equations, 14 equations are selected based on a high R² value. To predict greenspace area based on temperature drop, these 14 equations are further validated. The best-fitted equation is selected based on a high r² value, lower root means square value (RMSE) and mean absolute error value (MAE). As a result, the third Order Polynomial Equation is considered as the greenspace area is the function of land surface temperature based on its High r² Value (0.89), RMSE value i.e.,14.49 and MAE value, i.e., 9.61. The equation can then be used to estimate the required greenspace area to achieve a desired LST reduction in a given area. The resulting model provides valuable information for urban planners and policymakers to create liveable and sustainable cities that incorporate sufficient green spaces for temperature regulation. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for further research to better understand the effectiveness of urban greenspaces in mitigating temperature drop.
The empirical relationship between tourism inflow and international trade has been explored during recent years, supporting the argument that international tourism inflow promotes international trade between countries. However, the impact of international tourism inflow on agricultural exports has been neglected within standard agricultural trade models such as agricultural exports function and gravity model. The main aim of the article is to provide theoretical and empirical evidence that international tourism inflow matters for agricultural trade. The study uses an agricultural export demand function and augmented gravity model to examine the impact of tourism inflow on agricultural exports of India from the top 10 importing countries for the period 2000–2019. The agricultural trade model is estimated using random effect and fixed-effect model. To overcome the problem of panel heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation, it uses the panel corrected standard error model. Further, potential endogeneity is treated by using a 2SLS model. The empirical evidence confirms the significant and positive impact of tourism inflow on agricultural exports of India. JEL Codes: F1, Q17, Z30
Let 𝒜 {\mathcal{A}} be a standard operator algebra containing the identity operator I on an infinite dimensional complex Hilbert space ℋ {\mathcal{H}} which is closed under adjoint operation. Suppose that ϕ : 𝒜 → 𝒜 {\phi:\mathcal{A}\to\mathcal{A}} is the second nonlinear mixed Lie triple derivation. Then ϕ is an additive ∗ {\ast} -derivation.
Himalayan serow (Capricornis sumatraensis thar), a subspecies of the mainland serow is classified as vulnerable according to IUCN. Although the knowledge of their diet selection is essential for understanding this species’ ecology and consequent conservation, little is known about the diet selection of Himalayan serow due to its elusive and secretive habits. We investigated the winter diet selection of Himalayan serow at food category level in the temperate forests of Bani Wildlife Sanctuary, the north-western Himalayas, during two winter seasons (November-February) of 2020 and 2021. A total of 1310 plant fragments belonging to six food categories were recorded by micro-histological analysis of faecal samples (n = 30). The majority of the diet comprised deciduous broad-leaved species (33.78%), followed by evergreen broad-leaved species (32.14.), graminoids (12.23%), evergreen conifers (6.05%), and forbs (2.97%). Diet selection value showed that Himalayan serow highly selected deciduous broad-leaved and evergreen broad-leaved species, whereas, graminoids were not preferred. Our findings unambiguously indicate that Himalayan serow is a browser during winter, selecting more digestible food plants within their habitats. Additionally, the availability of these preferred broad-leaved species may be important for the winter survival of Himalayan serow. We recommend that the winter habitat with a significant amount of forage must be well managed to supply the dietary requirements of serow.
Digitisation of records and the subsequent implementation of e-Office ¹ software in various Durbar Move ² offices of the Union Territory (UT) of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) has changed the concept and nature of governance significantly. With the implementation of e-Office software in various departments of the Civil Secretariat, there has been a significant impact on the governance efficiency and service delivery in the UT. The present paper attempts to understand, examine, and analyse the impact of e-Office software on the delivery of governance services in J&K. It is an endeavour to understand how the new system of e-Office enables the administrative apparatus and enables the governance to be more responsive, accountable, transparent, and citizen-friendly.
Plain Language Summary Dark particles deposited on glacier surfaces absorb more solar radiation than the surrounding ice, and melt into the surface to create approximately cylindrical holes with a layer of dark “cryoconite” substance at their bottom. Such cryoconite holes are commonly seen on glacier surfaces all over the world. These holes continue to deepen, reducing the exposure of the dark cryoconite to solar radiation, and eventually leading to a steady‐state depth. We combine modeling and in situ observations to show that the steady depth is approximately proportional to the radius of the hole. This simple geometric property proves useful in estimating the net contribution of all the cryoconite holes present on a glacier to its mass balance and runoff. Our estimates suggest that these holes efficiently negate the melt‐enhancing effects of the dark impurities on glacier surface.
A result due to Tôya, Montel and Kuniyeda concerning the location of the zeros of a polynomial states that if \(P(z)=a_{n}z^n+a_{n-1}z^{n-1}+a_{n-2}z^{n-2}+\cdots +a_0\) is a polynomial of degree n then all its zeros lie in the disk \( |z|\le \left( 1+A_{p}^{q}\right) ^{1/q} \) where \(p>1,\) \(q>1\) with \(1/p+1/q=1\) and \(A_{p}=\left( \sum _{j=0}^{n-1}\left| \frac{a_j}{a_n}\right| ^p\right) ^{1/p}.\) In this paper, we refine this result and among other things obtain ring shaped regions containing all the zeros of a polynomial with complex coefficients.
Lake ecosystems are complex social-ecological systems facing ecological, economic, and social challenges influenced by natural and social factors. The Dal Lake is an urban lake in the Kashmir Himalaya that serves as a prime example of such a complex system, highlighting the intricate connections between the socio-economic activities and the natural environment. Using a case study of the Dal Lake, this study employs remote sensing tools, ecological and socio-economic data, along with stakeholder perceptions, to evaluate the driving forces, pressures, and potential strategies for enhancing the lake's social-ecological resilience. The study highlights the significant challenges faced by the Dal Lake social-ecological system in its ecological, economic, social, and cultural domains, rendering it vulnerable to current and future disruptions. Population expansion, rapid urbanization, pollution, agriculture expansion, invasive species, settlements, and inadequate management have disrupted the ecological integrity and the socio-economic dynamics of the lake. To enhance social-ecological resilience, adaptive management of the lake ecosystem is recommended as a crucial tool for sustainable management. The multidisciplinary approach employed in this study provides an integrated understanding of the state, challenges, and opportunities for developing social-ecological resilience in the Dal Lake, enabling informed decision-making for its future restoration and sustainable management.
About 40% of people with diabetes experience diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is the main cause of renal problems. The aberrant urine albumin excretion rate, diabetic glomerular lesions, and a reduction in glomerular filtration rate are its defining characteristics. Numerous studies have found a strong link between eating animal protein and conditions like glucagon activation, insulin resistance, proteinuria, microalbuminuria, and the worsening of kidney problems in diabetic individuals. A vegan diet, which forgoes all animal products including leather and other non-edibles like fish, shellfish, and insects as well as dairy, eggs, and honey, has demonstrated significant benefits. It has been connected to enhanced insulin sensitivity, less glucagon activation, a decreased risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), and a slowed rate of DN progression. According to several studies, avoiding animal products and switching to plant-based protein sources can be a better nutritional plan than simply limiting dietary protein. This change may prove very helpful in reducing the risk of kidney and cardiovascular illnesses, especially for those who have diabetes and severe insulin resistance in addition to CKD. A vegan diet contains considerable benefits for those with diabetes and CKD, acting as a brake on the advancement of DN and renal failure, according to the literature evaluation done for this study. Nevertheless, more interventional studies involving humans are needed to elucidate the processes underlying the increased insulin sensitivity brought on by vegan diets. It is also advised to conduct more research to fully explore the effectiveness and security of vegan diets in people with diabetes and DN.
Main conclusion Environmental DNA-based monitoring provides critical insights for enhancing our understanding of plant–animal interactions in the context of worldwide biodiversity decrease for developing a global framework for effective plant biodiversity conservation. Abstract To understand the ecology and evolutionary patterns of plant–animal interactions (PAI) and their pivotal roles in ecosystem functioning advances in molecular ecology tools such as Environmental DNA (eDNA) provide unprecedented research avenues. These methods being non-destructive in comparison to traditional biodiversity monitoring methods, enhance the discernment of ecosystem health, integrity, and complex interactions. This review intends to offer a systematic and critical appraisal of the prospective of eDNA for investigating PAI. The review thoroughly discusses and analyzes the recent reports (2015–2022) employing preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) to outline the recent progression in eDNA approaches for elucidating PAI. The current review envisages that eDNA has a significant potential to monitor both plants and associated cohort of prospective pollinators (avian species and flowering plants, bees and plants, arthropods and plants, bats and plants, etc.). Furthermore, a brief description of the factors that influence the utility and interpretation of PAI eDNA is also presented. The review establishes that factors such as biotic and abiotic, primer selection and taxonomic resolution, and indeterminate spatio-temporal scales impact the availability and longevity of eDNA. The study also identified the limitations that influence PAI detection and suggested possible solutions for better execution of these molecular approaches. Overcoming these research caveats will augment the assortment of PAI analysis through eDNA that could be vital for ecosystem health and integrity. This review forms a critical guide and offers prominent insights for ecologists, environmental managers and researchers to assess and evaluate plant–animal interaction through environmental DNA. Graphical abstract
Nanotechnology has emerged as an area constantly expanding, affecting practically every sphere of science and daily life. It offers new product possibilities and provides promising solutions to various problems in areas including pharmaceutics, agri-nanotechnology, electronics, the food industry, environmental science, etc. Nanotechnology is believed to be a double-edged sword because it brings in new possibilities for development. Still, at the same time, it poses some severe concerns to human health and the environment. Since this field is still in its infancy, an accurate assessment of risks posed by nanotechnology is complex. Currently, the major risk associated with using nanomaterials is the lack of control over it; there is no adequate legislation to regulate nanomaterials. Some countries have established standards and regulations; however, they are not free of loopholes. This chapter discusses significant application areas of nanomaterials, their potential risks, current law employed in different countries, main problems encountered in regulation, and some aspects of ethics.
Stem cell-based therapies hold great promise in treating different pathologies. Stem cells are able to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages, and this broad plasticity defines the therapeutic potential of stem cells. The risk of tissue rejection, inflammatory response, and bioavailability of drugs at the target site is still the underlying issue in treating many pathological conditions. The use of stem cells and stem cell-based drug delivery systems have overcome these issues. Stem cells have homing ability to migrate toward the specific target site. They are being engineered to express particular bioactive molecules loaded with drugs for targeted drug delivery. They also offer cell-free therapies where stem cell secretome can be used for the treatment. It included a broad range of bioactive molecules, including growth factors, cytokines, and angiogenic factors. They are being recognized as key regulators of physiological processes with their paracrine and autocrine roles. The chapter will focus on the properties of stem cells and the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine.
The human immune system sketches an indispensable role in modulating disease advancement and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Conventionally, the immune system is recognized as a defensive system preventing bacterial and/or viral infections. Besides the immune system’s role in preventing pathogenesis, it plays an essential role in countering allergies, cancer, autoimmune diseases, tissue repair mechanisms, and regeneration. Modulation of the immune system plays a vital role in eliminating many diseases and immune disorders. However, therapeutic modulation of the immune system may result in lifelong comorbidities and severe to fatal side effects. This chapter presents a brief outlook of the immune system and its role in pathogenesis and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, this chapter highlights the role of different bioengineered materials in modulating the host immune system for better therapeutic outcomes, especially in countering autoimmune diseases.
Nanotechnology is actively used in food science and technology, and one of the evolving research areas involves the nanoencapsulation of volatile bioactive compounds. Quite often, these bioactive compounds are inappropriately absorbed, and by using nanostructured systems incorporating these compounds, several characteristics can be upgraded, such as solubility, stability, bioavailability, and protection against degradation. Essential oils (EOs) and their bioactive compounds are safe, and their formulations are used as green preservatives in the food industry. However, their volatility and instability in fluctuating environmental conditions significantly hinder large-scale practical use. Recently, contrasting encapsulation technologies have been advocated as the promoter for improving EOs bio-potency. Encapsulation conserves and protects EOs from aggressive external conditions and, at the same time, allows their controlled release, which is helpful for applications in agronomy. This chapter focuses on some dominant and popular encapsulation techniques and their role in enhancing the bio-potency of EOs used as horticulture preservatives.
For a safe and efficient study of disease pathogenesis, biomaterials are utilized to treat tissue engineering and regeneration applications. Scientists have made an immense contribution to the stimulation of antigen-specific responses and the development of immunotherapeutics. One such disorder, e.g., autoimmune disease, needs to be controlled at molecular and cellular levels. Biomaterials have also been considered as means of delivering autoantigens or drugs for treating autoimmune disorders in a sustained and specific-release manner. However, their use has certain drawbacks, like the development of chronic inflammation, compatibility issues, etc. Despite these concerns, using biomaterials to engineer the immune system for various applications in the autoimmunity field is primarily considered beneficial. This chapter discusses how biomaterials have been planned for drug delivery and disease detection of autoimmune diseases. Biomaterials have also been engineered to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes, which are also discussed.
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2,382 members
Abdul Haseeb Shah
  • Department of Bioresources
Rosy Jan
  • Department of Library and Information Science
Ab. Hamid Wani
  • Section of Plant Pathology Mycology and Microbiology Department of Botany
Anzar Ahmad Khuroo
  • Centre for Biodiversity & Taxonomy
Shabir A. Parah
  • Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology
Hazratbal , 190006, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Head of institution
Vice-Chancellor Prof Talat Ahmad